Coronary Heart Disease (coronary + heart_disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Coronary Heart Disease

  • coronary heart disease patient
  • coronary heart disease risk

  • Selected Abstracts


    Ran Fu
    SUMMARY 1We sought to determine the effects of Q192R polymorphism of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene on plasma high-density lipoprotein,cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the response to statin therapy in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). 2Two hundred and thirty-six patients with CHD were treated with simvastatin 20 mg/day. Fasting serum lipids were determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment. 3No significant differences were detected among the PON1 Q192R polymorphism with respect to plasma lipids. In addition, the effects of simvastatin to increase HDL-C levels were significantly greater in patients with the RR genotype compared with patients with the QR or RR genotypes (P < 0.05). 4We conclude that the Q192R polymorphism of PON1 significantly modulates the HDL-C response to simvastatin in Chinese patients with CHD. [source]

    Analyzing the Relationship Between Smoking and Coronary Heart Disease at the Small Area Level: A Bayesian Approach to Spatial Modeling

    Jane Law
    We model the relationship between coronary heart disease and smoking prevalence and deprivation at the small area level using the Poisson log-linear model with and without random effects. Extra-Poisson variability (overdispersion) is handled through the addition of spatially structured and unstructured random effects in a Bayesian framework. In addition, four different measures of smoking prevalence are assessed because the smoking data are obtained from a survey that resulted in quite large differences in the size of the sample across the census tracts. Two of the methods use Bayes adjustments of standardized smoking ratios (local and global adjustments), and one uses a nonparametric spatial averaging technique. A preferred model is identified based on the deviance information criterion. Both smoking and deprivation are found to be statistically significant risk factors, but the effect of the smoking variable is reduced once the confounding effects of deprivation are taken into account. Maps of the spatial variability in relative risk, and the importance of the underlying covariates and random effects terms, are produced. We also identify areas with excess relative risk. [source]

    Are Migraine and Coronary Heart Disease Associated?

    HEADACHE, Issue 2004
    An Epidemiologic Review
    In evaluating the cardiovascular risks of triptans (5-HT1B/1D agonists) for the treatment of migraine, the possible relationship between migraine and cardiovascular disease warrants careful assessment. The vascular nature of migraine is compatible with the possibility that migraine is a manifestation of cardiovascular disease or is linked to cardiovascular disease via a common mechanism. If so, then migraine itself,independent of the use of triptans,may be associated with an increased risk of cardiac events. This article considers the epidemiologic literature pertinent to evaluating the association of migraine with coronary heart disease. The research reviewed herein fails to support an association between migraine and coronary heart disease. First, data from several large cohort studies show that the presence of migraine does not increase risk of coronary heart disease. Furthermore, although migraineurs are generally more likely than nonmigraineurs to report chest pain, the presence of chest pain in most studies did not predict serious cardiac events such as myocardial infarction. That the gender- and age-specific prevalence of migraine does not overlap with that of coronary heart disease is also consistent with a lack of association between migraine and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. While migraine appears not to be associated with coronary heart disease, preliminary evidence suggests a possible link of migraine with vasospastic disorders such as variant angina and Raynaud's phenomenon. These results warrant further investigation in large prospective studies. [source]

    Prospective Association Between Low and High Total and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease in Elderly Men

    J. David Curb MD
    Objectives: To examine the relationship between total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in elderly men. Design: Prospective. Setting: Population based. Participants: A sample of 2,424, Japanese-American men aged 71 to 93 was used. Measurements: Six years of data on incident fatal plus nonfatal CHD were examined. Results: Analysis revealed a significant U-shaped relationship between age-adjusted CHD rates and both TC and LDL-C. The ranges of TC and LDL-C with the lowest risk of CHD were 200 to 219 mg/dL and 120 to 139 mg/dL, respectively. As cholesterol concentrations declined and increased beyond these ranges, the risk of CHD increased. These U-shaped relationships remained significant after adjusting for age and other risk factors. Conclusion: The U-shaped associations between TC and LDL-C and CHD imply a complex relationship between lipids and CHD in late life. The results indicate that elevated lipid levels should continue to be treated in healthy elderly individuals, as they are in those who are younger, although pharmacologically lowering lipids to excessively low levels in the elderly may warrant further study, as does the contribution of subclinical frailty to the relationship of lipids to CHD risk. [source]

