Cortical Activity (cortical + activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Cortical Activity

  • frontal cortical activity
  • motor cortical activity

  • Selected Abstracts

    Successful thalamic deep brain stimulation for orthostatic tremor

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 13 2008
    Jorge Guridi MD
    Abstract We report a patient with severe orthostatic tremor (OT) unresponsive to pharmacological treatments that was successfully controlled with thalamic (Vim, ventralis intermedius nucleus) deep brain stimulation (DBS) over a 4-year period. Cortical activity associated with the OT revealed by EEG back-averaging and fluoro-deoxi-glucose PET were also suppressed in parallel with tremor arrest. This case suggests that Vim-DBS may be a useful therapeutic approach for patients highly disabled by OT. 2008 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Septal networks: relevance to theta rhythm, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease

    Luis V. Colom
    Abstract Information processing and storing by brain networks requires a highly coordinated operation of multiple neuronal groups. The function of septal neurons is to modulate the activity of archicortical (e.g. hippocampal) and neocortical circuits. This modulation is necessary for the development and normal occurrence of rhythmical cortical activities that control the processing of sensory information and memory functions. Damage or degeneration of septal neurons results in abnormal information processing in cortical circuits and consequent brain dysfunction. Septal neurons not only provide the optimal levels of excitatory background to cortical structures, but they may also inhibit the occurrence of abnormal excitability states. [source]

    Changes in presumed motor cortical activity during fatiguing muscle contraction in humans

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    T. Seifert
    Abstract Aim:, Changes in sensory information from active muscles accompany fatiguing exercise and the force-generating capacity deteriorates. The central motor commands therefore must adjust depending on the task performed. Muscle potentials evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) change during the course of fatiguing muscle activity, which demonstrates activity changes in cortical or spinal networks during fatiguing exercise. Here, we investigate cortical mechanisms that are actively involved in driving the contracting muscles. Methods:, During a sustained submaximal contraction (30% of maximal voluntary contraction) of the elbow flexor muscles we applied TMS over the motor cortex. At an intensity below motor threshold, TMS reduced the ongoing muscle activity in biceps brachii. This reduction appears as a suppression at short latency of the stimulus-triggered average of rectified electromyographic (EMG) activity. The magnitude of the suppression was evaluated relative to the mean EMG activity during the 50 ms prior to the cortical stimulus. Results:, During the first 2 min of the fatiguing muscle contraction the suppression was 10 0.9% of the ongoing EMG activity. At 2 min prior to task failure the suppression had reached 16 2.1%. In control experiments without fatigue we did not find a similar increase in suppression with increasing levels of ongoing EMG activity. Conclusion:, Using a form of TMS which reduces cortical output to motor neurones (and disfacilitates them), this study suggests that neuromuscular fatigue increases this disfacilitatory effect. This finding is consistent with an increase in the excitability of inhibitory circuits controlling corticospinal output. [source]

    Testing neural models of the development of infant visual attention

    John E. Richards
    Abstract Several models of the development of infant visual attention have used information about neural development. Most of these models have been based on nonhuman animal studies and have relied on indirect measures of neural development in human infants. This article discusses methods for studying a "neurodevelopmental" model of infant visual attention using indirect and direct measures of cortical activity. We concentrate on the effect of attention on eye movement control and show how animal-based models, indirect measurement in human infants, and direct measurement of brain activity inform this model. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 40: 226,236, 2002. DOI 10.1002/dev.10029 [source]

    A shift from diffuse to focal cortical activity with development

    Sarah Durston
    Recent imaging studies have suggested that developmental changes may parallel aspects of adult learning in cortical activation becoming less diffuse and more focal over time. However, while adult learning studies examine changes within subjects, developmental findings have been based on cross-sectional samples and even comparisons across studies. Here, we used functional MRI in children to test directly for shifts in cortical activity during performance of a cognitive control task, in a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Our longitudinal findings, relative to our cross-sectional ones, show attenuated activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortical areas, paralleled by increased focal activation in ventral prefrontal regions related to task performance. [source]

