Adult Disease (adult + disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Is Prenatal Glucocorticoid Administration Another Origin Of Adult Disease?

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 11 2001
John P Newnham
SUMMARY 1. The intra-uterine environment is now believed to play a major role in the origin of many adult diseases. Illnesses in which there is significant ,programming' before the time of birth include hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke. Acting on a genetic predisposition, intra-uterine triggers appear to programme the individual's metabolism and endocrine milieu and, after birth, these risk factors are then either amplified or minimized by environmental influences. The triggers operative during fetal life that have been studied most extensively are undernutrition and glucocorticoid exposure. 2. Over the past decade, a series of studies in sheep have focused on the perinatal and life-long consequences of glucocorticoid exposure in mid- to late-pregnancy. These studies in the sheep model have shown that maternal injections with glucocorticoids, in a manner similar to clinical treatment for women at risk of preterm birth, enhance fetal lung maturation, but were also associated with developmental and other functional alterations that are of concern. With weekly doses to the mother, there is restricted fetal growth, delayed myelination of the central nervous system, altered blood pressure soon after birth and increased insulin response to glucose challenge in early adulthood. If the glucocorticoids are given to the fetus by ultrasound-guided intramuscular injection, rather than to the mother, the effects on lung maturation are similar, but growth is spared and blood pressure after birth is unaltered. Increased insulin response to glucose challenge occurs in early adulthood with glucocorticoid by either route and is independent of growth restriction. 3. The findings in experimental animals are supported by studies of children in the Western Australian Preterm Infant Follow-up Study. Multivariate analyses have shown that increasing the number of glucocorticoid exposures, for the purpose of enhancing lung maturation prior to preterm birth, is associated with reduced birthweight and behavioural disorders at 3 years of age. 4. The results of these animal and clinical studies provide further support for a role of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in triggering predisposition to adult disease. Further exploration of these models is expected to uncover the mechanisms and lead to effective strategies that may underpin clinical interventions. [source]


Studies of twins: what can they tell us about the fetal origins of adult disease?

PAEDIATRIC & PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 2005
Ruth Morley
Summary There has been much interest in evidence that people with lower birthweight have higher risk of adult cardiovascular disease, but the causal pathways underlying such observations are uncertain. Study of twins offers an opportunity to shed light on the underlying causal pathways, in particular by investigating the role of ,shared' factors vs. factors affecting each individual fetus. This involves comparing results of within-cohort vs. within-pair analyses. Twins share many factors during gestation but birthweight discordance (difference in birthweight within a twin pair) cannot be determined by these shared factors and must relate to factors affecting growth of each individual fetus. If associations seen in a cohort of twins remain in within-pair analyses, then factors specific to each individual must be involved in the underlying causal pathways. Conversely, if the relationships disappear or substantially diminish in within-pair analyses, then factors common to the pair must be involved. Comparison of findings in monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins may provide insights into the role of genetic factors, although issues related to chorionicity need to be taken into account. We tabulate published data and conclude that differences in methodology and analyses preclude informative meta-analysis, and that analysis of pooled data would provide more useful information. [source]


The Walker Project: a longitudinal study of 48 000 children born 1952,1966 (aged 36,50 years in 2002) and their families

PAEDIATRIC & PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
Gillian Libby
Summary The Walker cohort is a database of over 48 000 birth records that has recently become available. It contains meticulously recorded details of pregnancy, labour, birth and care before discharge for babies born in hospital in Dundee, Scotland between 1952 and 1966. These babies accounted for 75% of all births in Dundee at this time. Over 34 000 (73%) of these subjects can be identified and this presents the opportunity to link this birth information with a large number of current health-outcome databases covering both primary and secondary care. Further, it allows linkage of records across siblings and over two and, in future, three generations. The number of birth records available and linkage to current databases make this a unique birth cohort with huge potential for the investigation of the fetal origins of adult disease. [source]


Pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma demonstrates a high proliferation index, frequent c-Myc protein expression, and a high incidence of germinal center subtype: Report of the French,American,British (FAB) international study group,

PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 3 2008
Rodney R. Miles MD
Abstract Background Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) makes up 10,20% of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and these patients have a significantly better prognosis than adults with DLBCL. The difference in prognosis may be related to clinical, phenotypic, and/or biological differences between adult and pediatric DLBCL. In adult DLBCL, the germinal center (GC) phenotype is associated with a better prognosis than the activated B-cell (ABC) phenotype. However, a high proliferative index and expression of Bcl2 and c-Myc protein have all been associated with worse outcomes. While multiple studies have addressed the phenotype and expression patterns of adult DLBCL, relatively little is known about these biological variables in pediatric DLBCL. The goal of this study was to investigate the proliferative index, the relative frequencies of the GC and non-GC subtypes, and the expression of Bcl2 and c-Myc protein in a cohort of children with DLBCL treated in a uniform manner. Procedure We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MIB1, CD10, Bcl6, MUM1, Bcl2, and c-Myc on DLBCL tissue from children treated uniformly in the FAB LMB96 trial (SFOP LMB96/CCG5961/UKCCSG/NHL 9600). Results Compared to published adult DLBCL studies, pediatric DLBCL demonstrated moderate to high proliferation rates (83%), increased c-Myc protein expression (84%), decreased Bcl2 protein expression (28%), and an increased frequency of the GC phenotype (75%). Conclusions These findings suggest that there are significant biologic differences between pediatric and adult forms of DLBCL, which may contribute to the superior prognosis seen in the pediatric population relative to adult disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:369,374. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Insulin resistance: childhood precursors and adult disease.

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2009
Series: Contemporary endocrinology
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Is Prenatal Glucocorticoid Administration Another Origin Of Adult Disease?

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 11 2001
John P Newnham
SUMMARY 1. The intra-uterine environment is now believed to play a major role in the origin of many adult diseases. Illnesses in which there is significant ,programming' before the time of birth include hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke. Acting on a genetic predisposition, intra-uterine triggers appear to programme the individual's metabolism and endocrine milieu and, after birth, these risk factors are then either amplified or minimized by environmental influences. The triggers operative during fetal life that have been studied most extensively are undernutrition and glucocorticoid exposure. 2. Over the past decade, a series of studies in sheep have focused on the perinatal and life-long consequences of glucocorticoid exposure in mid- to late-pregnancy. These studies in the sheep model have shown that maternal injections with glucocorticoids, in a manner similar to clinical treatment for women at risk of preterm birth, enhance fetal lung maturation, but were also associated with developmental and other functional alterations that are of concern. With weekly doses to the mother, there is restricted fetal growth, delayed myelination of the central nervous system, altered blood pressure soon after birth and increased insulin response to glucose challenge in early adulthood. If the glucocorticoids are given to the fetus by ultrasound-guided intramuscular injection, rather than to the mother, the effects on lung maturation are similar, but growth is spared and blood pressure after birth is unaltered. Increased insulin response to glucose challenge occurs in early adulthood with glucocorticoid by either route and is independent of growth restriction. 3. The findings in experimental animals are supported by studies of children in the Western Australian Preterm Infant Follow-up Study. Multivariate analyses have shown that increasing the number of glucocorticoid exposures, for the purpose of enhancing lung maturation prior to preterm birth, is associated with reduced birthweight and behavioural disorders at 3 years of age. 4. The results of these animal and clinical studies provide further support for a role of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in triggering predisposition to adult disease. Further exploration of these models is expected to uncover the mechanisms and lead to effective strategies that may underpin clinical interventions. [source]


The importance of the fetal origins of adult disease for geneticists

CLINICAL GENETICS, Issue 2 2007
JG Hall
The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of the newly recognized in utero factors that interact with gene expression to establish the structural and physiologic processes that will serve the individual long term. These may be common to all mammals and probably reflect evolutionary plasticity, which improves species survival. The concepts of programming, fetal-maternal microchimerism, growth factors, and transgenerational nutritional affects are explored. [source]


Atypical Clinical Features of Pediatric Appendicitis

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 2 2007
Theresa Becker DO
Background The diagnosis of appendicitis remains challenging in children. Delays in diagnosis, or misdiagnosis, have important medical and legal implications. The typical, or classic, presentation of pediatric appendicitis has been modeled after adult disease; however, many children present atypically with subtle findings or unusual signs. Objectives To determine the frequency of atypical clinical features among pediatric patients with appendicitis and to investigate which atypical features are the strongest negative predictors for appendicitis among patients being evaluated for appendicitis. Methods Children and adolescents with suspected appendicitis were enrolled over 20 consecutive months. Pediatric emergency physicians completed standardized data collection forms on eligible patients. Final diagnosis was determined by pathology or follow-up telephone call. Typical and atypical findings were defined strictly a priori. Results Seven hundred fifty-five patients were enrolled. The median age was 11.9 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 8.5, 14.9 yr); 36% of patients were diagnosed with appendicitis. Among patients with appendicitis, the most common atypical features included absence of pyrexia (83%), absence of Rovsing's sign (68%), normal or increased bowel sounds (64%), absence of rebound pain (52%), lack of migration of pain (50%), lack of guarding (47%), abrupt onset of pain (45%), lack of anorexia (40%), absence of maximal pain in the right lower quadrant (32%), and absence of percussive tenderness (31%). Forty-four percent of patients with proven appendicitis had six or more atypical characteristics. The median number of atypical features for patients with proven appendicitis was five (IQR: 4.0, 7.0). The greatest negative predictors, on the basis of likelihood ratios, were as follows: white blood cell count (WBC) of <10,000 per cubic millimeter (likelihood ratios [LR], 0.18), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of <7,500 per cubic millimeter (LR, 0.35), lack of percussive tenderness (LR, 0.50), lack of guarding (LR, 0.63), and no nausea or emesis (LR, 0.65). Conclusions Appendicitis in pediatric patients is difficult to diagnose because children present with a wide variety of atypical clinical features. Forty-four percent of patients with appendicitis presented with six or more atypical features. Two atypical features are the strongest negative predictors of appendicitis in children: WBC of <10,000 per cubic millimeter and an ANC of <7,500 per cubic millimeter. [source]


