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Activity-based anorexia during adolescence does not promote binge eating during adulthood in female rats

Wenli Cai
Abstract Objective: Given the frequency of transition from anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa, this study investigated whether a history of activity-based anorexia (ABA) during adolescence would promote binge eating during adulthood in female rats. Method: Adolescent rats were given 1-h unlimited access to chow and ad libitum access to a running wheel until body weight reached <80%, indicating the development of ABA. During adulthood, all groups were given 21 days of access to a palatable food for 2 h/day and ad libitum access to chow. Results: During adolescence, rats in the ABA paradigm developed increased wheel running and decreased food intake, reaching <80% of body weight after 3 days. However, there were no significant differences between groups in the amount of binge food consumed during adulthood. Conclusion: A brief episode of ABA during adolescence did not lead to increased binge eating later in life. Longer-term models are needed to determine whether a propensity toward binge eating may result from more sustained ABA during adolescence. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

The importance of honeydew as food for larvae of Chrysoperla carnea in the presence of aphids

P. A. M. Hogervorst
Abstract Larvae of the common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea are predacious and feed on a wide range of small, soft-bodied arthropods. In addition to their feeding on prey arthropods to cover their nutritional requirements for growth and development, the consumption of non-prey foods such as honeydew has been reported. It is commonly believed that these food supplements are primarily exploited by the larvae when prey is scarce or of low nutritional quality. Here, we assess whether C. carnea larvae also use honeydew when high-quality aphid prey are readily available. In a choice experiment, the feeding behaviour of C. carnea larvae was observed in the presence of both aphids and honeydew. The larvae were starved, aphid-fed, or honeydew-fed prior to the experiment. The time spent feeding on honeydew compared with feeding on aphids was highest for starved larvae and lowest for honeydew-fed larvae. Among the three treatments, the aphid-fed larvae spent the most time resting and the least time searching. In an additional experiment food intake was assessed in terms of weight change when larvae were provided with an ad libitum supply of either aphids or honeydew. Larvae yielded a significant lower relative weight increase on honeydew compared with aphids. The reduced weight increase on honeydew was compensated when larvae were subsequently provided with aphids, but not when honeydew was provided again. This study showed that (i) prior honeydew feeding reduces overall aphid consumption, and (ii) larvae do consume honeydew even after they have been given ad libitum access to aphids. The fact that larvae of C. carnea still use honeydew as a food source in the presence of suitable prey underlines the importance of carbohydrates as foods. [source]

Gender and Age at Drinking Onset Affect Voluntary Alcohol Consumption but Neither the Alcohol Deprivation Effect nor the Response to Stress in Mice

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2008
Sophie Tambour
Background:, Epidemiological studies suggest that initiation of alcohol drinking at an early age is associated with an increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder later in life. Nevertheless, relatively few studies using animal models have investigated the relationship between age of onset of drinking and ethanol drinking patterns in adulthood. Besides age at drinking onset, other factors such as gender could also affect the pattern of development of alcohol consumption. In rodents, many studies have shown that females drink more than males. However, even if it is assumed that hormonal changes occurring at puberty could explain these differences, only one study performed in rats has investigated the emergence of sex-specific alcohol drinking patterns in adolescence and the transition from adolescence to adulthood. The aim of the present study was to compare the acquisition of voluntary alcohol consumption, relapse-like drinking (the Alcohol Deprivation Effect,ADE) and stress-induced alcohol drinking in male and female outbred mice that acquired alcohol consumption during adolescence or adulthood. Methods:, Separate groups of naïve female and male WSC-1 mice aged ± 28 days (adolescents) or ±70 days (adults) were given ad libitum access to water and 6% ethanol solution for 8 weeks (1st to 8th week) before undergoing a 2-week deprivation phase (9th and 10th week). After the deprivation period, 2-bottle preference testing (ethanol vs. water) resumed for 3 weeks (11th to 13th). During the 13th week, all animals were subjected to restraint stress for 2 consecutive days. Results:, Over the entire time course of the experiment, ethanol intake and preference increased in females (both adults and adolescents). Adolescent animals (both females and males) showed a transient increase in alcohol consumption and preference compared to adults. However, by the end of continuous alcohol exposure (when all mice were adults), ethanol intake was not affected by age at drinking onset. A deprivation phase was followed by a rise in ethanol intake (ADE) that was not affected by sex or age. Finally, stress did not alter alcohol self-administration either during or after its occurrence. Conclusions:, Emergence of greater alcohol consumption in adult females does not seem to be limited to a specific developmental period (i.e., puberty). Age of voluntary drinking onset (adolescence vs. adulthood) does not affect eventual alcohol intake in adult WSC-1 mice and does not modify the transient increase in ethanol consumption after alcohol deprivation. [source]

