Adult Frogs (adult + frog)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cloning and functional characterization of a novel connexin expressed in somites of Xenopus laevis

Teun P. De Boer
Abstract Connexin-containing gap junctions play an essential role in vertebrate development. More than 20 connexin isoforms have been identified in mammals. However, the number identified in Xenopus trails with only six isoforms described. Here, identification of a new connexin isoform from Xenopus laevis is described. Connexin40.4 was found by screening expressed sequence tag databases and carrying out polymerase chain reaction on genomic DNA. This new connexin has limited amino acid identity with mammalian (<50%) connexins, but conservation is higher (,62%) with fish. During Xenopus laevis development, connexin40.4 was first expressed after the mid-blastula transition. There was prominent expression in the presomitic paraxial mesoderm and later in the developing somites. In adult frogs, expression was detected in kidney and stomach as well as in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. Ectopic expression of connexin40.4 in HEK293 cells, resulted in formation of gap junction like structures at the cell interfaces. Similar ectopic expression in neural N2A cells resulted in functional electrical coupling, displaying mild, asymmetric voltage dependence. We thus cloned a novel connexin from Xenopus laevis, strongly expressed in developing somites, with no apparent orthologue in mammals. Developmental Dynamics 233:864,871, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Proprotein convertase genes in Xenopus development

Sylvia Nelsen
Abstract Proprotein convertases (PCs) are a family of serine endoproteases that proteolytically activate many precursor proteins within various secretory pathway compartments. Loss-of-function studies have demonstrated a critical role for these proteases in embryonic patterning and adult homeostasis, yet little is known about how substrate selectivity is achieved. We have identified Xenopus orthologs of three PCs: furin, PC6, and PC4. In addition to previously described isoforms of PC6 and furin, four novel splice isoforms of PC6, which are predicted to encode constitutively secreted proteases, and a putative transmembrane isoform of PC4 were identified. Furin and PC6 are expressed in dynamic, tissue-specific patterns throughout embryogenesis, whereas PC4 transcripts are restricted primarily to germ cells and brain in adult frogs. Developmental Dynamics 233:1038,1044, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Degeneration of germ line cells in amphibian ovary

ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
Maria Ogielska
Abstract Ogielska, M., Rozenblut, B., Augusty,ska, R., Kotusz, A. 2010. Degeneration of germ line cells in amphibian ovary. ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 319,327 We studied the morphology of degenerating ovarian follicles in juvenile and adult frogs Rana temporaria, Rana lessonae and Rana ridibunda. Degeneration of primordial germ cells was never observed and was extremely rare in oogonia and early oocytes in a cyst phase in juveniles. Previtellogenic oocytes were rarely affected. Three main types of atresia were identified. In type I (subdivided into stages A,D), vitellogenic oocytes are digested by proliferating follicle cells that hypertrophy and become phagocytic. A , germinal vesicle shrinks, nucleoli fuse, oocyte envelope interrupts, and follicular cells hypertrophy; B , follicular cells multiply and invade the oocyte; C , entire vesicle is filled by phagocytic cells; D , degenerating phagocytes accumulate black pigment. Type II is rare and resembles breakdown of follicles and release of ooplasm. In type III, observed in previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes, ooplasm and germinal vesicle shrink, follicle cells do not invade the vesicle, and condensed ooplasm becomes fragmented. The residual oogonia in adult ovaries (germ patches) multiply, but soon degenerate. [source]

A novel amphibian tier 2 testing protocol: A 30-week exposure of Xenopus tropicalis to the antiandrogen flutamide

Paul L. Knechtges
Abstract In 1996, the U.S. Congress mandated the development of a screening program for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) using validated test systems. Subsequently, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee recommended the development of a standardized amphibian assay for tier 2 testing of EDCs. For that reason, a tier 2 testing protocol using Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis and a 30-week, flow-through exposure to the antiandrogen flutamide from stage 46 tadpoles through sexually mature adult frogs were developed and evaluated in this pilot study. The endpoints for this study included measurements of frog body lengths and weights, liver weights, ovary/egg mass weights, testicular and ovarian histopathology, plasma vitellogenin levels, and notes on any abnormalities observed at necropsy. Increasing exposure concentrations to flutamide caused significant increases in frogs with no recognizable gonadal tissue and increased body and liver weights in male frogs, whereas the body lengths and weights decreased significantly in female frogs. Important issues must be resolved before a tier 2 amphibian assay can be further developed and validated, including the establishment of baseline values in the controls for the parameters under study; the maintenance, measurement, and timing of exposure concentrations; and the development of additional biomolecular markers of effect. This study demonstrated the feasibility of conducting long-term EDC exposure studies using X. tropicalis. [source]

Immunosuppression in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) induced by pesticide exposure

Mary-Kate Gilbertson
Abstract An injection study and a field study were used to investigate the hypothesis that environmental xenobiotics have the potential to alter the immune function of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Three assays, IgM-specific antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin linked to dinitrophenyl (KLH-DNP), zymozan induced chemiluminescence (CL) of whole blood and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), were used to assay humoral, innate and cell-mediated immune endpoints. Sublethal doses of DDT (923 ng/g wet wt), malathion (990 ng/g wet wt), and dieldrin (50 ng/g wet wt) were used in the injection study. In all pesticide-injected groups, antibody response was dramatically suppressed, DTH reactions were enhanced, and respiratory burst was lower. When the order of administration of pesticides and antigens was reversed, no differences in immune function between the control and dosed groups were apparent, indicating that frogs exposed to pathogens prior to pesticide exposure can still respond. A field study found significant differences in immune function between frog populations in pesticide-exposed and pesticide-free locations. The antibody response and CL were suppressed and the DTH enhanced in frogs from Essex County (ON, Canada). Overall, the results suggest that exposure to these pesticides can cause both stimulatory and suppressive immune changes in adult frogs and is doing so in wild populations. [source]