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improve tinnitus in normal hearing patients: a double-blind controlled, clinical and neuroimaging outcome study

    R. A. Marcondes
    Background and purpose:, Tinnitus is a frequent disorder which is very difficult to treat and there is compelling evidence that tinnitus is associated with functional alterations in the central nervous system. Targeted modulation of tinnitus-related cortical activity has been proposed as a promising new treatment approach. We aimed to investigate both immediate and long-term effects of low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with tinnitus and normal hearing. Methods:, Using a parallel design, 20 patients were randomized to receive either active or placebo stimulation over the left temporoparietal cortex for five consecutive days. Treatment results were assessed by using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. Ethyl cysteinate dimmer-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging was performed before and 14 days after rTMS. Results:, After active rTMS there was significant improvement of the tinnitus score as compared to sham rTMS for up to 6 months after stimulation. SPECT measurements demonstrated a reduction of metabolic activity in the inferior left temporal lobe after active rTMS. Conclusion:, These results support the potential of rTMS as a new therapeutic tool for the treatment of chronic tinnitus, by demonstrating a significant reduction of tinnitus complaints over a period of at least 6 months and significant reduction of neural activity in the inferior temporal cortex, despite the stimulation applied on the superior temporal cortex. [source]

    Differential cortical activity for precision and whole-hand visually guided grasping in humans

    Chiara Begliomini
    Abstract Effective grasping involves the remarkable ability to implement multiple grasp configurations such as precision grip (PG; opposition between the index finger and thumb) and whole-hand grasp (WHG), depending on the properties of the object grasped (e.g. size, shape and weight). In the monkey brain, different groups of cells in the anterior,lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus (area AIP) are differentially active for various hand configurations during grasping of differently shaped objects. Visually guided grasping studies in humans suggest the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) as the homologue of macaque area AIP, but leave unresolved the question of whether activity in human aIPS reflects the relationship between object size and grasp configuration, as in macaques. To address this issue, a human fMRI study was conducted in which objects were grasped with the right hand while object size was varied. The results indicated that the left aIPS was active when the subjects naturally adopted a PG to grasp the small object but showed a much weaker response when subjects naturally adopted a WHG to grasp the large object. The primary motor cortex and somatosensory cortices were active for both PG and WHG. Our results suggest that, in humans, the aIPS is centrally involved in determining the type of grasp. [source]

    Corrective movements in response to displacements in visual feedback are more effective during periods of 13,35 Hz oscillatory synchrony in the human corticospinal system

    Alexandros G. Androulidakis
    Abstract Oscillatory synchronization in the beta (,20 Hz) band is a common feature of human motor control, manifest at cortical and muscular levels during tonic contraction. Here we test the hypothesis that the influence of visual feedback on performance in a positional hold task is increased during bursts of beta-band synchrony in the corticospinal motor system. Healthy subjects were instructed to extend their forefinger while receiving high-gain visual feedback of finger position on a PC screen. Small step displacements of the feedback signal were triggered either by bursts of beta oscillations in scalp electroencephalogram or randomly with respect to cortical beta activity, and the resulting positional corrections expressed as a percentage of the step displacement. Corrective responses to beta and randomly triggered step changes in visual feedback were 41.7 4.9 and 31.5 6.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). A marked increase in the coherence in the beta band was also found between muscle activity and cortical activity during the beta-triggered condition. The results suggest that phasic elevations of beta activity in the corticospinal motor system are associated with an increase in the gain of the motor response to visual feedback during a tonic hold task. Beta activity may index a motor state in which processing relevant to the control of positional hold tasks is promoted, with behavioural consequences. [source]

