Adult Dispersal (adult + dispersal)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Dispersal capacity in the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides

M. Eizaguirre
Abstract Corn (Zea mays L.) borers are the primary target of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) transgenic maize. Management of corn borer resistance to Bt requires information on larval and adult dispersal capacities, a feature that is particularly unknown in Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the most damaging corn borer in Spain. Larval dispersal was studied over a 3 year period by infesting plants with egg masses and dissecting the neighbouring plants 7, 14, and 32 days later to measure larval dispersal at several ages. The number and age of larvae were recorded in the dissected plants. Only mature larvae dispersed in significant numbers; they moved at least to rows adjacent to those containing the infested plant, and down the row five plants. The percentage of larvae that dispersed from the infested plant was density-dependent. Adult dispersal was studied with directional light and pheromone uni-traps over 5 and 3 year periods, respectively. Directional light traps were placed in the margins between Bt and non-Bt maize fields, half oriented towards each of the two kinds of maize field. Pheromone traps were placed in the Bt and non-Bt fields at increasing distances (0,100 m) from the border. The numbers of males and females caught in directional light traps were not different in traps oriented towards Bt or non-Bt fields, but the number of males caught in the third flight in Bt fields was lower than in non-Bt fields. These results suggest that males from adjacent Bt and non-Bt fields mate indiscriminately with females emerging in any of the two kinds of maize fields. However, male movement in the third flight may not be sufficient to randomly distribute males between the two fields. [source]

Assessment of hypotheses about dispersal in a long-lived seabird using multistate capture,recapture models

Emmanuelle Cam
Summary 1Dispersal contributes to spatio-temporal variation in population size and is a key process in studies of life history evolution and studies with conservation implications. However, dispersal is still one of the major gaps in our knowledge of ecological dynamics. The very large literature on metapopulation dynamics lacks empirical bases on dispersal and relevant behavioural parameters. We used multistate capture,recapture models (data from 1988 to 2001) to address hypotheses about movement probability and habitat selection within a system of two breeding colonies in Audouin's gulls (Larus audouinii), an endemic species breeding in the Mediterranean and considered as threatened. 2Movement probability varied over time, and differed greatly between the colonies. 3We did not find evidence of an influence of colony size or density of predators on movement probability. 4In dispersers, our results did not support the hypotheses that movement probability between year t and t+ 1 was influenced by mean breeding success in the colony of origin (i.e. an indicator of habitat quality) or the destination colony in year t or t+ 1, or by the ratio of breeding success in these colonies in year t or t + 1 (i.e. quality gradient). 5Overall, movement probability was higher from the smaller colony to the larger, and from the colony with lower breeding success in year t to the more productive one. This provides slight support for two nonexclusive hypotheses about habitat selection (conspecific attraction and conspecific success attraction). 6Movement probability from the smaller, less productive colony was very high in some years, suggesting that the dynamics of both colonies were strongly influenced by adult dispersal. However, in absolute numbers, more individuals moved from the larger, more productive colony to the smaller one. This suggests that the system may function as a source,sink system. 7Use of multistate models to re-assess local survival showed that survival was lower in the less productive colony with higher emigration probability. This may reflect genuine differences in mortality between colonies, or more probably differences in permanent emigration from the study area. [source]

The biology and management of wireworms (Agriotes spp.) on potato with particular reference to the U.K.

William E. Parker
Summary 1 This paper reviews and interprets relevant work on the biology and management of wireworms (Agriotes spp.) within the context of potato production in Europe, with particular reference to the U.K. Although the review concentrates on Agriotes spp., the extensive world literature on other Elateridae of economic importance is also drawn upon. 2 Possible reasons for the apparent increase in the importance of wireworms on the potato crop are discussed, followed by a review of wireworm biology, risk assessment techniques (soil sampling, bait trapping and adult pheromone trapping), crop damage, and cultural, biological and chemical control methods. 3 It is clear that the process of site risk assessment followed by appropriate control measures (usually insecticide use) will remain the mainstay of wireworm management programmes. However, there is considerable scope for adopting new risk assessment techniques, such as pheromone trapping of adult beetles. 4 These control measures will need to be underpinned by a greater understanding of wireworm biology, particularly adult dispersal. Factors affecting the initiation and maintenance of wireworm populations in individual fields also require further study. The current use of insecticides could also be optimized by a better appreciation of the interactions between insecticide use, potato variety choice and harvest dates. [source]