    Barriers to Coronary Heart Disease Risk Modification in Women without Prior History of Coronary Heart Disease

    APRN-BC, Joanne L. Thanavaro ND
    Purpose To explore the extent to which women perceive barriers to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk modification and to determine if access to a nurse practitioner (NP) decreases perceived barriers to CHD risk modification. Data sources Surveys completed by 120 women between the ages of 35 and 60 years, with no known history of CHD. The barriers scale was used to examine women's perceived barriers to CHD risk modification. Conclusions Women with access to an NP had less perceived barriers to CHD risk modification. Implications for practice NPs are ideally suited to decrease the mortality and morbidity associated with CHD through education strategies and attention to individual barriers women face when attempting to incorporate CHD risk factor modification into their lifestyles. [source]

    Plasma Concentrations of Plant Sterols: Physiology and Relationship with Coronary Heart Disease

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 9 2006
    Yen-Ming Chan MSc
    Recently, it has been questioned whether elevated levels of circulating plant sterols increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). To date, no definitive conclusions regarding such a relationship have been reached, nor have there been any studies summarizing the factors that contribute to the observed elevations in plant sterol concentrations in plasma. Thus, the purpose of this review is to systematically compare the plant sterol levels of subjects from the general population and to describe factors that contribute to the variations observed. The question of whether elevated plasma concentrations of plant sterols are associated with an increased risk of CHD was also assessed. Results indicate that the key factors accounting for variations in circulating plant sterol concentrations include: apolipoprotein E phenotypes, ATP-binding cassette transporter polymorphisms, use of statin drugs, presence of metabolic syndrome, dietary intake of plant sterols, gender, and analytical techniques used in the measurement of plant sterols in the plasma. An analysis of the studies examining the relationship between circulating levels of plant sterols and CHD risk in non-sitosterolemic populations revealed no clear associations. Furthermore, it was shown that the above-mentioned factors play an important role in determining the levels of plant sterols in plasma. Since these factors may act as potential confounders, they must be controlled for before more solid conclusions can be reached. [source]