    Ascending visceral regulation of cortical affective information processing

    Gary G. Berntson
    Abstract Over a century ago, William James proposed that strong emotions represent the perceptual consequences of somato-visceral feedback. Although the strong form of this conception is no longer viable, considerable evidence has accumulated indicating a range of visceral influences on higher neurobehavioural processes. This literature has only recently begun to consolidate, because earlier reports generally remained at the demonstration level, and pathways and mechanisms for such influences were uncertain. Recently, specific effects of visceral feedback have become apparent on cortical activity, cerebral auditory-evoked responses, anxiety, memory and behavioural aspects of immunological sickness. Moreover, considerable progress has been made recently in determining the specific neural pathways and systems underlying these actions, especially the role of noradrenergic projections from the nucleus of the tractus solitarius and the locus coeruleus to the amygdala in memory processes, and to the basal forebrain in the processing of anxiety-related information. The present paper highlights selected recent findings in this area, and outlines relevant structures and pathways involved in the ascending visceral influence on higher neurobehavioural processes. [source]

    Arm trajectory and representation of movement processing in motor cortical activity

    Andrew B. Schwartz
    Abstract We review experiments in which single-cell primary motor cortical activity was recorded from Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they performed reaching and drawing tasks. The directional tuning curves generated during reaching were modulated by the speed of movement and this was reflected in the magnitude of population vectors calculated from firing rates of a large population of cells. Directional and speed representation in the firing rates of these cells is robust across both reaching and drawing. Several behavioural invariants related to the speed of drawing were represented in the time-series of population vectors. This high fidelity neural representation of velocity found in motor cortex can be used to visualize the dynamics of motor cortical activity during drawing and suggests that the cost function governing the rate of drawing is bound by neural processing. [source]

    The effect of induced compliance on relative left frontal cortical activity: a test of the action-based model of dissonance

    Eddie Harmon-Jones
    The action-based model of dissonance and recent advances in neuroscience suggest that commitment to action should cause greater relative left frontal cortical activity. An induced compliance experiment was conducted in which electroencephalographic activity was recorded following commitment to action, operationalized with a perceived choice manipulation. Perceived high as compared to low choice to engage in the counterattitudinal action caused attitudes to be more consistent with the action. Also, high choice caused greater relative left frontal cortical activity than low choice. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Primary and multisensory cortical activity is correlated with audiovisual percepts

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 4 2010
    Margo McKenna Benoit
    Abstract Incongruent auditory and visual stimuli can elicit audiovisual illusions such as the McGurk effect where visual /ka/ and auditory /pa/ fuse into another percept such as/ta/. In the present study, human brain activity was measured with adaptation functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which brain areas support such audiovisual illusions. Subjects viewed trains of four movies beginning with three congruent /pa/ stimuli to induce adaptation. The fourth stimulus could be (i) another congruent /pa/, (ii) a congruent /ka/, (iii) an incongruent stimulus that evokes the McGurk effect in susceptible individuals (lips /ka/ voice /pa/), or (iv) the converse combination that does not cause the McGurk effect (lips /pa/ voice/ ka/). This paradigm was predicted to show increased release from adaptation (i.e. stronger brain activation) when the fourth movie and the related percept was increasingly different from the three previous movies. A stimulus change in either the auditory or the visual stimulus from /pa/ to /ka/ (iii, iv) produced within-modality and cross-modal responses in primary auditory and visual areas. A greater release from adaptation was observed for incongruent non-McGurk (iv) compared to incongruent McGurk (iii) trials. A network including the primary auditory and visual cortices, nonprimary auditory cortex, and several multisensory areas (superior temporal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, insula, and pre-central cortex) showed a correlation between perceiving the McGurk effect and the fMRI signal, suggesting that these areas support the audiovisual illusion. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Crossmodal influences in somatosensory cortex: Interaction of vision and touch

