Adjuvant Arthritis (adjuvant + arthritis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A novel bisphosphonate inhibits inflammatory bone resorption in a rat osteolysis model with continuous infusion of polyethylene particles

Miho Iwase
Abstract This study examined the inhibitory effect of a new bisphosphonate (TRK-530) on wear debris-mediated bone resorption in a rat osteolysis model involving continuous infusion of high density polyethylene (HDPE) particles. TRK-530 (TRK) is a novel synthetic bisphosphonate that has been shown to decrease the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-,) in the bone marrow of rats with adjuvant arthritis. Forty Wistar rats were randomized to two groups (n = 20 each). In each rat, a Kirshner (K) wire was inserted into the femur and HDPE particles were continuously infused into the knee joint. Thereafter, the animals were subcutaneously injected with saline (control group) or 1 mg/kg of TRK (TRK group) every second day, and were sacrificed at 4 or 8 weeks after surgery. Radiographs obtained at the time of sacrifice were evaluated for periprosthetic osteolysis. We also examined the thickness of the reactive membrane as well as the number of osteoclast-like cells around the K-wire. In addition, we examined the expression of genes for bone-resorbing cytokines in the reactive membrane. Radiographic peri-implant osteolysis was more frequent in the control group compared with the TRK group at each time of assessment (p < 0.01). The interfacial membrane was significantly thinner in the TRK group compared with the control group (p < 0.01) and the average number of osteoclast-like cells around the K-wire was significantly fewer in the TRK group (p < 0.01). In addition, the expression of interleukin 1-alpha messenger ribonucleic acid (IL-1, mRNA) and TNF-, mRNA was suppressed in the TRK group at each time of assessment. We conclude that the TRK can inhibit the formation of inflammatory peri-implant osteolysis induced by HDPE particles. 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

,-Monoisostearyl glyceryl ether enhances percutaneous penetration of indometacin in-vivo

Atsushi Suzuki
ABSTRACT Molecules that reversibly remove the barrier resistance of skin enhance penetration. ,-Monoisostearyl glyceryl ether (GE-IS) is a novel compound that can be used as a non-ionic surfactant and increases percutaneous penetration of indometacin in rat abdominal skin in-vitro. The present study investigated GE-IS-induced enhancement of indometacin penetration in-vivo. When 1% GE-IS in propylene glycol was applied to rat abdominal skin, serum and muscle concentrations of indometacin increased markedly. Anti-inflammatory activities of test solutions containing both indometacin and GE-IS were investigated in experimental models of acute and chronic inflammation. Application of indometacin with GE-IS to the skin produced greater inhibitory effects on carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, UV-induced erythema in guinea-pigs, and adjuvant arthritis in rats, compared with application of indometacin alone. The results suggest that GE-IS enhances penetration in-vivo and improves the anti-inflammatory effects of indometacin in animal models. Thus, GE-IS might contribute to the development of cosmetic or medical formulations to improve transfer of bioactive substances to hypodermal sites. [source]

Effect of methanol extract from flower petals of Tagetes patula L. on acute and chronic inflammation model

Yoshimasa Kasahara
Abstract The methanol extract of the florets of Tagetes patula (MEFTP) inhibited acute and chronic inflammation in mice and rats. MEFTP significantly suppressed hind-paw oedema induced by ,-carrageenin in mice. Furthermore, MEFTP not only inhibited the hind-paw oedema induced by various acute phlogogens, such as histamine, serotonin, bradykinin and prostaglandin E1, but also suppressed the increase of vascular permeability by acetic acid, indicating that it primarily acts at the exudative stage of inflammation. In the chronic inflammation, MEFTP did not inhibit the proliferation of granulation tissue when tested by the cotton pellet method, however, it was effective on the development of adjuvant arthritis in rats. Oral MEFTP inhibited acute and chronic inflammation in mice and rats. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1: A novel proinflammatory mediator in synovitis

