Adult Dogs (adult + dog)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effect of crown fracture on the surrounding periodontium

Janaína Cristina Gomes
To reach the long axis of the tooth, an impact device was applied to eight teeth of four adult dogs to produce trauma. Crown fractures involving the enamel and dentin, with or without pulpar exposure and without dislocation, mobility or gingival bleeding were analyzed within the post-trauma periods of 30 min, 1, 3, and 7 days. The force of impact that resulted in coronary fracture, although dissipated at the time of fracture, reverberated in the surrounding periodontium and may generate not only light histological alterations with a rapid re-establishment of the tissues, but also an intense inflammatory condition required as long as 7 days to clear up. The gravity of these inflammatory reactions unleashed in these teeth's periapical tissues depends on the absorption of impact by the periodontal structures and the individual susceptibility of each organism. [source]

Clinical and histological alterations in the surrounding periodontium of dog's teeth submitted for an intrusive luxation

Janaína Cristina Gomes
An impact device was used on 12 teeth of six adult dogs with the purpose of making a dislocation on the long axis of these teeth. Of the teeth that suffer intrusion luxation, two did not receive treatment and ten were replaced by orthodontic extrusion with activated springs of 100 gf. The traction was initiated either immediately after the trauma or 7 days later. Observation time was 40 days. Endodontic therapy with calcium hydroxide was performed on the fourteenth day after the intrusive luxation. The intruded teeth that did not receive appropriate treatment had signs of extensive and progressive inflammatory resorption. The teeth that were moved immediately after the trauma had lesser degree of replacement resorption compared with those that were extruded 7 days after the trauma. [source]

Influence of surgical repositioning of mature permanent dog teeth following experimental intrusion: a histologic assessment

R. F. Cunha
Abstract,,, The aim of this study was to evaluate, through histologic examination, the effect of surgical repositioning of intruded dog teeth upon the pulpal and surrounding tissues. Thirty teeth in 10 adult dogs, aged 2,3 years, were used. Fifteen teeth were intruded, surgically repositioned and fixed using orthodontics wire, composite resin, and enamel acid conditioning. All these teeth served as the experimental group. The remaining intruded teeth were not treated (control group). The animals were sacrificed to allow observations at 7, 15, and 30 post-operative days. The maxillary and mandibular archs were removed and processed for histologic exam. Based on the methodology and observed results, we concluded that: pulpal necrosis, external root resorption and ankylosis were common sequelae to severe traumatic intrusion; a careful immediate surgical repositioning of severed intruded permanent tooth with complete root formation has many advantages with few disadvantages. [source]

Dietary lactulose decreases apparent nitrogen absorption and increases apparent calcium and magnesium absorption in healthy dogs

A. C. Beynen
To study the effect of lactulose on the route of nitrogen excretion, we fed six healthy, adult dogs on diets containing either 0, 1 or 3 g lactulose/MJ metabolizable energy according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The results were analysed to identify statistically significant linear trend effects of lactulose. Faecal pH was significantly lowered by lactulose. Faecal ammonium and nitrogen excretion tended to be raised by lactulose feeding whereas urinary urea excretion was significantly reduced. Lactulose feeding significantly lowered apparent nitrogen digestibility. It is concluded that lactulose feeding shifts nitrogen excretion from urine to faeces in dogs which may be beneficial for liver patients. The data are in line with the concept that lactulose stimulates bacterial growth in the colon which in turn enhances faecal nitrogen excretion and lowers the entry of colonic ammonia into the bloodstream, leading to a lesser workload for the liver and less urinary nitrogen excretion. Lactulose consumption was also found to produce a dose-dependent increase in the apparent absorption of calcium and magnesium, but not phosphorus. [source]

Synovial fluid biomarker levels predict articular cartilage damage following complete medial meniscectomy in the canine knee

Cathy S. Carlson
The purposes of this study were to document the histological changes present in the tibial plateaus 12 weeks after complete medial meniscectomy in dogs and to determine if synovial lavage fluid biomarker levels are predictive of the severity of joint damage. Twelve adult dogs underwent complete unilateral medial meniscectomy and synovial lavage fluid biomarker levels, including cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), keratan sulfate (5D4), 3B3(,), and 3B3(+), were measured serially at 4-week intervals. The dogs were euthanized 12 weeks after surgery and each medial and lateral tibial plateau from the meniscectomized and contralateral knees was graded histologically. Histological data were analyzed using principal components analysis, which resulted in 4 factors that explained 70% of the variation in the data. Factor 2 (weighted most heavily by subchondral bone thickness) and Factor 3 (representative of articular cartilage damage) were significantly affected by compartmental site (P < 0.01 for both). Both of these factors were highest in the medial tibial plateau of the meniscectomized knee, and Factor 3 was significantly higher in this site than in the medial tibial plateau of the contralateral knee (P < 0.01). Peak levels of all 4 synovial lavage fluid biomarkers occurred at 4 weeks post-meniscectomy and 4-week minus baseline levels of all biomarkers were significantly correlated with the Factor 3 scores. This study demonstrates that significant articular cartilage damage occurs relatively quickly following complete medial meniscectomy in dogs and establishes the content and criterion validity for these synovial fluid lavage biomarkers in canine meniscectomy as surrogate measures of articular cartilage damage. © 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