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 1 2010
    Jennifer K. Dionne
    Abstract Previous research has shown that information from one sensory modality has the potential to influence activity in a different modality, and these crossmodal interactions can occur early in the cortical sensory processing stream within sensory-specific cortex. In addition, it has been shown that when sensory information is relevant to the performance of a task, there is an upregulation of sensory cortex. This study sought to investigate the effects of simultaneous bimodal (visual and vibrotactile) stimulation on the modulation of primary somatosensory cortex (SI), in the context of a delayed sensory-to-motor task when both stimuli are task-relevant. It was hypothesized that the requirement to combine visual and vibrotactile stimuli would be associated with an increase in SI activity compared to vibrotactile stimuli alone. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on healthy subjects using a 3T scanner. During the scanning session, subjects performed a sensory-guided motor task while receiving visual, vibrotactile, or both types of stimuli. An event-related design was used to examine cortical activity related to the stimulus onset and the motor response. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed on right SI and revealed an increase in percent blood oxygenation level dependent signal change in the bimodal (visual + tactile) task compared to the unimodal tasks. Results of the whole-brain analysis revealed a common fronto-parietal network that was active across both the bimodal and unimodal task conditions, suggesting that these regions are sensitive to the attentional and motor-planning aspects of the task rather than the unimodal or bimodal nature of the stimuli. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cancellation of EEG and MEG signals generated by extended and distributed sources

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 1 2010
    Seppo P. Ahlfors
    Abstract Extracranial patterns of scalp potentials and magnetic fields, as measured with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG, MEG), are spatially widespread even when the underlying source in the brain is focal. Therefore, loss in signal magnitude due to cancellation is expected when multiple brain regions are simultaneously active. We characterized these cancellation effects in EEG and MEG using a forward model with sources constrained on an anatomically accurate reconstruction of the cortical surface. Prominent cancellation was found for both EEG and MEG in the case of multiple randomly distributed source dipoles, even when the number of simultaneous dipoles was small. Substantial cancellation occurred also for locally extended patches of simulated activity, when the patches extended to opposite walls of sulci and gyri. For large patches, a difference between EEG and MEG cancellation was seen, presumably due to selective cancellation of tangentially vs. radially oriented sources. Cancellation effects can be of importance when electrophysiological data are related to hemodynamic measures. Furthermore, the selective cancellation may be used to explain some observed differences between EEG and MEG in terms of focal vs. widespread cortical activity. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cortical mapping of naming errors in aphasia,

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 8 2009
    Julius Fridriksson
    Abstract Persons with aphasia vary greatly with regard to clinical profile; yet, they all share one common feature,anomia,an impairment in naming common objects. Previous research has demonstrated that particular naming errors are associated with specific left hemisphere lesions. However, we know very little about the cortical activity in the preserved brain areas that is associated with aphasic speech errors. Utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show for the first time that specific speech errors are associated with common cortical activity in different types and severities of aphasia. Specifically, productions of phonemic errors recruited the left posterior perilesional occipital and temporal lobe areas. A similar pattern of activity was associated with semantic errors, albeit in the right hemisphere. This study does not discount variability in cortical activity following left hemisphere stroke; rather, it highlights commonalities in brain modulation in a population of patients with a common diagnosis but vastly different clinical profiles. Hum Brain Mapp 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Task-relevance and temporal synchrony between tactile and visual stimuli modulates cortical activity and motor performance during sensory-guided movement

