Adaptive Functioning (adaptive + functioning)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood

JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 4 2010
Patricia Howlin
Background, Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method, The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19,55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results, Data from the cross-sectional study (n = 92; mean age = 32 years) indicated that IQ was comparable across age groups (Full-Scale IQ mean = 56,57) with Verbal IQ being slightly higher than Performance IQ. Daily Living Skills (as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) were significantly higher in older individuals. Language abilities showed no consistent age-related differences. On formal tests of language, comprehension scores were higher than expressive language scores for almost all individuals, although this pattern was not replicated on the Vineland. In the longitudinal study, a follow-up of 47 individuals (mean age = 37 years) first assessed 12 years previously, similar trajectories were found. IQ remained very stable (FSIQ = 61,62 at both time points); there were significant improvements on the Social and Daily Living domains of the Vineland and significant decreases in Maladaptive scores. There were no improvements in language over time. Conclusions, The data indicate that adults with WS (at least up to the age of 50 years) show no evidence of deterioration in cognitive skills. Adaptive abilities continue to develop although language shows relatively little improvement with time. [source]


Pathological personality traits and externalizing behaviour

PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2009
Lauren R. Pryor
Previous research has identified general personality traits and personality disorders that are associated with externalizing behaviour (EB). There is a dearth of research, however, investigating the relations between pathological personality traits and EB. The current study examined pathological personality traits, as measured by the Schedule for Non-adaptive and Adaptive Functioning (SNAP) and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ), in relation to EB. Undergraduates (n = 228) completed the SNAP, DAPP-BQ, and a measure of antisocial behaviour, substance use, gambling, intimate partner violence and risky sexual behaviour. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we identified the best fitting model as one that specified eight factors: five personality factors composed of constructs assessed by the DAPP and SNAP, one externalizing factor and two method factors corresponding to each of the measures. Consistent with the empirical literature using general personality traits, the current results suggest that pathological personality traits related to impulse control (i.e. low conscientiousness), as well as more interpersonally focused traits (i.e. low agreeableness), were most strongly associated with EB. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Self-Regulation and Its Relations to Adaptive Functioning in Low Income Youths

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2009
John C. Buckner PhD
Most studies of self-regulation involving children have linked it to specific outcomes within a single domain of adaptive functioning. The authors examined the association of self-regulation with a range of indices of adaptive functioning among 155 youth ages 8,18 years from families with very low income. Controlling for other explanatory variables, self-regulation was strongly associated with various outcome measures in the areas of mental health, behavior, academic achievement, and social competence. The authors also contrasted youths relatively high and low in self-regulation (the top and bottom quartiles). Youths with good self-regulation had much better indices of adaptive functioning across measures of social competence, academic achievement, grades, problem behaviors, and depression and anxiety than their counterparts with more diminished self-regulatory capacities. In addition, youths with better self-regulation skills stated more adaptive responses both in terms of how they coped with past stressful live events and how they would deal with hypothetical stressors. This study indicates that self-regulation is robustly associated with a range of important indices of adaptive functioning across many domains. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for theory and intervention for children of diverse economic backgrounds. [source]


Hemispheric Surgery in Children with Refractory Epilepsy: Seizure Outcome, Complications, and Adaptive Function

EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2007
Sheikh Nigel Basheer
Summary:,Purpose: To describe seizure control, complications, adaptive function and language skills following hemispheric surgery for epilepsy. Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients who underwent hemispheric surgery from July 1993 to June 2004 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Results: The study population comprised 24 children, median age at seizure onset six months and median age at surgery 41 months. Etiology included malformations of cortical development (7), infarction (7), Sturge-Weber Syndrome (6), and Rasmussen's encephalitis (4). The most frequent complication was intraoperative bleeding (17 transfused). Age <2 yr, weight <11 kg, and hemidecortication were risk factors for transfusion. Postoperative complications included aseptic meningitis (6), and hydrocephalus (3). At median follow-up of 7 yr, 79% of patients are seizure free. Children with malformations of cortical development and Rasmussen's encephalitis were more likely to have ongoing seizures. Overall adaptive function scores were low, but relative strengths in verbal abilities were observed. Shorter duration of epilepsy prior to surgery was related significantly to better adaptive functioning. Conclusions: Hemispheric surgery is an effective therapy for refractory epilepsy in children. The most common complication was bleeding. Duration of epilepsy prior to surgery is an important factor in determining adaptive outcome. [source]


Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood

JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 4 2010
Patricia Howlin
Background, Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method, The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19,55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results, Data from the cross-sectional study (n = 92; mean age = 32 years) indicated that IQ was comparable across age groups (Full-Scale IQ mean = 56,57) with Verbal IQ being slightly higher than Performance IQ. Daily Living Skills (as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) were significantly higher in older individuals. Language abilities showed no consistent age-related differences. On formal tests of language, comprehension scores were higher than expressive language scores for almost all individuals, although this pattern was not replicated on the Vineland. In the longitudinal study, a follow-up of 47 individuals (mean age = 37 years) first assessed 12 years previously, similar trajectories were found. IQ remained very stable (FSIQ = 61,62 at both time points); there were significant improvements on the Social and Daily Living domains of the Vineland and significant decreases in Maladaptive scores. There were no improvements in language over time. Conclusions, The data indicate that adults with WS (at least up to the age of 50 years) show no evidence of deterioration in cognitive skills. Adaptive abilities continue to develop although language shows relatively little improvement with time. [source]


