Adult Emergency Department (adult + emergency_department)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Pediatric Emergency Departments Are Not "Little" Adult Emergency Departments

Lawrence M. Lewis MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Impact of Scribes on Performance Indicators in the Emergency Department

Rajiv Arya MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to quantify the effect of scribes on three measures of emergency physician (EP) productivity in an adult emergency department (ED). Methods:, For this retrospective study, 243 clinical shifts (of either 10 or 12 hours) worked by 13 EPs during an 18-month period were selected for evaluation. Payroll data sheets were examined to determine whether these shifts were covered, uncovered, or partially covered (for less than 4 hours) by a scribe; partially covered shifts were grouped with uncovered shifts for analysis. Covered shifts were compared to uncovered shifts in a clustered design, by physician. Hierarchical linear models were used to study the association between percentage of patients with which a scribe was used during a shift and EP productivity as measured by patients per hour, relative value units (RVUs) per hour, and turnaround time (TAT) to discharge. Results:, RVUs per hour increased by 0.24 units (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10 to 0.38, p = 0.0011) for every 10% increment in scribe usage during a shift. The number of patients per hour increased by 0.08 (95% CI = 0.04 to 0.12, p = 0.0024) for every 10% increment of scribe usage during a shift. TAT was not significantly associated with scribe use. These associations did not lose significance after accounting for physician assistant (PA) use. Conclusions:, In this retrospective study, EP use of a scribe was associated with improved overall productivity as measured by patients treated per hour (Pt/hr) and RVU generated per hour by EPs, but not as measured by TAT to discharge. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:490,494 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

A Combination of Midazolam and Ketamine for Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in Adult Emergency Department Patients

Carl R. Chudnofsky MD
Abstract Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of a combination of midazolam and ketamine for procedural sedation and analgesia in adult emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: This was a prospective, observational trial, conducted in the ED of an urban level II trauma center. Patients , 18 years of age requiring procedural sedation and analgesia were eligible, and enrolled patients received 0.07 mg/kg of intravenous midazolam followed by 2 mg/kg of intravenous ketamine. Vital signs were recorded at regular intervals. The adequacy of sedation, adverse effects, patient satisfaction, and time to reach discharge alertness were determined. Descriptive statistics were calculated using statistical analysis software. Results: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled. Three were excluded due to protocol violations, three due to lack of documentation, and one due to subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine, leaving 70 patients for analysis. The average age was 31 years, and 41 (59%) were female. Indications for procedural sedation and analgesia included abscess incision and drainage (66%), fracture/joint reduction (26%), and other (8%). The mean dose of midazolam was 5.6 1.4 mg and the mean dose of ketamine was 159 42 mg. The mean time to achieve discharge criteria was 64 24 minutes. Fivepatients experienced mild emergence reactions, but there were no episodes of hallucinations, delirium, or other serious emergence reactions. Eighteen (25%) patients recalled dreaming while sedated; twelve (17%) were described as pleasant, two (3%) unpleasant, three (4%) both pleasant and unpleasant, and one (1%) neither pleasant nor unpleasant. There were four (6%) cases of respiratory compromise, two (3%) episodes of emesis, and one (1%) case of myoclonia. All of these were transient and did not result in a change in the patient's disposition. Only one (1%) patient indicated that she was not satisfied with the sedation regimen. Conclusions: The combination of midazolam and ketamine provides effective procedural sedation and analgesia in adult ED patients, and appears to be safe. [source]

The clinical effectiveness of nurse practitioners' management of minor injuries in an adult emergency department: a systematic review