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 2 2009
    Sean K. Meehan
    Abstract Sensory-guided movements require the analysis and integration of task-relevant sensory inputs from multiple modalities. This article sought to: (1) assess effects of intermodal temporal synchrony upon modulation of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) during continuous sensorimotor transformations, (2) identify cortical areas sensitive to temporal synchrony, and (3) provide further insight into the reduction of S1 activity during continuous vibrotactile tracking previously observed by our group (Meehan and Staines 2007: Brain Res 1138:148,158). Functional MRI was acquired while participants received simultaneous bimodal (visuospatial/vibrotactile) stimulation and continuously tracked random changes in one modality, by applying graded force to a force-sensing resistor. Effects of intermodal synchrony were investigated, unbeknownst to the participants, by varying temporal synchrony so that sensorimotor transformations dictated by the distracter modality either conflicted (low synchrony) or supplemented (high synchrony) those of the target modality. Temporal synchrony differentially influenced tracking performance dependent upon tracking modality. Physiologically, synchrony did not influence S1 activation; however, the insula and superior temporal gyrus were influenced regardless of tracking modality. The left temporal-parietal junction demonstrated increased activation during high synchrony specific to vibrotactile tracking. The superior parietal lobe and superior temporal gyrus demonstrated increased activation during low synchrony specific to visuospatial tracking. As previously reported, vibrotactile tracking resulted in decreased S1 activation relative to when it was task-irrelevant. We conclude that while temporal synchrony is represented at higher levels than S1, interactions between inter- and intramodal mechanisms determines sensory processing at the level of S1. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Differential patterns of cortical activation as a function of fluid reasoning complexity

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 2 2009
    Bernardo Perfetti
    Abstract Fluid intelligence (gf) refers to abstract reasoning and problem solving abilities. It is considered a human higher cognitive factor central to general intelligence (g). The regions of the cortex supporting gf have been revealed by recent bioimaging studies and valuable hypothesis on the neural correlates of individual differences have been proposed. However, little is known about the interaction between individual variability in gf and variation in cortical activity following task complexity increase. To further investigate this, two samples of participants (high-IQ, N = 8; low-IQ, N = 10) with significant differences in gf underwent two reasoning (moderate and complex) tasks and a control task adapted from the Raven progressive matrices. Functional magnetic resonance was used and the recorded signal analyzed between and within the groups. The present study revealed two opposite patterns of neural activity variation which were probably a reflection of the overall differences in cognitive resource modulation: when complexity increased, high-IQ subjects showed a signal enhancement in some frontal and parietal regions, whereas low-IQ subjects revealed a decreased activity in the same areas. Moreover, a direct comparison between the groups' activation patterns revealed a greater neural activity in the low-IQ sample when conducting moderate task, with a strong involvement of medial and lateral frontal regions thus suggesting that the recruitment of executive functioning might be different between the groups. This study provides evidence for neural differences in facing reasoning complexity among subjects with different gf level that are mediated by specific patterns of activation of the underlying fronto-parietal network. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Aging and the interaction of sensory cortical function and structure

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 1 2009
    Ann M. Peiffer
    Abstract Even the healthiest older adults experience changes in cognitive and sensory function. Studies show that older adults have reduced neural responses to sensory information. However, it is well known that sensory systems do not act in isolation but function cooperatively to either enhance or suppress neural responses to individual environmental stimuli. Very little research has been dedicated to understanding how aging affects the interactions between sensory systems, especially cross-modal deactivations or the ability of one sensory system (e.g., audition) to suppress the neural responses in another sensory system cortex (e.g., vision). Such cross-modal interactions have been implicated in attentional shifts between sensory modalities and could account for increased distractibility in older adults. To assess age-related changes in cross-modal deactivations, functional MRI studies were performed in 61 adults between 18 and 80 years old during simple auditory and visual discrimination tasks. Results within visual cortex confirmed previous findings of decreased responses to visual stimuli for older adults. Age-related changes in the visual cortical response to auditory stimuli were, however, much more complex and suggested an alteration with age in the functional interactions between the senses. Ventral visual cortical regions exhibited cross-modal deactivations in younger but not older adults, whereas more dorsal aspects of visual cortex were suppressed in older but not younger adults. These differences in deactivation also remained after adjusting for age-related reductions in brain volume of sensory cortex. Thus, functional differences in cortical activity between older and younger adults cannot solely be accounted for by differences in gray matter volume. Hum Brain Mapp 2009. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Frontoparietal cortical activity of methamphetamine-dependent and comparison subjects performing a delay discounting task