    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 10 2007
    Article first published online: 13 SEP 200
    Sitagliptin: novel drug for type 2 diabetes Sitagliptin (Januvia), the first dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, has been introduced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in combination with metformin or a glitazone when either agent plus exercise and diet fail to control blood glucose. Inhibition of DPP-4 prevents the breakdown of incretin hormones that promote insulin release from pancreatic beta cells. In trials lasting up to 24 weeks, adding sitagliptin to established therapy reduced HbA1C by 0.67-0.90 per cent. It is contraindicated in patients with moderate or more severe renal impairment. At the recommended dose of 100mg per day, a month's treatment with sitagliptin costs £33.36. Guide to treating mentalillness in primary care A new guide from the Centre for Clinical and Academic Workforce Innovation aims to help health professionals and others treating people with mental illness. A Complete Guide to Primary Care Mental Health, a toolkit presented as a reference book and CD, covers aspects of treatment, the law and working with the voluntary sector and includes training materials compatible with evidence-based guidance. Copies are available from Follow-up improves statin adherence Patients may take long holidays from statin treatment but a visit to the doctor is among the most effective ways to improve adherence, a US study shows (Arch Intern Med 2007;167:847,52). Observation of 239 911 patients who began statin treatment during a seven-year period showed that 54 per cent stopped their treatment for at least 90 days. Of these, 48 per cent restarted within one year and 60 per cent within two years. Factors associated with restarting treatment were a visit to the doctor who prescribed the statin (odds ratio, OR, 6.1) or a visit to a different doctor (OR 2.9). A cholesterol test and hospital admission for a cardiovascular event were also significant factors. Pharmacist MUR does not reduce heart failure deaths Medication review by trained community pharmacists does not reduce admissions or deaths among patients with heart failure, according to a study from East Anglia (BMJ online: 23 April 2007; doi:10.1136/bmj.39164.568183.AE). Patients admitted as emergencies with heart failure were randomised to usual care or two home visits by a community pharmacist within two and eight weeks after discharge. Pharmacists reviewed medication and advised on self-management of symptoms and lifestyle. There were no significant differences in hospital admissions over the next six months (rate ratio 1.15 for pharmacist vs control) or deaths (rate ratio 1.18); quality of life scores were similar in the two groups. The authors speculate that the interventions may have been too brief or too late (lifestyle changes having been made already), or disadvantaged by not adjusting beta-blocker doses. A Cardiff study of pharmacist medication reviews for elderly patients (BMJ online: 20 April 2007; doi:10.1136/bmj.39171. 577106.55), found that their advice had the potential to undermine patients' ,confidence, integrity and self-governanc'. The study found that pharmacists gave advice unnecessarily and uninvited. CHD targets met early The national programme to tackle heart disease has made substantial progress towards it targets, the Department of Health says in a 10-year report, and a 40 per cent cut in mortality will be achieved ahead of the deadline of 2010. Coronary Heart Disease Ten Years On: Improving Heart Care, a report by Professor Roger Boyle, National Director for Heart Disease and Stroke, states that 7 per cent of the population is now taking statins, resulting in 9700 deaths avoided annually. The prevalence of untreated hypertension fell from 32 to 24 per cent between 1998 and 2003. The report also summarises changes in service delivery, nutrition and smoking cessation. HRT: ovarian cancer risk The MHRA has not altered its advice on the use of HRT following news that five years' use increases ovarian cancer risk in women over 50. The Million Women Study revealed an approximately 20 per cent increased risk of ovarian cancer or death among women still using HRT after five or more years. There was no difference in risk between oestrogen-only and combined formulations. The MHRA says HRT is still indicated for relieving symptoms of the menopause for short-term use; as an alternative for women over 50 who cannot take other treatments to prevent osteoporosis, or when such options fail; and in women under 50 who experience a premature menopause. Poor angina treatment Over half of patients with angina continue to experience attacks despite treatment, according to a survey by the British Cardiac Patients Association. The survey of 600 patients with angina also found that twot-hirds of respondents reported that angina had a moderate to severe impact on their lives. Half said that the adverse effects of their treatment negatively affected their work, two-thirds reported an adverse impact on sex, and almost three-quarters of patients taking beta-blockers reported fatigue. A second survey of 2000 adults revealed widespread ignorance about the prevalence and symptoms of angina. The surveys were sponsored by Servier Laboratories Limited and conducted in collaboration with Research Quorum. Cabergoline restriction Indications for the dopamine agonist cabergoline (Cabaser) are being restricted to match those of pergolide (Celance), the MHRA has announced. Pergolide was recently withdrawn in the United States and its use in the EU is limited because of the risk of cardiac valvular damage. Similar toxicity has been reported with cabergolide, which is now restricted to second-line use when a nonergot treatment for Parkinson's disease has failed. It is contraindicated in patients with valvular damage or a history of fibrotic disorders and requires patient monitoring. Sodium reduction cuts CV events Long-term reduction in dietary sodium may reduce cardiovascular events by 25 per cent, US epidemiologists say (BMJ online: 20 April 2007; doi:10.1136/bmj.39147.604896.55). Participants in the two Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP I and II) reduced their sodium intake by 44 and 33mmol per 24hr. After 10,15 years' follow-up of 2415 participants, the adjusted relative risk of cardiovascular events was 0.75 compared with controls. There was a nonsignificant 20 per cent reduction in mortality. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Wine and Coronary Heart Disease: Paradise Lost?

    Ezra A. Amsterdam MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Predicting Coronary Heart Disease after Kidney Transplantation: Patient Outcomes in Renal Transplantation (PORT) Study

    A. K. Israni
    Traditional risk factors do not adequately explain coronary heart disease (CHD) risk after kidney transplantation. We used a large, multicenter database to compare traditional and nontraditional CHD risk factors, and to develop risk-prediction equations for kidney transplant patients in standard clinical practice. We retrospectively assessed risk factors for CHD (acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery revascularization or sudden death) in 23 575 adult kidney transplant patients from 14 transplant centers worldwide. The CHD cumulative incidence was 3.1%, 5.2% and 7.6%, at 1, 3 and 5 years posttransplant, respectively. In separate Cox proportional hazards analyses of CHD in the first posttransplant year (predicted at time of transplant), and predicted within 3 years after a clinic visit occurring in posttransplant years 1,5, important risk factors included pretransplant diabetes, new onset posttransplant diabetes, prior pre- and posttransplant cardiovascular disease events, estimated glomerular filtration rate, delayed graft function, acute rejection, age, sex, race and duration of pretransplant end-stage kidney disease. The risk-prediction equations performed well, with the time-dependent c-statistic greater than 0.75. Traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, dyslipidemia and cigarette smoking) added little additional predictive value. Thus, transplant-related risk factors, particularly those linked to graft function, explain much of the variation in CHD after kidney transplantation. [source]