Development of a measure of sense of community for individuals with serious mental illness residing in community settings

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Greg Townley
The psychological sense of community is one of the most commonly investigated constructs in community psychology. Sense of community may be particularly important for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) because they often face societal barriers to participation in community living, including stigma and discrimination. To date, no published studies have investigated the psychometric qualities of sense of community measures among individuals with SMI. The current study tested a series of confirmatory factor analyses using the Brief Sense of Community Index (Long & Perkins, 2003) in a sample of 416 persons with SMI living in community settings to suggest a model of sense of community for individuals with SMI and other disabilities. The resulting scale, the Brief Sense of Community Index-Disability, demonstrated good model fit and construct validity. Implications are discussed for how this scale may be used in research investigating community integration and adaptive functioning in community settings. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Simultaneous analysis of the behavioural phenotype, physical factors, and parenting stress in people with Cornelia de Lange syndrome

JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 7 2009
J. Wulffaert
Abstract Background Studies into the phenotype of rare genetic syndromes largely rely on bivariate analysis. The aim of this study was to describe the phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) in depth by examining a large number of variables with varying measurement levels. Virtually the only suitable multivariate technique for this is categorical principal component analysis. The characteristics of the CdLS phenotype measured were also analysed in relation to parenting stress. Method Data for 37 children and adults with CdLS were collected. The type of gene mutation and relevant medical characteristics were measured. Information on adaptive functioning, behavioural problems, the presence of the autistic disorder and parenting stress were obtained through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with the parents. Chronological age and gender were also included in the analysis. Results All characteristics measured, except gender, were highly interrelated and there was much variability in the CdLS phenotype. Parents perceived more stress when their children were older, were lower functioning, had more behavioural problems, and if the autistic disorder was present. A new perspective was acquired on the relation between the gene mutation type and medical and behavioural characteristics. In contrast with earlier research the severity of medical characteristics did not appear a strong prognostic factor for the level of development. Conclusion Categorical principal component analysis proved particularly valuable for the description of this small group of participants given the large number of variables with different measurement levels. The success of the technique in the present study suggests that a similar approach to the characterisation of other rare genetic syndromes could prove extremely valuable. Given the high variability and interrelatedness of characteristics in CdLS persons, parents should be informed about this differentiated perspective. [source]


Intellectual and adaptive behaviour functioning in pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 6 2007
K. Freeman
Abstract Background Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting in iron accumulation in the brain, has a diverse phenotypic expression. Based on limited case studies of one or two patients, intellectual impairment is considered part of PKAN. Investigations of cognitive functioning have utilized specific neuropsychological tests, without attention to general intellectual skills or adaptive behaviour. Methods Sixteen individuals with PKAN completed measures of global intellectual functioning, and participants or care providers completed measures of adaptive behaviour skills and day-to-day functional limitations. Clinicians provided global ratings of condition severity. Results Testing with standardized measures documented varied phenotypic expression, with general cognitive skills and adaptive behaviour ranging from high average to well below average. Age of disease onset correlated with measures of intellectual functioning, adaptive functioning and disease severity. Conclusions Findings support previously described clinical impressions of varied cognitive impairment and the association between age of onset and impairment. Further, they add important information regarding the natural history of the disease and suggest assessment strategies for use in treatment trials. [source]


Sensory modulation impairments in children with Williams syndrome,

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS, Issue 2 2010
Angela E. John
Abstract The ability to organize information detected by our senses ("sensory modulation") allows us to act or respond effectively to situations encountered, facilitating learning, social behavior, and day-to-day functioning. We hypothesized that children with Williams syndrome (WS) would demonstrate symptoms of poor sensory modulation and that these sensory modulation abnormalities contribute to the phenotype. Participants were 78 children with WS aged 4.00,10.95 years. Based on parent ratings on the Short Sensory Profile [SSP; Dunn, 1999], most children were classified as having definite sensory modulation issues. Cluster analysis identified the presence of two clusters varying in level of sensory modulation impairment. Children in the high impairment group demonstrated poorer adaptive functioning, executive functioning, more problem behaviors, and more difficult temperaments than children in the low impairment group. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Children With Co-Occurring Anxiety and Externalizing Disorders: Family Risks and Implications for Competence