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 5 2007
    John R. Monterosso
    Abstract Relative to individuals who do not have addictive disorders, drug abusers exhibit greater devaluation of rewards as a function of their delay ("delay discounting"). The present study sought to extend this finding to methamphetamine (MA) abusers and to help understand its neural basis. MA abusers (n = 12) and control subjects who did not use illicit drugs (n = 17) participated in tests of delay discounting with hypothetical money rewards. We then used a derived estimate of each individual's delay discounting to generate a functional magnetic resonance imaging probe task consisting of three conditions: "hard choices," requiring selections between "smaller, sooner" and "larger, later" alternatives that were similarly valued given the individual's delay discounting; "easy choices," in which alternatives differed dramatically in value; and a "no choice" control condition. MA abusers exhibited more delay discounting than control subjects (P < 0.05). Across groups, the "hard choice > no choice" contrast revealed significant effects in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and areas surrounding the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). With group comparisons limited to these clusters, the "hard choice > easy choice" contrast indicated significant group differences in task-related activity within the left DLPFC and right IPS; qualitatively similar nonsignificant effects were present in the other clusters tested. Whereas control subjects showed less recruitment associated with easy than with hard choices, MA abusers generally did not. Correlational analysis did not indicate a relationship between this anomaly in frontoparietal recruitment and greater degree of delay discounting exhibited by MA abusers. Therefore, while apparent inefficiency of cortical processing related to decision-making in MA abusers may contribute to the neural basis of enhanced delay discounting by this population, other factors remain to be identified. Hum. Brain Mapp, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Amygdala,prefrontal dissociation of subliminal and supraliminal fear

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 8 2006
    Leanne M. Williams
    Abstract Facial expressions of fear are universally recognized signals of potential threat. Humans may have evolved specialized neural systems for responding to fear in the absence of conscious stimulus detection. We used functional neuroimaging to establish whether the amygdala and the medial prefrontal regions to which it projects are engaged by subliminal fearful faces and whether responses to subliminal fear are distinguished from those to supraliminal fear. We also examined the time course of amygdala-medial prefrontal responses to supraliminal and subliminal fear. Stimuli were fearful and neutral baseline faces, presented under subliminal (16.7 ms and masked) or supraliminal (500 ms) conditions. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded simultaneously as an objective index of fear perception. SPM2 was used to undertake search region-of-interest (ROI) analyses for the amygdala and medial prefrontal (including anterior cingulate) cortex, and complementary whole-brain analyses. Time series data were extracted from ROIs to examine activity across early versus late phases of the experiment. SCRs and amygdala activity were enhanced in response to both subliminal and supraliminal fear perception. Time series analysis showed a trend toward greater right amygdala responses to subliminal fear, but left-sided responses to supraliminal fear. Cortically, subliminal fear was distinguished by right ventral anterior cingulate activity and supraliminal fear by dorsal anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal activity. Although subcortical amygdala activity was relatively persistent for subliminal fear, supraliminal fear showed more sustained cortical activity. The findings suggest that preverbal processing of fear may occur via a direct rostral,ventral amygdala pathway without the need for conscious surveillance, whereas elaboration of consciously attended signals of fear may rely on higher-order processing within a dorsal cortico,amygdala pathway. Hum Brain Mapp, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Spatiotemporal mapping of cortical activity accompanying voluntary movements using an event-related beamforming approach