A study of inherited short tail and taillessness in Pembroke Welsh corgi

A. Indrebř
Objectives: To study whether natural short tail in adult Pembroke Welsh corgi is associated with congenital spinal defects. To report anatomical defects in two newborn tailless puppies from short-tailed parents, and to check whether they were homozygous for the dominant mutation in the T-gene (C295G). Methods: The vertebral column of 19 adult dogs with natural short tail, from short-tail×long-tail crossings, was radiographically examined. Two tailless puppies were radiographed and submitted for necropsy. Samples from the puppies, their parents and five siblings were analysed for the mutation of the T-gene. Results: No congenital spinal defects were diagnosed in any of the short-tailed dogs. The tailless puppies had anorectal atresia, had multiple spinal defects and were homozygous for the mutation in the T-gene. Clinical Significance: As tail docking is forbidden in many countries, breeding Pembroke Welsh corgis with natural short tail is becoming increasingly common. Previous studies indicated that the mutation in homozygotes is lethal in early fetal life. It is of clinical significance that natural short tail is probably not associated with congenital spinal defects, as is known from studies of other species, and that homozygotes for this mutation with serious anatomical defects may be born. [source]

Prospective Clinical Evaluation of Serum Cardiac Troponin T in Dogs Admitted to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital

Teresa C. DeFrancesco
The purpose of this study was to measure serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) with a commercially available human enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test in various groups of dogs, including those undergoing doxorubicin chemotherapy. Serum samples were obtained from 6 groups of dogs: (1) normal adult dogs (n = 15); (2) dogs with asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 5); (3) dogs with congestive heart failure (n = 10); (4) dogs with untreated neoplasia (n = 20); (5) dogs with skeletal muscle trauma (n = 10); and (6) dogs with neoplasia receiving doxorubicin chemotherapy (n = 4). One serum sample was obtained from each of the normal dogs, those with asymptomatic cardiomyopathy, those with congestive heart failure, and those with untreated neoplasia. Serum samples were obtained serially from the dogs that were undergoing doxorubicin chemotherapy; samples were collected before doxorubicin (30 mg/m2) administration and then 1,5,7, and 14 days after administration throughout 6 cycles for a cumulative total dose of 180 mg/m2. All normal dogs, dogs with untreated neoplasia, and dogs with asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy had cTnT concentrations below the lower limits of detection for the assay used (<0.05 ng/mL). Detectable concentrations of cTnT were found in 3 dogs with congestive heart failure and in 2 dogs with skeletal muscle trauma. Detectable concentrations also were found in both dogs that had received 180 mg/m2 of doxorubicin. We conclude that dogs with congestive heart failure and those with skeletal muscle trauma and dogs with neoplasia receiving high-dose doxorubicin chemotherapy may have increased serum cTnT concentration, which may be suggestive of myocardial damage. [source]

Click and Low-, Middle-, and High-Frequency Toneburst Stimulation of the Canine Cochlea

G. Ter Haar
A method was developed to deliver tonebursts ranging in frequency from 1 to 32 kHz for frequency-specific assessment of the canine cochlea. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses (early latency responses, 0,10 ms) to a click (CS) and to 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-, 24-, and 32-kHz toneburst stimulations (TS) were compared at 80-dB sound pressure level stimulus (SPL) intensity in 10 adult dogs. All stimulations yielded a 5,7 positive wave pattern, with the exception of the 1-kHz TS, which evoked a frequency-following response (FFR). Thresholds were lowest for the CS and the 12- and 16-kHz TS. All individual peak latencies for TS were significantly (P, .05) longer than for CS. Peak I latencies were significantly (P,.05) shorter for the 12- and 16-kHz TS than for the other TS. Interpeak latencies I-V were significantly (P, .05) longer for the 4- to 32-kHz TS than for CS. Differences in interpeak latencies I,III were not significant. Amplitudes of waves I and V were significantly (P, .05) lower for TS than for CS, except for higher wave V amplitude (P, .05) at 2- and 32-kHz TS. Peak I-V amplitude ratios were significantly (P, .05) higher for the 2-, 4-, 16-, 24-, and 32-kHz TS and lower for the 8- and 12-kHz TS, compared to CS. We conclude that reproducible information on frequency specificity of the canine cochlea can be obtained by TS. This report provides a normative database for parameters needed to evaluate frequency-specific hearing loss in dogs. [source]