Influence of Age at Drinking Onset on Long-Term Ethanol Self-Administration With Deprivation and Stress Phases

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2005
Sören Siegmund
Background: Onset of alcohol use during adolescence has potentially long-lasting consequences, e.g., prospective alcohol dependence. To obtain new insight into the effects of early chronic ethanol consumption, we compared the drinking behavior of two adult male Wistar rat groups: one that initiated alcohol consumption during adolescence (adolescent group) and the other that initiated their drinking during adulthood (adult group) in a model of long-term alcohol self-administration. We investigated the magnitude of the effects of deprivation and stress on alcohol intake and the influence of these events on the alcohol drinking behavior across time. Methods: Heterogeneous Wistar rats aged 31 days (adolescents) and 71 days (adults) were given ad libitum access to water, as well as 5% and 20% ethanol solutions during an observation period of 30 wk. A deprivation phase of 14 days was instituted after eight wk of access to alcohol. After 16 and 26 wk of alcohol access, all animals were subjected for three consecutive days to forced swimming and electric foot shocks, respectively. Results: At the onset of drinking, adolescent animals consumed less alcohol and showed lower preference than adults. The deprivation phase was followed by increased intake of highly concentrated ethanol solution without appreciable differences between age groups. Repeated swim stress produced a slight increase in ethanol consumption in both animal groups; however, alcohol intake was not significantly different between groups, whereas the foot shock stress-induced increase in alcohol intake was significantly higher in the animal group that initiated alcohol consumption during adolescence. After swim stress, the drinking behavior of the adolescent group resembled that of the adult group. In particular, the adolescent group increased their preference for 20% ethanol solution for the remainder of the experiment. Conclusions: Age of voluntary alcohol drinking onset does not appear to be a strong predictor for prospective alcohol intake and relapse-like drinking behavior under the present experimental conditions. However, male Wistar rats that initiated alcohol consumption during adolescence seem to be more susceptible to acute stressor-specific effects in terms of alcohol consumption. [source]

Evaluation of metaflumizone granular fly bait for management of houseflies

Abstract The housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a pest of great veterinary and public health importance. In this study, the efficacy of metaflumizone granular fly bait was assessed on first generation (F1) housefly adults raised from flies collected at a cattle feedlot in Kansas. All bioassays were conducted as choice tests, with flies having ad libitum access to water, granular sugar and bait. A commercial methomyl-based bait (Golden MalrinTM) was used as positive control; no bait (water and granular sugar only) was used as negative control. Fly mortality was recorded on days 2, 7 and 14. The metaflumizone bait was significantly more slow-acting than the methomyl bait (mortality rates after 2 days of exposure were 49.9% and 57.9%, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in cumulative mortality later in the bioassays. Cumulative mortality rates on days 7 and 14 were 96.1% (metaflumizone), 91.4% (methomyl) and 99.0% (metaflumizone), 97.6% (methomyl), respectively. Our results demonstrate that the metaflumizone granular fly bait may be an effective modality for incorporation into management programmes for houseflies in and around livestock production facilities as well as in residential settings. [source]