Dispersal kernels of the invasive alien western corn rootworm and the effectiveness of buffer zones in eradication programmes in Europe

L.R. Carrasco
Europe is attempting to contain or, in some regions, to eradicate the invading and maize destroying western corn rootworm (WCR). Eradication and containment measures include crop rotation and insecticide treatments within different types of buffer zones surrounding new introduction points. However, quantitative estimates of the relationship between the probability of adult dispersal and distance from an introduction point have not been used to determine the width of buffer zones. We address this by fitting dispersal models of the negative exponential and negative power law families in logarithmic and non-logarithmic form to recapture data from nine mark-release-recapture experiments of marked WCR adults from habitats as typically found in the vicinity of airports in southern Hungary in 2003 and 2004. After each release of 4000,6300 marked WCR, recaptures were recorded three times using non-baited yellow sticky traps at 30,305 m from the release point and sex pheromone-baited transparent sticky traps placed at 500,3500 m. Both the negative exponential and negative power law models in non-log form presented the best overall fit to the numbers of recaptured adults (1% recapture rate). The negative exponential model in log form presented the best fit to the data in the tail. The models suggested that half of the dispersing WCR adults travelling along a given bearing will have travelled between 117 and 425 m and 1% of the adults between 775 and 8250 m after 1 day. An individual-based model of dispersal and mortality over a generation of WCR adults indicated that 9.7,45.3% of the adults would escape a focus zone (where maize is only grown once in 3 consecutive years) of 1 km radius and 0.6,21% a safety zone (where maize is only grown once in 2 consecutive years) of 5 km radius and consequently current European Commission (EC) measures are inadequate for the eradication of WCR in Europe. Although buffer zones large enough to allow eradication would be economically unpalatable, an increase of the minimum width of the focus zone from 1 to 5 km and the safety zone from 5 to 50 km would improve the management of local dispersal. [source]

Survival, Growth, and Ecosystem Dynamics of Displaced Bromeliads in a Montane Tropical Forest1

BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2002
Jennifer Pett-Ridge
ABSTRACT Epiphytes generally occupy arboreal perches, which are inherently unstable environments due to periodic windstorms, branch falls, and treefalls. During high wind events, arboreal bromeliads are often knocked from the canopy and deposited on the forest floor. In this study, we used a common epiphytic tank bromeliad, Guzmania berteroniana (R. & S.) Mez, to determine if fallen bromeliads can survive, grow, and reproduce on the forest floor and evaluate the potential impact of adult dispersal on plant and soil nutrient pools. Bromeliads were transplanted to and from tree stems and the forest floor and monitored intensively for six months; survival, growth, and impacts on ecosystem nutrient pools were followed on a subset of plants for 16 months. Six months after transplanting, bromeliad mortality was low (3%), and 19 percent of study individuals had flowered and produced new juvenile shoots. Mortality on the subset of plants followed for 16 months was 14,30 percent. Although survival rates were relatively high in all habitats, bromeliads transplanted to trees grew significantly more root length (x,± SE: 189 ± 43 cm) than those moved to the forest floor (53 ±15 cm) and experienced lower rates of leaf area loss. All transplanted bromeliads rapidly altered the substrate they occupied. Individuals transplanted to and among trees rapidly decreased base cation concentrations but significantly increased P concentrations of their underlying substrate. On the ground, bromeliads increased C, N, and P concentrations within nine months of placement. Our results suggest that in this montane tropical forest, bromeliads respond rapidly to displacement, locally modify their substrates, and can access the resources needed for survival regardless of habitat. [source]