Adult Depression (adult + depression)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
Why is juvenile delinquency associated with depression in young adulthood? One possibility is that delinquency interferes with socioeco-nomic attainment and disrupts entry into adult roles, perhaps because of official labeling processes or adolescent socialization into deviance, and these repercussions of delinquency lead to depression. Another possibility is that grown delinquents may show high levels of depression because they tend to offend in adulthood, and adult offenders tend to be depressed. I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the timing and mechanisms of the offending-depression relationship. The results suggest that delinquency is negatively associated with later status attainment and that the status attainment deficits of grown delinquents are not fully explained by justice system contacts or by adolescent delinquent peer influence. A portion of the longitudinal delinquency-depression link is explained by the low levels of education of grown delinquents and by their involvement with the justice system. Still, young adult depression is more closely tied to recent offending than it is to juvenile delinquency, official labeling, or the status attainment consequences of delinquency. [source]

The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis

P. Cuijpers
Cuijpers P, van Straten A, Hollon SD, Andersson G. The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Objective:, Although there is sufficient evidence that combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are more effective for depression in adults than each of the treatments alone, it remains unclear what the exact contribution of active medication is to the overall effects of combined treatments. This paper examines the contribution of active medication to combined psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy treatments. Method:, Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing the combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy with the combination of psychotherapy and placebo. Results:, Sixteen identified studies involving 852 patients met our inclusion criteria. The standardised mean difference indicating the differences between the combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy and the combination of psychotherapy and placebo was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.03,0.46), which corresponds to a numbers-needed-to-be-treated of 7.14. No significant differences between subgroups of studies were found. Conclusion:, Active medication has a small but significant contribution to the overall efficacy of combined treatments. [source]

Marijuana use and depression among adults: testing for causal associations

ADDICTION, Issue 10 2006
Valerie S. Harder
ABSTRACT Aim To determine whether marijuana use predicts later development of depression after accounting for differences between users and non-users of marijuana. Design An ongoing longitudinal survey of 12 686 men and women beginning in 1979. Setting The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1979, a nationally representative sample from the United States. Participants A total of 8759 adults (age range 29,37 years) interviewed in 1994 had complete data on past-year marijuana use and current depression. Measurements Self-reported past-year marijuana use was tested as an independent predictor of later adult depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies,Depression questionnaire. Individual's propensity to use marijuana was calculated using over 50 baseline covariates. Findings Before adjusting for group differences, the odds of current depression among past-year marijuana users is 1.4 times higher (95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) than the odds of depression among the non-using comparison group. After adjustment, the odds of current depression among past-year marijuana users is only 1.1 times higher than the comparison group (95% CI: 0.8, 1.7). Similarly, adjustment eliminates significant associations between marijuana use and depression in four additional analyses: heavy marijuana use as the risk factor, stratifying by either gender or age, and using a 4-year lag-time between marijuana use and depression. Conclusions After adjusting for differences in baseline risk factors of marijuana use and depression, past-year marijuana use does not significantly predict later development of depression. These findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for understanding possible causal effects of marijuana use on depression. [source]

Characteristics of adolescent depression

Marie Crowe
ABSTRACT:, Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that is acknowledged to be increasing in disease burden. The rates of adolescent depression is particularly concerning as they continue to increase. The seriousness and pervasive effects of depression on young people's lives supports the view that research that extends the knowledge in this area is vital. This is a descriptive study of the characteristics of depression in a sample of 121 adolescents attending an outpatient specialist adolescent mental health service in New Zealand. The adolescents were required to complete two self-report measures to assess presence of depressive symptoms, severity of depression, and particular characteristics of the depression. The findings revealed that irritability was the most common characteristic along with other interpersonal and thought processing symptoms. It is important that mental health nurses are able to identify the specific characteristics of adolescent depression that may differ from adult depression in order to manage this patient population effectively. [source]

Neighborhood-specific and general social support: which buffers the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression?

Joongbaeck Kim
Is neighborhood-specific social support the most effective type of social support for buffering the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression? Matching theory suggests that it is. The authors extend the research on neighborhood disorder and adult depression by showing that individuals who have higher levels of both general and neighborhood-specific social relationships, measured by social support and neighborhood social ties, are less vulnerable to negative effects of neighborhood disorder. Using the Community, Crime, and Health Survey, the authors found that neighborhood disorder's association with depression is lower for people with supportive social ties with neighbors and for people with more general social support. The latter conditional effect is stronger than the former, indicating that support in which the source of support matches the source of strain is not more effective than general support at buffering the effects of neighborhood strain. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Genetic and environmental influences on the transmission of parental depression to children's depression and conduct disturbance: an extended Children of Twins study

Judy L. Silberg
Background:, Despite the increased risk of depression and conduct problems in children of depressed parents, the mechanism by which parental depression affects their children's behavioral and emotional functioning is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether parental depression represents a genuine environmental risk factor in children's psychopathology, or whether children's depression/conduct can be explained as a secondary consequence of the genetic liability transmitted from parents to their offspring. Methods:, Children of Twins (COT) data collected on 2,674 adult female and male twins, their spouses, and 2,940 of their children were used to address whether genetic and/or family environmental factors best account for the association between depression in parents and depression and conduct problems in their children. Data collected on juvenile twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) were also included to estimate child-specific genetic and environmental influences apart from those effects arising from the transmission of the parental depression itself. The fit of alternative Children of Twin models were evaluated using the statistical program Mx. Results:, The most compelling model for the association between parental and juvenile depression was a model of direct environmental risk. Both family environmental and genetic factors accounted for the association between parental depression and child conduct disturbance. Conclusions:, These findings illustrate how a genetically mediated behavior such as parental depression can have both an environmental and genetic impact on children's behavior. We find developmentally specific genetic factors underlying risk to juvenile and adult depression. A shared genetic liability influences both parental depression and juvenile conduct disturbance, implicating child conduct disturbance (CD) as an early indicator of genetic risk for depression in adulthood. In summary, our analyses demonstrate differences in the impact of parental depression on different forms of child psychopathology, and at various stages of development. [source]

Reaffirmation of Behavioral Approaches to Depression Treatment

Manuel Barrera Jr
This meta-analytic review improved on the methods and scope of similar reviews but reached the same conclusion that behavioral activation (BA) therapies for adult depression are much more effective than control conditions and comparable with cognitive-behavioral interventions. Future research should strengthen our understanding of the mechanisms that account for the effectiveness of BA approaches and should provide more evidence on long-term maintenance. The resurgence of interest in BA was attributed to pioneering work of Lewinsohn and the components analysis research of Jacobson and colleagues, who demonstrated the effectiveness of behavioral elements of depression treatment relative to cognitive elements. [source]