Adaptive Coping (adaptive + coping)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Adaptive coping under conditions of extreme stress: Multilevel influences on the determinants of resilience in maltreated children

Dante Cicchetti
The study of resilience in maltreated children reveals the possibility of coping processes and resources on multiple levels of analysis as children strive to adapt under conditions of severe stress. In a maltreating context, aspects of self-organization, including self-esteem, self-reliance, emotion regulation, and adaptable yet reserved personalities, appear particularly important for more competent coping. Moreover, individual differences in biological processes ranging from gene by environment interactions to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to brain organization related to emotion also are shown to influence the resilience in maltreated youth, highlighting the multifaceted contributions to successful coping. [source]

Coping with academic failure, a study of Dutch children with dyslexia

DYSLEXIA, Issue 4 2008
Elly Singer
Abstract This paper reports the results of a study of strategies that Dutch children with dyslexia employ to cope with recurrent academic failure. All of the students in the study had developed strategies for protecting their self-esteem. Using Harter's theory of coping with discrepancies between performance and standards, we distinguish four strategies: (1) working hard and committing to standards, (2) lowering standards, (3) seeking support from significant others (i.e. parents and teachers), and (4) avoiding comparisons with significant others (i.e. peers). Although self-talk emerged as an important component of all four strategies, it was employed both adaptively (e.g. to preserve the students' belief in their own academic capacities) and maladaptively (e.g. to devalue the importance of learning). The students relied most strongly on support from their parents; teachers and peers were more likely to be seen as threats to self-esteem. Strategies of teachers and parents to encourage adaptive coping with recurrent academic failure are confirming the student's self-worth, explaining dyslexia, showing faith in the student's capacities, fostering adaptive self-talk, providing educational treatment, and preventing teasing and bullying. Besides that, teachers and parents should cooperate. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A Randomized Trial of a Multicomponent Home Intervention to Reduce Functional Difficulties in Older Adults

Laura N. Gitlin PhD
OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of a multicomponent intervention to reduce functional difficulties, fear of falling, and home hazards and enhance self-efficacy and adaptive coping in older adults with chronic conditions. DESIGN: A prospective, two-group, randomized trial. Participants were randomized to a treatment group or no-treatment group. SETTING: Urban community-living older people. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred nineteen community-living adults aged 70 and older who reported difficulty with one or more activities of daily living. INTERVENTION: Occupational and physical therapy sessions involving home modifications and training in their use; instruction in strategies of problem-solving, energy conservation, safe performance, and fall recovery techniques; and balance and muscle strength training. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures included self-rated functional difficulties with ambulation, instrumental activities of daily living, activities of daily living, fear of falling, confidence performing daily tasks, and use of adaptive strategies. Observations of home hazards were also conducted. RESULTS: At 6 months, intervention participants had less difficulty than controls with instrumental activities of daily living (P=.04, 95% confidence interval (CI)=,0.28,0.00) and activities of daily living (P=.03, 95% CI=,0.24 to ,0.01), with largest reductions in bathing (P=.02, 95% CI=,0.52 to ,0.06) and toileting (P=.049, 95% CI=,0.35,0.00). They also had greater self-efficacy (P=.03, 95% CI=0.02,0.27), less fear of falling (P=.001, 95% CI=0.26,0.96), fewer home hazards (P=.05, 95% CI=,3.06,0.00), and greater use of adaptive strategies (P=.009, 95% CI=0.03,0.22). Benefits were sustained at 12 months for most outcomes. CONCLUSION: A multicomponent intervention targeting modifiable environmental and behavioral factors results in life quality improvements in community-dwelling older people who had functional difficulties, with most benefits retained over a year. [source]

Effects of Communicator Credibility and Fear on Adaptive and Maladaptive Coping Reactions to the HIV Threat

Kanayo Umeh
Late diagnosis is currently the principal cause of continued mortality among HIV-infected people. Consequently, medical experts (i.e., GPs) are now required to play a more active role in promoting HIV prevention. Social psychological studies suggest that communicator credibility (CC) affects persuasion. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on HIV/AIDS. We tested propositions that a credible (i.e., "expert") communicator is more persuasive than a noncredible source, and that this effect is moderated by fear. Drive-reduction models (Hovland, Janis, & Kelley, 1953) provided the theoretic framework. One hundred undergraduates were exposed to a communication about HIV/AIDS. CC and fear arousal were manipulated with adaptive coping (intentions to use condoms) and maladaptive coping (rationalizations, denial) treated as outcome variables. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed neither a main effect of CC nor an interaction with fear. However, fear arousal seemed to negate persuasion by increasing maladaptive coping. The partial eta-squared (n,2) value indicated a weak-to-modest effect size. Overall, these findings echo drive-reduction models but raise new questions about relevance of source expertise in health persuasion. [source]

Cries From the Morgue

DF-IAFN, Paul T. Clements PhD
TOPIC Family member homicide. PURPOSE To explore the unique facets of bereavement for a family member of a homicide victim in order to assist clinicians during assessment, evaluation, and intervention with children. SOURCES The authors' experience in working with children at a child grief center and published literature. CONCLUSIONS Children experience grief uniquely and use differing methods of coping and adaptation. Knowledge of these differences can assist clinicians with promotion of adaptive coping and grieving in children who have been exposed to murder. [source]

Psychosis Proneness, Coping, and Perceptions of Social Support

Ruth E. Dangelmaier PhD
The current study examined coping styles and perceived levels of social support in hypothetically psychosis,prone individuals. Results suggest that psychosis,prone individuals did not differ from a comparison group on levels of adaptive coping or positive social support but that they did endorse higher rates of nonadaptive coping and negative social support compared with the comparison group. [source]