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 3 2006
    Douglas Cheyne
    Abstract We describe a novel spatial filtering approach to the localization of cortical activity accompanying voluntary movements. The synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) minimum-variance beamformer algorithm was used to compute spatial filters three-dimensionally over the entire brain from single trial neuromagnetic recordings of subjects performing self-paced index finger movements. Images of instantaneous source power ("event-related SAM") computed at selected latencies revealed activation of multiple cortical motor areas prior to and following left and right index finger movements in individual subjects, even in the presence of low-frequency noise (e.g., eye movements). A slow premovement motor field (MF) reaching maximal amplitude ,50 ms prior to movement onset was localized to the hand area of contralateral precentral gyrus, followed by activity in the contralateral postcentral gyrus at 40 ms, corresponding to the first movement-evoked field (MEFI). A novel finding was a second activation of the precentral gyrus at a latency of ,150 ms, corresponding to the second movement-evoked field (MEFII). Group averaging of spatially normalized images indicated additional premovement activity in the ipsilateral precentral gyrus and the left inferior parietal cortex for both left and right finger movements. Weaker activations were also observed in bilateral premotor areas and the supplementary motor area. These results show that event-related beamforming provides a robust method for studying complex patterns of time-locked cortical activity accompanying voluntary movements, and offers a new approach for the localization of multiple cortical sources derived from neuromagnetic recordings in single subject and group data. Hum. Brain Mapping 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Working Memory among Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Lawrence H. Sweet PhD
    ABSTRACT Background and Purpose. Verbal working memory (VWM) deficits have been a well-replicated finding among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) studies have described a VWM system in healthy samples; however, functional neuroimaging of this system among MS patients is just beginning to appear. Methods. Fifteen MS patients and 15 sex-, age-, education-, and IQ-matched healthy control (HC) participants completed a 2-Back VWM task as whole-brain FMRI was conducted. Results. Each group exhibited increased brain activity compared to the 0-Back control task in regions associated with the 2-Back in previous neuroimaging studies. These included Broca's area, supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortices (PMC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). MS patients exhibited greater cortical activity than did HC participants in left primary motor and somatosensory cortices, PMC, DLPFC, anterior cingulate, and bilateral SMA. MS patients exhibited relatively less activation in Broca's area, bilateral cerebellum, and other regions not typically associated with the 2-Back (eg, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, right hippocampus). Performance accuracy and reaction time did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Normal performance of a challenging VWM task among high-functioning MS patients is associated with a shift toward greater activity in regions related to sensorimotor functions and anterior attentional/executive components of the VWM system. Posterior memory storage systems appeared unaffected, while portions of the visual processing and subvocal rehearsal systems were less active. Although a shift in neural activity was noted relative toHC participants, deviation from regions normally involved in VWM function was not observed in this patient sample. [source]

    Effects of Ethanol on Persistent Activity and Up-States in Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurons in Prefrontal Cortex

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2009
    John J. Woodward
    Background:, Elucidating mechanisms that underlie the neural actions of ethanol is critical for understanding how this drug affects behavior. Increasing evidence suggests that, in addition to mid-brain dopaminergic regions, higher cortical structures play an important role in the pathophysiology associated with alcohol abuse. Previous studies from this laboratory used a novel slice co-culture system to demonstrate that ethanol reduces network-dependent patterns of activity in excitatory pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the present study, we examine the effect of ethanol on the activity of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons, a sub-population of neurons critically involved in shaping cortical activity. Methods:, Slices containing the dorsolateral PFC were prepared from neonatal C57 mice and maintained in culture. After 2 to 3 weeks in vitro, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to monitor spontaneous episodes of persistent activity in prelimbic PFC neurons. In some experiments, the use-dependent NMDA receptor blocker, MK801, was included in the pipette recording solution to assess the contribution of NMDA receptors to up-states. Results:, MK801 reduced up-state amplitude and revealed underlying fast EPSPs in excitatory pyramidal neurons while having little effect on these parameters in FS interneurons. Despite this difference, ethanol (44 mM), significantly reduced up-state duration and up-state area in both pyramidal and FS interneurons. Conclusions:, These results suggest that ethanol reduces the activity of FS interneurons due to disruption of network-dependent activity. This would be expected to further impair the ability of PFC networks to carry out their normal function and may contribute to the adverse effects of ethanol on PFC-dependent behaviors. [source]

    Application of intensive care medicine principles in the management of the acute liver failure patient