Evidence for an impact on the incidence of canine leishmaniasis by the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars in southern Italy

M. Maroli
Abstract. Dogs are the domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum Nicolle (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the agent of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis. In southern Europe, where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread due to L. infantum, killing seropositive dogs is considered unacceptable and drug treatment has low efficacy in preventing transmission. We made a field evaluation of the efficacy of deltamethrin dog collars in a CanL focus of southern Italy, Mount Vesuvius area of Campania region, where the vector is Phlebotomus perniciosus Newstead (Diptera: Psychodidae), by assessing their impact on the incidence of CanL in an intervention town, compared to that in dogs of control towns where no collars were fitted. During two consecutive transmission seasons, collars were fitted to 350 (1998) and 354 (1999) dogs from San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (70% of the canine population). Control dogs (371 and 264 in the 2 years, respectively) were from four towns of the same area. Before each transmission season, the CanL seroprevalence in the intervention and control towns was evaluated by cross-sectional surveys and found to be similar (about 15% in 1998 and 10% in 1999, respectively). After each transmission period, incidence rates of seroconversions were determined in adult dogs that were serologically negative before the season under evaluation, and in puppies. After the 1998 season, 2.7% of the dogs in the intervention town seroconverted compared to 5.4% in the control towns (50% protection, P = 0.15). After the 1999 season, 3.5% of collared dogs seroconverted compared to 25.8% of control dogs (86% protection, P < 0.001). The increase in seroconversion rates recorded in control dogs suggests an increase in the Leishmania force of infection in the canine reservoir during the 1999 sandfly season, as supported by the concomitant increase of human cases in control towns and in the whole Campania region. Our results suggest that the impact of mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars on the incidence of CanL may be negligible during low transmission seasons, or probably in low endemic foci, but can be very strong when the force of transmission is high. [source]

Selective block of external anal sphincter activation during electrical stimulation of the sacral anterior roots in a canine model

N. Bhadra
Abstract, Our aim was to electrically activate small diameter parasympathetic fibres in the sacral anterior roots, without activating the larger somatic fibres to the external anal sphincter (EAS). Electrodes were implanted on selected roots in five adult dogs. Pressures were recorded from the rectum and EAS. Quasitrapezoidal (Qzt) pulses for selective activation of smaller axons and narrow rectangular (Rct) pulses to activate all fibres were applied. Sphincter block was defined as [(Pmax , Pmin)/Pmax] × 100%. Roots were also tested with 20 Hz trains. In three animals, evacuation of bowel contents was recorded with artificial fecal material. Stimulation with Qzt pulses showed decrease in sphincter recruitment with increasing pulse amplitudes, indicating propagation arrest in the large fibres. The average sphincter suppression was 94.1% in 16 roots implanted. With Qzt pulse trains, the average evoked sphincter pressure was significantly lower than Rct pulses. Evoked rectal pressures were not significantly different. The mean mass of expelled bowel contents of 51.1 g by Qzt trains was significantly higher than that of 14.8 g expelled by Rct trains. Our results demonstrate that this selective stimuli can activate small diameter fibres innervating the distal bowel and result in significant evacuation of rectal contents. [source]

Selective activation of the sacral anterior roots for induction of bladder voiding

Narendra Bhadra
Abstract Aim We investigated the efficacy of selective activation of the smaller diameter axons in the sacral anterior roots for electrically induced bladder voiding. Materials and Methods Acute experiments were conducted in five adult dogs. The anterior sacral roots S2 and S3 were implanted bilaterally with tripolar electrodes. Pressures were recorded from the bladder and from the proximal urethra and the external urethral sphincter. A detector and flow meter monitored fluid flow. A complete sacral dorsal rhizotomy was carried out. The effects of two types of pulse trains at 20 Hz were compared; quasitrapezoidal pulses (500 µsec with 500 µsec exponential decay) and interrupted rectangular (100 µsec, 2 sec on/2 sec off). Before rhizotomy, rectangular pulse trains (100 µsec) to activate all fibers were also applied. The experimental design was block randomized before and after rhizotomy. Results Quasitrapezoidal pulses showed block of sphincter activation with average minimum current for maximum suppression of 1.37 mA. All pulse types evoked average bladder pressures above the basal sphincter closure pressure. The pressure patterns in the proximal urethra closely followed the bladder pressures. Before dorsal rhizotomy, stimulation evoked a superadded increase in sphincter pressures with slow rise time. After rhizotomy, the sphincter pressure patterns followed the bladder pressures during selective activation and voiding occurred during stimulation with quasitrapezoidal trains and in between bursts with interrupted rectangular stimulation. Conclusions Selective activation of sacral ventral roots combined with dorsal rhizotomy may provide a viable means of low-pressure continuous voiding in neurological impairment. Neurourol. Urdynam. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Functional Anatomy of the Distal Radioulnar Ligament in Dogs,