    Haplotype Analysis of the Stromelysin-1 (MMP3) and Gelatinase B (MMP9) Genes in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease

    Naqiong Wu
    Summary The functional genetic polymorphisms present in the promoters of stromelysin-1 (MMP3) and gelatinase B (MMP9) have been shown to be associated with angiographically measured atherosclerosis; however, haplotype analysis of the genetic polymorphisms occurring in the promoters and coding regions of MMP3 and MMP9 has been infrequently performed in the past. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of the -1612 5A/6A, -376C/G, and Glu45Lys polymorphisms of MMP3 and the -1562C/T and R279Q polymorphisms of MMP9 and their relation to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD; stenosis ,50% of the diameter in at least one major coronary artery) in a Chinese Han population. The present study involved 1373 patients with CHD and 695 healthy controls. The Glu45Lys polymorphism of MMP3 was significantly associated with an increased risk of CHD. Compared with the 45Glu homozygotes, 45Lys allele carriers had a significantly elevated risk of CHD (adjusted OR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.11,2.03; p= 0.008). Moreover, haplotype analysis identified both the 6A-C-Lys (-1612 6A, -376C, 45Lys) haplotype and the 6A-G-Lys (-1612 6A,-376G, 45Lys) haplotype of MMP3 as associated with an increased risk of CHD. Our study suggests that common genetic variations in the MMP3 gene may affect the risk of CHD in the Chinese population. [source]

    Cladistic Analysis of Human Apolipoprotein A4 Polymorphisms in Relation to Quantitative Plasma Lipid Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Disease

    G. Q. Wang
    Summary Genetic variation in several genes involved in lipid metabolism is known to affect population variation in quantitative lipid risk factor profiles for coronary heart disease (CHD). The apolipoprotein A-IV gene (APOA4) is one such candidate gene. We genotyped five polymorphisms in the APOA4 gene (codon 127, codon 130, codon347, codon 360 and 3' VNTR) and investigated their impact on plasma lipid trait levels in three populations comprising 604 U.S. non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), 408 U.S. Hispanics and 708 Nigerian Blacks. Cladistic analysis was carried out to identify 5-site haplotypes that were associated with significant phenotypic differences in each population. The distribution of APOA4 genotypes was significantly different between ethnic groups. The Africans were monomorphic for two of the five sites (codons 130 and 360), but possess a unique 12 bp insertion that was not observed in NHWs and Hispanics. Due to linkage disequilibrium between the sites, only 6 haplotypes were observed in NHWs and Hispanics, and 4 in Africans. Several gender-and ethnic-specific associations between genotypes and plasma lipid traits were observed when single sites were used. Several haplotypes were identified by cladistic analysis that may carry functional mutations that affect plasma lipid trait levels. [source]

    S23.1: Personality, Cancer and Coronary Heart Disease: First Results from the Heidelberg Longitudinal Study

    Manfred Amelang
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Sensitivity Analysis for Principal Stratum Direct Effects, with an Application to a Study of Physical Activity and Coronary Heart Disease

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2009
    Arvid Sjölander
    Summary In many studies, the aim is to learn about the direct exposure effect, that is, the effect not mediated through an intermediate variable. For example, in circulation disease studies it may be of interest to assess whether a suitable level of physical activity can prevent disease, even if it fails to prevent obesity. It is well known that stratification on the intermediate may introduce a so-called posttreatment selection bias. To handle this problem, we use the framework of principal stratification (Frangakis and Rubin, 2002, Biometrics58, 21,29) to define a causally relevant estimand,the principal stratum direct effect (PSDE). The PSDE is not identified in our setting. We propose a method of sensitivity analysis that yields a range of plausible values for the causal estimand. We compare our work to similar methods proposed in the literature for handling the related problem of "truncation by death." [source]

    The Role of Lipid-lowering Therapy in Preventing Coronary Heart Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Dean G. Karalis M.D., F.A.C.C.
    Abstract Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death among diabetic patients. The increased risk of coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes is due, in part, to lipid abnormalities often present in the diabetic patient. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and an increased preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles. Current guidelines for the prevention of coronary heart disease in diabetic patients identify elevated LDL-C as the primary target of lipid-lowering therapy, and recommend statins as the first-line treatment for diabetic dyslipidemia. This review evaluates the large statin trials that have included diabetic patients, and discusses the role of combination therapy in managing dyslipidemia in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    The role of the inflammatory markers ferritin, transferrin and fibrinogen in the relationship between major depression and cardiovascular disorders , The German Health Interview and Examination Survey