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 4 2009
Joan P. Yoo PhD, MSSW
This study used data from 340 mother-child dyads to examine characteristics of children with co-occurring diagnoses of anxiety and externalizing disorders and compared them with children with a sole diagnosis or no diagnosis. Comparisons were made using 4 child-diagnostic groups: anxiety-only, externalizing-only, co-occurrence, and no-problem groups. Most mothers were characterized by low income and histories of psychiatric diagnoses during the child's lifetime. Analyses using multinomial logistic regressions found the incidence of co-occurring childhood disorders to be significantly linked with maternal affective/anxiety disorders during the child's lifetime. In exploring implications for developmental competence, we found the co-occurrence group to have the lowest level of adaptive functioning among the 4 groups, faring significantly worse than the no-problem group on both academic achievement and intelligence as assessed by standardized tests. Findings underscore the importance of considering co-occurring behavior problems as a distinct phenomenon when examining children's developmental outcomes. [source]


Self-Regulation and Its Relations to Adaptive Functioning in Low Income Youths

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2009
John C. Buckner PhD
Most studies of self-regulation involving children have linked it to specific outcomes within a single domain of adaptive functioning. The authors examined the association of self-regulation with a range of indices of adaptive functioning among 155 youth ages 8,18 years from families with very low income. Controlling for other explanatory variables, self-regulation was strongly associated with various outcome measures in the areas of mental health, behavior, academic achievement, and social competence. The authors also contrasted youths relatively high and low in self-regulation (the top and bottom quartiles). Youths with good self-regulation had much better indices of adaptive functioning across measures of social competence, academic achievement, grades, problem behaviors, and depression and anxiety than their counterparts with more diminished self-regulatory capacities. In addition, youths with better self-regulation skills stated more adaptive responses both in terms of how they coped with past stressful live events and how they would deal with hypothetical stressors. This study indicates that self-regulation is robustly associated with a range of important indices of adaptive functioning across many domains. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for theory and intervention for children of diverse economic backgrounds. [source]


Social contextual links to emotion regulation in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient population: do gender and symptomatology matter?

THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 11 2009
Molly Adrian
Background:, The regulation of emotion is essential for adaptive functioning. However, delineating the pathways of emotion regulation (ER) processes that lead to psychological adaptation remains under-studied, with mixed evidence for the specificity vs. generality of ER deficits in relation to specific forms of psychopathology. To examine this issue, this study investigated links among ER, social-contextual factors (family, peer), and psychological adjustment (internalizing, externalizing). Method:, Participants were 140 adolescents (71% female, 83.3% Caucasian, M age = 16.03 years) who were consecutive psychiatric admissions over a one-year period. Adolescents completed measures on family environment and peer relationship experiences. Both adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' characteristic patterns of ER and psychopathology. Results:, Discriminant analyses revealed that two functions, ER skills and impulsivity/lability, differentiated among adolescents who were elevated in internalizing symptoms only, in externalizing symptoms only, in both domains, or in neither domain. Regarding social contextual variables, family cohesion was associated with adaptive ER behaviors for girls along the internalizing dimension and all adolescents reporting externalizing behaviors. Relational victimization predicted difficulties with ER in both symptom domains for all adolescents. Within the internalizing domain, friendship support was related to adaptive ER. Conclusion:, Facets of ER do differentiate between global indices of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and suggest that both general and specific factors contribute to adolescents' unique learning history with emotions and characteristic patterns for managing emotions. [source]


Duplication 8q22.1-q24.1 associated with bipolar disorder and speech delay

BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 3 2006
JF Macayran
Objective:, To report a case of a child with bipolar disorder found to have an unbalanced translocation involving the long arm of chromosome 8, a region that has been previously implicated in genome-wide linkage scans. Case report:, A 7-year-old boy with a complex psychiatric symptom presentation including attention deficits, distractibility, impulsivity, pressured speech, sleep disturbance, aggressive behavior, and hypersexuality diagnosed with bipolar disorder. He also showed evidence of borderline intellectual and adaptive functioning and had mild dysmorphic features with a duplication of distal 8q that arose as an unbalanced chromosomal translocation due to a maternal 15p;8q insertion. Conclusion:, This finding of an unbalanced translocation provides further evidence to support previous linkage studies of a potential causative gene on 8q for bipolar disorder. [source]


Biological Sensitivity to Context: The Interactive Effects of Stress Reactivity and Family Adversity on Socioemotional Behavior and School Readiness

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2010
Jelena Obradovi
This study examined the direct and interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional and cognitive development in three hundred and thirty-eight 5- to 6-year-old children. Neurobiological stress reactivity was measured as respiratory sinus arrhythmia and salivary cortisol responses to social, cognitive, sensory, and emotional challenges. Adaptation was assessed using child, parent, and teacher reports of externalizing symptoms, prosocial behaviors, school engagement, and academic competence. Results revealed significant interactions between reactivity and adversity. High stress reactivity was associated with more maladaptive outcomes in the context of high adversity but with better adaption in the context of low adversity. The findings corroborate a reconceptualization of stress reactivity as biological sensitivity to context by showing that high reactivity can both hinder and promote adaptive functioning. [source]