A. Kaiser
Summary The objective of this study was to functionally characterize the distal radioulnar ligament connecting the distal ends of canine antebrachial bones. The ligament has been investigated histologically in five adult dogs. After decalcification and standard paraffin embedding, 5-,m-thick sections have been stained with Hematoxylin/Eosin, Resorcin/Fuchsin, Astrablue/Nuclear-fast-red, Astrablue/Orange G. The distal radioulnar ligament can be divided into two parts, a proximal, ,interosseous' and a distal ,articular'. The former as a connecting structure experiences almost exclusively tensile stress in a proximolateral direction. The latter with an additional meniscal function is loaded in a combined tensile and compressive way. These findings can be explained with the characteristic valgus conformation of the canine carpal joint. [source]

On the Weight-bearing Function of the Medial Coronoid Process in Dogs

S. Breit
Summary The shape of and proportions between the surface areas of the medial coronoid process (MCP) and the fovea of the radial head were determined in 88 juvenile dogs and 146 adult dogs grouped as giant, large, mid-sized, chondrodystrophic, or small dogs. Thereby, the longitudinal (length) and transverse (width) extension of the MCP and fovea of the radial head have been measured. Original values were used to describe changes of the parameters attributed to growth. Normalized values (i.e. values expected in case of a width of the fovea of the radial head of 20 mm) were used to determine potential differences between constitutional types. All original values increased during growth (P < 0.05) except for the width and length of the MCP in chondrodystrophic and small breeds. Normalized values revealed a proportional decrease in width and length of the MCP during growth (P < 0.05) compared with the radial head. In adults, the normalized MCP was widest in giant dogs followed by large, mid-sized, small, and chondrodystrophic breeds. The MCP was also longest in giant dogs but shortest in large and chondrodystrophic dogs with those of large dogs being significantly (P < 0.05) shorter than those in giant, mid-sized and small dogs. Present results suggest that a deficiency in length-growth of the MCP , which has been present especially in large dogs , results in smaller humeral contact areas and decreased weight-bearing capacity of the MCP. Because loading forces acting on the MCP increase with body weight, the condition noted in large dogs might increase the risk of fragmentation of the MCP in these. [source]

Cartilage degradation biomarkers predict efficacy of a novel, highly selective matrix metalloproteinase 13 inhibitor in a dog model of osteoarthritis: Confirmation by multivariate analysis that modulation of type ii collagen and aggrecan degradation peptides parallels pathologic changes

Steven Settle
Objective To demonstrate that the novel highly selective matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) inhibitor PF152 reduces joint lesions in adult dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) and decreases biomarkers of cartilage degradation. Methods The potency and selectivity of PF152 were evaluated in vitro using 16 MMPs, TACE, and ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5, as well as ex vivo in human cartilage explants. In vivo effects were evaluated at 3 concentrations in mature beagles with partial medial meniscectomy. Gross and histologic changes in the femorotibial joints were evaluated using various measures of cartilage degeneration. Biomarkers of cartilage turnover were examined in serum, urine, or synovial fluid. Results were analyzed individually and in combination using multivariate analysis. Results The potent and selective MMP-13 inhibitor PF152 decreased human cartilage degradation ex vivo in a dose-dependent manner. PF152 treatment of dogs with OA reduced cartilage lesions and decreased biomarkers of type II collagen (type II collagen neoepitope) and aggrecan (peptides ending in ARGN or AGEG) degradation. The dose required for significant inhibition varied with the measure used, but multivariate analysis of 6 gross and histologic measures indicated that all doses differed significantly from vehicle but not from each other. Combined analysis of cartilage degradation markers showed similar results. Conclusion This highly selective MMP-13 inhibitor exhibits chondroprotective effects in mature animals. Biomarkers of cartilage degradation, when evaluated in combination, parallel the joint structural changes induced by the MMP-13 inhibitor. These data support the potential therapeutic value of selective MMP-13 inhibitors and the use of a set of appropriate biomarkers to predict efficacy in OA clinical trials. [source]