R. Kokkola
Objective High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is a ubiquitous chromatin component expressed in nucleated mammalian cells. It has recently and unexpectedly been demonstrated that stimulated live mononuclear phagocytes secrete HMGB-1, which then acts as a potent factor that causes inflammation and protease activation. Macrophages play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether synovial macrophage expression of HMGB-1 is altered in human and experimental synovitis. Methods Intraarticular tissue specimens were obtained from healthy Lewis rats, Lewis rats with Mycobacterium tuberculosis,induced adjuvant arthritis, and from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Specimens were immunohistochemically stained for cellular HMGB-1. Extracellular HMGB-1 levels were assessed in synovial fluid samples from RA patients by Western blotting. Results Immunostaining of specimens from normal rats showed that HMGB-1 was primarily confined to the nucleus of synoviocytes and chondrocytes, with occasional cytoplasmic staining and no extracellular matrix deposition. In contrast, inflammatory synovial tissue from rats with experimental arthritis as well as from humans with RA showed a distinctly different HMGB-1 staining pattern. Nuclear HMGB-1 expression was accompanied by a cytoplasmic staining in many mononuclear cells, with a macrophage-like appearance and an extracellular matrix deposition. Analysis of synovial fluid samples from RA patients further confirmed the extracellular presence of HMGB-1; 14 of 15 samples had HMGB-1 concentrations of 1.8,10.4 ,g/ml. Conclusion The proinflammatory mediator HMGB-1 was abundantly expressed as a nuclear, cytoplasmic, and extracellular component in synovial tissues from RA patients and from rats with experimental arthritis. These findings suggest a pathogenetic role for HMGB-1 in synovitis and indicate a new potential therapeutic target molecule. [source]

Kinetics of bone protection by recombinant osteoprotegerin therapy in Lewis rats with adjuvant arthritis

Giuseppe Campagnuolo
Objective To assess the effect of different dosages and treatment schedules of osteoprotegerin (OPG) on joint preservation in an experimental model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Methods Male Lewis rats with AIA (6,8 per group) were treated with a subcutaneous bolus of recombinant human OPG according to one of the following schedules: daily OPG (an efficacious regimen) starting at disease onset (days 9,15), early intervention (days 9,11), delayed intervention (days 13,15), and extended therapy (days 9,22). Inflammation (hind paw swelling) was quantified throughout the clinical course; osteoporosis (bone mineral density [BMD], by quantitative dual x-ray absorptiometry) and morphologic appraisals of inflammation, bone damage, intralesional osteoclasts (by semiquantitative histopathologic scoring), and integrity of the articular cartilage matrix (by retention of toluidine blue stain) were determined in histology sections of arthritic hind paws. Results OPG provided dose- and schedule-dependent preservation of BMD and periarticular bone while essentially eliminating intralesional osteoclasts. Dosages ,2.5 mg/kg/day preserved or enhanced BMD and prevented essentially all erosions. A dosage of 4 mg/kg/day protected joint integrity to a comparable degree when given for 7 (days 9,15) or 14 (days 9,22) consecutive days. At this dosage, early intervention (days 9,11) was twice as effective as delayed intervention (days 13,15) at preventing joint dissolution. Erosions and osteoclast scores were greatly decreased for 26 days (measured from the first treatment) after 7 or 14 daily doses of OPG (4 mg/kg/day). OPG treatment also prevented loss of cartilage matrix proteoglycans, an indirect consequence of protecting the subchondral bone. No OPG dosage or regimen alleviated weight loss, inflammation, or periosteal osteophyte production. Conclusion These data indicate that OPG preserves articular bone and (indirectly) articular cartilage in arthritic joints in a dose- and schedule-dependent manner, halts bone erosion when given at any point during the course of arthritis, produces sustained antierosive activity after a short course, and is most effective when initiated early in the disease. [source]

Enhancement of the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of theophylline by a low dose of a nitric oxide donor or non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

Adel Gomaa
Background and purpose:, Although there are many new specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors with anti-inflammatory activity, none have yet reached the market because of their low therapeutic efficacy. Our study was aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect of an established phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline, and to investigate the effect of the nitric oxide (NO) donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or NO synthase inhibitor, L-NG -monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) on its actions. Experimental approach:, The effects of theophylline alone and combined with SNP or L-NMMA on the pathogenesis of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats were evaluated. Key results:, Prophylactic or therapeutic doses of theophylline significantly ameliorated the pathogenesis of adjuvant arthritis in rats as evidenced by a significant decrease in the arthritis index, hind paws volume, ankle joint diameter, fever, body weight loss and hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner. Inflammatory cellular infiltrate in synovium of ankle joint and pannus formation were also markedly inhibited. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were significantly increased in arthritic rats given theophylline alone or in combination with either SNP or L-NMMA. Co-administration of a low dose of SNP or L-NMMA enhanced significantly the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect of theophylline. In contrast, a high dose of SNP counteracted the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of theophylline. Conclusions and Implication:, These findings confirm the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of theophylline and suggest a new approach to enhance the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of theophylline would be to administer it in combination with a low dose of a NO donor or a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor. [source]