Does maternal smoking during pregnancy cause childhood overweight?

PAEDIATRIC & PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Marius Widerøe
Summary The objective of this study was to examine a possible association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and childhood overweight. From a population-based cohort of 5722 women from Trondheim, Bergen (Norway) and Uppsala (Sweden) enrolled in early pregnancy during 1986,92, a random sample of 482 women was selected for participation. They were followed up throughout pregnancy, and their children from birth until 5 years of age. Data on maternal smoking and diet, socio-economic determinants and breast feeding were recorded prospectively. During pregnancy and childhood, anthropometric measures were also recorded. Maternal smoking status was based on reported number of cigarettes smoked in week 17 of pregnancy. Child overweight was defined by body mass index (BMI) and sum of skinfold thickness (SFT) , 85th percentile at 5 years of age. Children of mothers who smoked in pregnancy had increased risk of overweight at 5 years of age (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5, 4.2 for BMI; and RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1, 3.0 for SFT). Adjusting for maternal diet, breast feeding, maternal obesity and socio-economic status did not suggest confounding. However, adjustment for birthweight increased the observed risk. A linear increase in BMI and SFT was observed with increasing number of cigarettes smoked. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for development of childhood overweight. This study may support the hypothesis of ,fetal origin of adult disease', but the risk of overweight associated with smoking during pregnancy was independent of intrauterine growth retardation, and may thus be attributed to specific effects of cigarette smoke. [source]


Foetal size to final height

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2000
J Karlberg
It is well known that some adult diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, may be programmed during foetal life. It is not clear, however, whether final height may be predicted from foetal growth. A longitudinal cohort of full-term healthy Swedish babies (n = 3650) was followed up from birth to maturity in a population-based growth study. Length or height and its changes were analysed from birth to 18 y of age; 2807 children, with data available on birth length, final height and parental height, were included in this analysis. The result clearly shows that length at birth relates to final height. In terms of standard deviation scores (SDS), the mean difference in length at birth from the mean was greatly decreased in final height, but retained the same order as was seen at birth. In terms of centimeter difference from the reference mean values, the difference in length at birth remained roughly stable into final height. For instance, babies 5 cm above or below the mean birth length will end up approximately 5 cm above or below the mean in final height. Parental height,a surrogate value of the genetic final height potential of an individual,is shown to influence postnatal growth in height strongly. However, the difference from the mean in length at birth remained into adulthood within the same midparental height group. Conclusion: This study reveals that trends in foetal linear growth continue into maturity. Foetal growth is a significant predictor of postnatal growth. Final height is dependent on both the magnitude of foetal growth and the genetic potential in stature, and appears to some extent to be programmed from foetal growth. [source]


Early life risk factors in cancer: The relation of birth weight to adult obesity

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 6 2003
Nicole M. Leong
Abstract The intrauterine environment appears to play a role in the development of adult diseases, including several prominent cancers. Our study aims to characterize the relationship between birth weight, a measure of the intrauterine environment, and adult obesity. A population-based sample of women aged 50,79, living in the states of Massachusetts, New Hampshire or Wisconsin, were randomly selected from lists of licensed drivers and Medicare beneficiaries to participate as controls in a case-control study of breast cancer. Information on birth weight, adult height and adult weight were collected through structured telephone interviews from 1992,1995. Our analysis was based on 1,850 interviews. A U-shaped relationship between birth weight and adult BMI was observed. Median adult BMI for the birth weight categories (in kilograms) <2.3, 2.3<2.5, 2.5<3.2, 3.2<3.9, 3.9<4.5 and ,4.5 were 26.6, 24.4, 25.1, 25.5, 25.4 and 26.6 kg/m respectively. Compared to women 2.5<3.2 kg at birth, women in highest birth weight category (,4.5 kg) had an odds ratio of 1.99 (95% CI 1.13,3.48) of being obese (,30 kg/m2) as adults. The odds ratio for women in the <2.3 kg birth weight category was 1.67 (95% CI 1.01,2.76). These data suggest that both low and high birth weights are associated with higher adult BMI and support the hypothesis that fetal experience may influence adult obesity with potential consequences for risk of several major cancers. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Familial (shared environmental and genetic) factors and the foetal origins of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes: a review of the literature

JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2008
N. Bergvall
Abstract. Several researchers have argued that observed associations between birth weight and cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes, may be confounded by familial (shared environmental and genetic) factors. However, most studies have found that shared environmental factors, including socio-economic factors, do not influence the foetal origins of adult diseases. Results from two twin studies suggest that genetic factors may be of importance for the association between birth weight and risks of coronary heart disease, but findings from intergenerational studies are not consistent with genetic confounding. More studies have assessed the importance of genetic factors with respect to risk factors of coronary heart, including raised blood pressure and lipid levels. Recent findings suggest that the association between birth weight and hypertension is independent of genetic factors. In contrast, recent twin and intergenerational studies favour the hypothesis that the association between birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes is confounded by genetic factors. [source]


Plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in premature neonates: its possible involvement in developmental programming of chronic diseases

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2009
Gabriella Vida
Abstract Aim: The endothel dysfunction in early life may play a role in developmental programming of cardiovascular morbidity. The changes of dimethylarginines' plasma levels during the first month among preterm infants and their determinants had been investigated in our study. Methods: Twenty preterm infants of healthy mothers were studied. Mean (±SD) birth weight and gestational age were 919.5 ± 235.5 g and 26.7 ± 1.6 weeks, respectively. Blood samples were taken by venipuncture at the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days. Plasma concentrations of L-arginine, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, evaluated by multivariate linear regression analysis. Results: L-arginine (p < 0.001) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels (p < 0.001) were positively associated with postnatal age. ADMA levels were negatively correlated with gestational age (p = 0.007), dopamine-need on the 3rd day of life (p = 0.015) and late infection (p = 0.038). The higher birth weight was associated with higher L-arginine (p = 0.052) and ADMA (p = 0.002) concentrations. The dopamine-need on the 7th day of life had a significant effect on postnatal elevation of SDMA levels (p = 0.035). Conclusion: The progressive increase of ADMA levels described by our study among preterm infants suggests that early endothel dysfunction may take part in developmental programming of chronic adult diseases. [source]


Is Prenatal Glucocorticoid Administration Another Origin Of Adult Disease?

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 11 2001
John P Newnham
SUMMARY 1. The intra-uterine environment is now believed to play a major role in the origin of many adult diseases. Illnesses in which there is significant ,programming' before the time of birth include hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke. Acting on a genetic predisposition, intra-uterine triggers appear to programme the individual's metabolism and endocrine milieu and, after birth, these risk factors are then either amplified or minimized by environmental influences. The triggers operative during fetal life that have been studied most extensively are undernutrition and glucocorticoid exposure. 2. Over the past decade, a series of studies in sheep have focused on the perinatal and life-long consequences of glucocorticoid exposure in mid- to late-pregnancy. These studies in the sheep model have shown that maternal injections with glucocorticoids, in a manner similar to clinical treatment for women at risk of preterm birth, enhance fetal lung maturation, but were also associated with developmental and other functional alterations that are of concern. With weekly doses to the mother, there is restricted fetal growth, delayed myelination of the central nervous system, altered blood pressure soon after birth and increased insulin response to glucose challenge in early adulthood. If the glucocorticoids are given to the fetus by ultrasound-guided intramuscular injection, rather than to the mother, the effects on lung maturation are similar, but growth is spared and blood pressure after birth is unaltered. Increased insulin response to glucose challenge occurs in early adulthood with glucocorticoid by either route and is independent of growth restriction. 3. The findings in experimental animals are supported by studies of children in the Western Australian Preterm Infant Follow-up Study. Multivariate analyses have shown that increasing the number of glucocorticoid exposures, for the purpose of enhancing lung maturation prior to preterm birth, is associated with reduced birthweight and behavioural disorders at 3 years of age. 4. The results of these animal and clinical studies provide further support for a role of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in triggering predisposition to adult disease. Further exploration of these models is expected to uncover the mechanisms and lead to effective strategies that may underpin clinical interventions. [source]