    David J. Kramer
    Key Points 1Acute liver failure is a paradigm for multiple system organ failure that develops as a consequence of sepsis. 2In the United States, systemic inflammatory response, sepsis, and septic shock are common reasons for intensive care unit admission. Intensive care management of these patients serves as a template for the management of patients with acute liver failure. 3Acute liver failure is attended by high mortality. Although intensive care results in improved survival, the key treatment is liver transplantation. Intensive care unit intervention may open a "window of opportunity" and enable successful liver transplantation in patients who are too ill at presentation. 4Intracranial hypertension complicates the course for many patients with acute liver failure. Initially, intracranial hypertension results from hyperemia, which is cerebral edema that reduces cerebral blood flow and eventuates in herniation. The precepts of neurocritical care,monitoring cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, and cortical activity,with rapid response to hemodynamic abnormalities, maintenance of normoxia, euglycemia, control of seizures, therapeutic hypothermia, osmotic therapy, and judicious hyperventilation are key to reducing mortality attributable to neurologic failure. Liver Transpl 14:S85,S89, 2008. 2008 AASLD. [source]


    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2002
    Article first published online: 4 JUL 200
    Jahangir Maleki, Rollin M. Gallagher, Pain Medicine and Rehabilitation Center, MCP/Hahnemann School of Medicine Introduction: Functional MRI and PET studies of cortical pain processing indicate segregated pain pathways above the thalamus. Although experimental pain may result in multiple areas of altered cortical activity, it is postulated that thalamic pain fibers known as the lateral system, projecting to sensory cortex, serve to localize pain, whereas medial pathways projecting to limbic cortex, process affective aspects of pain. Case Study: A 27 y/o female, with left upper extremity pain and severe allodynia from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Type I (CRPS I / RSD), after receiving intra-pleural bupivacaine blocks developed an ipsilateral focal-onset secondary generalized tonic clonic seizure. This was followed by one hour of post-ictal confusion. Simultaneously she developed a dense left-sided motor and sensory deficit (Todd's palsy) with a motor deficit resolving in one day whereas a sensory deficit lasted 2 days. Throughout the duration of the sensory deficit she denied any left arm pain, although she continued to report the same intensity of pain, but now localized to her epigastric region. Interestingly, despite the lack of sensory perception on the left side, palpation of her left arm resulted in increased epigastric pain and suffering. Discussion: This case indicates a bifurcation of the pain pathway between the thalamus and cortex. Due to focal seizure activity, the sensory cortex (i.e. lateral system) was transiently rendered dysfunctional, during which time the continued presence of pain and allodynia without appropriate localization likely resulted from pain conduction, from the thalamus to functional limbic structures such as Cingulum (i.e. via the medial fibre system). Conclusion: This case report strongly supports the hypothesis of medial and lateral pain conducting fibers branching at the level of thalamus with medial sub-serving the emotional aspects of pain by projection to limbic cortex, whereas lateral fibres project to sensory cortex, primarily serving a localizing function. [source]

    Clarifying the emotive functions of asymmetrical frontal cortical activity

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    Eddie Harmon-Jones
    Abstract Asymmetrical activity over the frontal cortex has been implicated in the experience and expression of emotions and motivations. Explanations of the research have suggested that relatively greater left frontal activity is associated with positive affect and/or approach motivation, and that relatively greater right frontal activity is associated with negative affect and/or withdrawal motivation. In past research, affective valence and motivational direction were confounded, as only positive (negative) affects that were associated with approach (withdrawal) motivation were examined. Consequently, this research is unable to address whether asymmetrical frontal activity is associated with affective valence, motivational direction, or some combination of valence and motivation. In this article, I review research on the emotion of anger, a negative emotion often associated with approach motivation, that suggests that asymmetrical frontal cortical activity is due to motivational direction and not affective valence. Methodological and theoretical implications for the study of the frontal asymmetry specifically, and for emotion and motivation more generally, are discussed. [source]