    B. T. Baune
    Baune BT, Neuhauser H, Ellert U, Berger K. The role of the inflammatory markers ferritin, transferrin and fibrinogen in the relationship between major depression and cardiovascular disorders , The German Health Interview and Examination Survey. Objective:, To determine levels of inflammation (ferritin, transferrin and fibrinogen) in major depression (MDD) and comorbid cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an adult population. Method:, In 4181 participants of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey MDD was assessed through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension were diagnosed by a computer-assisted physician interview. Analyses were performed using anova models stratified for gender. Results:, Ferritin, transferrin and fibrinogen levels showed opposing patterns in individuals with either CVD or MDD alone. In comorbidity analyses, male participants with MDD plus comorbid CHD or hypertension had lower levels of ferritin and lower fibrinogen levels in hypertension compared to men without MDD, while in women, results were inconsistent. Conclusion:, Opposing patterns of inflammatory markers in CVD or MDD alone were reversed when both conditions were present. MDD reduced levels of ferritin, transferrin and fibrinogen in CVD in a gender-specific way. [source]

    The role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus

    G. Mathur
    Angiotensin II Receptor blockers (ARBs) are an important addition to the current range of medications available for treating a wide spectrum of diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death in the United Kingdom and worldwide. More importantly, the presence of the metabolic syndrome and the likelihood of diabetes mellitus taking on epidemic proportions in the years to come all threaten to maintain the mortality rate due to CHD. This review article focuses on the clinical studies that have helped define the trends in the usage of these agents in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications and also explores possible mechanisms of action and future developments. [source]

    Increased insulin resistance and risk of incident cerebrovascular events in patients with pre-existing atherothrombotic disease

    D. Tanne
    Background and purpose:, Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are known risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Our aim was to examine whether amongst patients with pre-existing atherothrombotic disease, increased insulin resistance is associated with incident cerebrovascular events. Methods:, Patients with stable coronary heart disease included in a secondary prevention trial were followed up for a mean of 6.2 years. Coronary heart disease was documented by a history of myocardial infarction ,6 months and <5 years before enrollment and/or stable angina pectoris with evidence of ischaemia confirmed by ancillary diagnostic testing. Main exclusion criteria were insulin treated diabetes, hepatic or renal failure, and disabling stroke. Baseline insulin levels were measured in 2938 patients from stored frozen plasma samples and increased insulin resistance assessed using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), categorized into tertiles or quartiles. Results:, Crude rates of incident cerebrovascular events rose from 5.0% for HOMA-IR at the bottom tertile to 5.7% at the middle tertile, and 7.0% at the top tertile (P = 0.07). HOMA-IR at the top versus bottom tertile was associated with an unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.37 (95%CI, 0.94,1.98) and a 1-unit increase in the ln HOMA-IR was associated with a HR of 1.14 (95%CI, 0.97,1.35). In further analyses adjusting for potential confounders, or categorizing baseline HOMA-IR into quartiles, or excluding diabetic patients, we did not identify an increased risk for incident cerebrovascular events conferred by the top category. Conclusions:, Increased insulin resistance did not predict incident cerebrovascular events amongst patients with pre-existing atherothrombotic disease. [source]

    Coronary heart disease is associated with regional grey matter volume loss: implications for cognitive function and behaviour

    O. P. Almeida
    Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with impaired cognition, but the mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. We designed this study to determine whether adults with CHD show regional brain losses of grey matter volume relative to controls. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM5) to determine regional changes in grey matter volume of T1 -weighted magnetic resonance images of 11 adults with prior history of myocardial infarction relative to seven healthy controls. All analyses were adjusted for total grey and white matter volume, age, sex and handedness. CHD participants showed a loss of grey matter volume in the left medial frontal lobe (including the cingulate), precentral and postcentral cortex, right temporal lobe and left middle temporal gyrus, and left precuneus and posterior cingulate. CHD is associated with loss of grey matter in various brain regions, including some that play a significant role in cognitive function and behaviour. The underlying causes of these regional brain changes remain to be determined. [source]

    Effectiveness of nurse-led cardiac clinics in adult patients with a diagnosis of coronary heart disease