Exceptionally preserved tadpoles from the Miocene of Libros, Spain: ecomorphological reconstruction and the impact of ontogeny upon taphonomy

LETHAIA, Issue 3 2010
McNamara, M.E., Orr, P.J., Kearns, S.L., Alcalá, L., Anadón, P. & Peñalver-Mollá, E. 2010: Exceptionally preserved tadpoles from the Miocene of Libros, Spain: ecomorphological reconstruction and the impact of ontogeny upon taphonomy. Lethaia, Vol. 43, pp. 290,306. The Libros exceptional biota from the Upper Miocene of NE Spain includes abundant frog tadpoles (Rana pueyoi) preserved in finely laminated lacustrine mudstones. The tadpoles exhibit a depressed body, short tail, low tail fins, dorso-laterally directed eyes and jaw sheaths; these features identify the Libros tadpoles as members of the benthic lentic ecomorphological guild. This, the first ecomorphological reconstruction of a fossil tadpole, supports phylogenetic evidence that this ecology is a conserved ranid feature. The soft-tissue features of the Libros tadpoles are characterized by several modes of preservation. The space occupied previously by the brain is defined by calcium carbonate, the nerve cord is defined by calcium phosphate, and jaw sheaths and bone marrow are preserved as organic remains. Gut contents (and coprolites adjacent to specimens) comprise ingested fine-grained sedimentary detritus and epiphyton. The body outline and the eyespots, nares, abdominal cavity, notochord, caudal myotomes and fins are defined by a carbonaceous bacterial biofilm. A similar biofilm in adult specimens of R. pueyoi from Libros defines only the body outline, not any internal anatomical features. In the adult frogs, but not in the tadpoles, calcium phosphate and calcium sulphate precipitated in association with integumentary tissues. These differences in the mode of preservation between the adult frogs and tadpoles reflect ontogenetic factors. ,Anuran, ecology, soft-tissue, tadpoles, taphonomy. [source]

Preservation of segmental hindbrain organization in adult frogs

Hans Straka
Abstract To test for possible retention of early segmental patterning throughout development, the cranial nerve efferent nuclei in adult ranid frogs were quantitatively mapped and compared with the segmental organization of these nuclei in larvae. Cranial nerve roots IV,X were labeled in larvae with fluorescent dextran amines. Each cranial nerve efferent nucleus resided in a characteristic segmental position within the clearly visible larval hindbrain rhombomeres (r). Trochlear motoneurons were located in r0, trigeminal motoneurons in r2,r3, facial branchiomotor and vestibuloacoustic efferent neurons in r4, abducens and facial parasympathetic neurons in r5, glossopharyngeal motoneurons in r6, and vagal efferent neurons in r7,r8 and rostral spinal cord. In adult frogs, biocytin labeling of cranial nerve roots IV,XII and spinal ventral root 2 in various combinations on both sides of the brain revealed precisely the same rostrocaudal sequence of efferent nuclei relative to each other as observed in larvae. This indicates that no longitudinal migratory rearrangement of hindbrain efferent neurons occurs. Although rhombomeres are not visible in adults, a segmental map of adult cranial nerve efferent nuclei can be inferred from the strict retention of the larval hindbrain pattern. Precise measurements of the borders of adjacent efferent nuclei within a coordinate system based on external landmarks were used to create a quantitative adult segmental map that mirrors the organization of the larval rhombomeric framework. Plotting morphologically and physiologically identified hindbrain neurons onto this map allows the physiological properties of adult hindbrain neurons to be linked with the underlying genetically specified segmental framework. J. Comp. Neurol. 494:228,245, 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Assessing the long-term impact of Ranavirus infection in wild common frog populations

A. G. F. Teacher
Abstract Amphibians are declining worldwide, and one cause of this is infectious disease emergence. Mass mortalities caused by a virus or a group of viruses belonging to the genus Ranavirus have occurred in wild common frogs Rana temporaria in England since the 1980s, and ranaviral disease is widespread in amphibians in North America and Canada, where it can also cause mass die-offs. Although there have been numerous reports of Ranavirus -associated mass mortality events, no study has yet evaluated the long-term impacts of this disease. This study follows up archived records of English common frog mortalities likely caused by Ranavirus. There is a preliminary indication that common frog populations can respond differently to the emergence of disease: emergence may be transient, catastrophic, or persistent with recurrent mortality events. We subsequently focused on populations that had recurring mortality events (n=18), and we report median declines of 81% in the number of adult frogs in these populations from 1996 to 2008. Comparable uninfected populations (n=16) showed no change in population size over the same time period. Regressions show that larger frog populations may be more likely to experience larger declines than smaller populations, and linear models show that percentage population size change is significantly correlated with disease status, but that habitat age (a possible proxy for environmental quality) has no significant effect on population size change. Our results provide the first evidence of long-term localized population declines of an amphibian species which appear to be best explained by the presence of Ranavirus infection. [source]