Anne Wilson PhD, FRCNA
Abstract Background, The increasing cost of healthcare in Australia demands changes in the way healthcare is delivered. Nurse practitioners have been introduced into specialty areas including emergency departments. Specific interventions are known to include the treatment and management of minor injuries, but little has been reported on their work. Objectives, Examine the best available evidence to determine the clinical effectiveness of emergency department nurse practitioners in the assessment, treatment and management of minor injuries in adults. Inclusion criteria, For inclusion studies had to include adult patients treated for minor injuries by nurse practitioners in emergency departments. All study designs were included. Search strategy, English language articles from 1986 onwards were sought using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and Science Citation Index. Methodological quality, Two independent reviewers critically appraised the quality of the studies and extracted data using standardised tools. Data collection, Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each study for inclusion into the review and the study design used. Where any disagreement occurred, consensus was reached by discussion with an independent researcher. Data synthesis, Studies were assessed for homogeneity by considering populations, interventions and outcomes. Where heterogeneity was present, synthesis was undertaken in a narrative format; otherwise a meta-analysis was conducted. For each outcome measure, results were tabulated by intervention type and discussed in a narrative summary. Results from randomised controlled trials were pooled in meta-analyses where appropriate. Results, Nine studies from a total of 55 participants met the inclusion criteria. Two were randomised controlled trials. Metasynthesis of research findings generated five synthesised findings derived from 16 study findings aggregated into seven categories. Evidence comparing the clinical effectiveness of nurse practitioners to mainstream management of minor injuries was fair to poor methodological quality. When comparable data were pooled, there were no significant differences (P < 0.05) between nurse practitioners and junior doctors. Conclusions, The results emphasise the need for more high-quality research using appropriate outcome measures in the area of clinical effectiveness of nurse practitioners, particularly interventions that improve outcomes for presentations to emergency departments and address issues of waiting and congestion. [source]

Unsuspected or Unacknowledged Depressive Symptoms in Young Adult Emergency Department Patients

Michelle H. Biros MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine the frequency of unsuspected or unacknowledged depressive symptoms among young adult emergency department (ED) patients. Methods:, The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and a demographic/lifestyle questionnaire were administered to a cross-section of medically stable, English-speaking young adult ED patients (aged 18,23 years) with nonpsychiatric chief complaints. The frequency of moderate to severe depressive symptoms was determined. Group results were analyzed with descriptive statistics; multivariate analysis assessed for patient characteristics associated with depressive symptoms. Results:, A total of 2,898 patients were screened; 2,255 were eligible for enrollment, and 1,264 enrolled (56%; 64% female, 42% African American; mean age = 21 [1.7] years). Twenty-nine percent had BDI-II scores consistent with moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Patient characteristics associated with depressive symptoms included knowledge of someone who had intentionally hurt him- or herself (odds ratio [OR] = 2) or died a violent nonaccidental death (OR = 1.4), low personal income (OR = 1.8), chronic health issues (OR = 1.7), cigarette smoking (OR = 1.6), and African American race (OR = 1.5). Those who attended school (OR = 0.5), engaged in frequent social activities (OR = 0.5), or drove a car (OR = 0.7) were less likely to have depressive symptoms. Patients lacked insight into their depressive symptoms. Conclusions:, There is a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in young adult ED patients. Young adults often do not recognize, or are reluctant to acknowledge, depressive symptoms. Specific patient characteristics may be useful in deciding which young adults should undergo ED screening for depression. [source]

The Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services Use by Older Adults: An Analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

Manish N. Shah MD
ObjectivesTo characterize older adult emergency department (ED) visits arriving by emergency medical services (EMS) and to identify factors associated with those patient visits. MethodsA secondary analysis of the ED component of the 1997,2000 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey using logistic regression analyses was conducted. The dependent variable was the modes of arrival (EMS vs. not EMS) to the ED. Independent variables were grouped into four domains: demographic, clinical, system, and service characteristics. ResultsBetween 1997 and 2000, 38% of EMS responses were for patients aged 65 years and older. During that period, 62.2 million older adult ED patient visits occurred; 38% arrived via EMS. The average rate of EMS utilization by older adults was 167/1,000 population per year, more than four times the rate for younger patients (39/1,000 population). Fifty-three percent of EMS responses with transport to an ED for older adults resulted in hospital admission. Factors found to be associated with EMS mode of arrival included demographic (older age and urban residence), clinical (need for more rapid care and circulatory system illnesses), and service (need for procedures). ConclusionsOlder adults account for a large proportion of EMS responses and use EMS at a disproportionately high rate. As the older adult population grows, EMS systems must prepare for the increased volume of older adults by making changes in training, operations, and equipment. [source]