    Tamara Page RN BN HyperbaricNursCert GradDipNSc(HighDep) MNSc
    Executive summary Background, Coronary heart disease is the major cause of illness and death in Western countries and this is likely to increase as the average age of the population rises. Consumers with established coronary heart disease are at the highest risk of experiencing further coronary events. Lifestyle measures can contribute significantly to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality in established coronary heart disease. Improved management of cardiac risk factors by providing education and referrals as required has been suggested as one way of maintaining quality care in patients with established coronary heart disease. There is a need to ascertain whether or not nurse-led clinics would be an effective adjunct for patients with coronary heart disease to supplement general practitioner advice and care. Objectives, The objective of this review was to present the best available evidence related to nurse-led cardiac clinics. Inclusion criteria, This review considered any randomised controlled trials that evaluated cardiac nurse-led clinics. In the absence of randomised controlled trials, other research designs such as non-randomised controlled trials and before and after studies were considered for inclusion. Participants were adults (18 years and older) with new or existing coronary heart disease. The interventions of interest to the review included education, assessment, consultation, referral and administrative structures. Outcomes measured included adverse event rates, readmissions, admissions, clinical and cost effectiveness, consumer satisfaction and compliance with therapy. Results, Based on the search terms used, 80 papers were initially identified and reviewed for inclusion; full reports of 24 of these papers were retrieved. There were no papers included that addressed cost effectiveness or adverse events; and none addressed the outcome of referrals. A critical appraisal of the 24 remaining papers identified a total of six randomised controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria. Two studies addressed nurse-led clinics for patients diagnosed with angina, one looked at medication administration and the other looked at educational plans. A further four studies compared secondary preventative care with a nurse-led clinic and general practitioner clinic. One specifically compared usual care versus shared care introduced by nurses for patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting. Of the remaining three studies, two have been combined in the results section, as they are an interim report and a final report of the same study. Because of inconsistencies in reporting styles and outcome measurements, meta-analysis could not be performed on all outcomes. However, a narrative summary of each study and comparisons of specific outcomes assessed from within each study has been developed. Although not all outcomes obtained statistical significance, nurse-led clinics were at least as effective as general practitioner clinics for most outcomes. Recommendations, The following recommendations are made: ,The use of nurse-led clinics is recommended for patients with coronary heart disease (Level II). ,Utilise nurse-led clinics to increase clinic attendance and follow-up rates (Level II). ,Nurse-led clinics are recommended for patients who require lifestyle changes to decrease their risk of adverse outcomes associated with coronary heart disease (Level II). [source]

    Coronary heart disease of females: lessons learned from nonhuman primates

    Thomas B. Clarkson
    Abstract The cynomolgus monkey model has contributed to significant advances regarding the understanding of coronary artery atherosclerosis of females. There are currently 8 million women in the United States living with heart disease, necessitating further study and understanding of this leading cause of morbidity and mortality for postmenopausal women. Specifically, studies involving the monkey model have allowed greater understanding of the effect of the stage of reproductive life, time since menopause, and the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis as determinates of estrogen-mediated effects on arteries. Utilizing the commonalities among monkeys and human beings, these studies have shown that postmenopausal atherosclerosis is associated with the premenopausal reproductive timeframe. In addition, monkey studies have shown that estrogen deficiency during the premenopausal stage is extremely relevant regarding the progression of atherosclerosis. After several postmenopausal years, however, studies have shown that estrogen has no beneficial effects on atherosclerosis progression and may, in fact, be deleterious. Studies using the monkey model are currently underway to investigate further uses and possibilities of postmenopausal hormone therapy for treating menopausal symptoms while protecting the breast and uterus and inhibiting the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. These studies will hopefully clarify the role of estrogen and eliminate the need for the possibly harmful progestin effects through the use of a highly selective estrogen receptor modulator. Am. J. Primatol. 71:785,793, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Role of Lipid-lowering Therapy in Preventing Coronary Heart Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Dean G. Karalis M.D., F.A.C.C.
    Abstract Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death among diabetic patients. The increased risk of coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes is due, in part, to lipid abnormalities often present in the diabetic patient. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and an increased preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles. Current guidelines for the prevention of coronary heart disease in diabetic patients identify elevated LDL-C as the primary target of lipid-lowering therapy, and recommend statins as the first-line treatment for diabetic dyslipidemia. This review evaluates the large statin trials that have included diabetic patients, and discusses the role of combination therapy in managing dyslipidemia in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Women: An Update

    Nanette K. Wenger M.D.
    Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) continues to be the leading cause of death among women in the United States. Evidence-based guidelines of the American Heart Association (AHA) offer clinicians recommendations for preventing CHD in women delineating particular lifestyle, risk factor, and pharmacologic interventions. Cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, inappropriate diet, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome contribute to the risk of CHD in women, as in men. Lifestyle interventions substantially reduce that risk. Many women, however, require pharmacotherapy to control hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes to levels required for decreasing risk. New findings from clinical trials featuring women may enhance their CHD risk prediction and treatment. However, high coronary risk in many women continues to be underrecognized, and women remain undertreated with statins and other therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Epidemiology and burden of cardiovascular disease

    Laurence O. Watkins M.D., M.P.H.
    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. The rate of CHD and CHD death varies across racial groups, with higher rates among black men and women than among white men and women. The development of CHD is promoted by major CHD risk factors,dyslipidemia, hypertension, and smoking. These risk factors are independently associated with CHD risk and are common among adults in the United States. Diabetes mellitus is also a significant contributor to CHD risk and is associated with risk of a CHD event equivalent to that conferred by the presence of prior CHD. Metabolic syndrome, a related condition, also confers a high risk for CHD as well as for the development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome are characterized by the presence of central obesity and insulin resistance, which result in dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular derangements that promote CHD. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome illustrate the significance of risk factor clustering, which contributes to CHD risk through the additive effect of each risk factor. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and risk factor clustering in general are becoming more prevalent, which illustrates the need for better CHD prevention strategies aimed at risk factor control. The pathologic process associated with risk factor clustering also contributes to the higher CHD burden among black men and women, who have a higher prevalence of risk factor clustering and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, despite having a higher CHD risk, black men and women are less likely to receive adequate treatment or control of risk factors, including dyslipidemia or hypertension. Eliminating disparities among population groups will thus require aggressive efforts focused on risk assessment, guideline adherence, and risk factor control in populations in need. [source]

    Methods for detecting coronary disease: epidemiology and clinical management

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2002
    O. Faergeman
    ABSTRACT The epidemic of atherosclerotic disease in wealthy countries had probably begun by 1900. Although a few physicians understood how atherosclerosis/thrombosis of the coronary arteries caused angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, the medical community did not accept that relationship until the 1920s. In wealthy countries, the epidemic peaked in mid-century, and it is now advancing in poor countries and in countries becoming affluent. Two recent developments in methods for disease detection, however, will profoundly affect not only our understanding of the epidemic of atherosclerotic disease, but also our management of patients. A redefinition of the clinical diagnosis of myocardial infarction, a well-used but imperfect measure of the epidemic, was published in September 2000. Criteria employed for about 50 years have now been replaced by criteria based on sensitive biochemical markers of necrosis of as little as 1 g of myocardium, accompanied by chest discomfort or electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, or following coronary artery intervention. The new criteria, adopted by the major societies of cardiology in Europe and the United States, is likely to increase the apparent incidence and prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the beginning of the twentieth century, diagnosis of CHD required an autopsy. In the end it was carried out by angiography as well, but it could not be applied to large proportions of the population. That has now been changed by new, non-invasive methods of computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and patients, however, asymptomatic, will expect treatment for a disease that physicians have detected. Coronary artery disease (CAD) will be to CHD what occult cancer is to cancer. [source]

    Effects of Orlistat on Visceral Fat After Liposuction

    BACKGROUND Liposuction can aggravate metabolic complications associated with obesity. It has been shown that the recovery of weight lost through these interventions is associated with body fat redistribution toward the visceral cavity, increasing metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease such as insulin resistance and high triglyceride levels. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of liposuction on body mass redistribution and metabolic parameters 6 months after surgery and to evaluate the use of orlistat treatment (tetrahydrolipstatin) in controlling these parameters. METHODS A population of 31 women with a mean body mass index of 26.17±3.9 kg/m2 and undergoing liposuction of more than 1,000 cm3, was studied. Twelve of them were treated postsurgery with 120 mg of orlistat every 8 hours for the following 6 months. Anthropometric, analytical, and radiological (computed tomography) tests were performed to quantify visceral fat area before surgery and 6 months after surgery. RESULTS Despite weight loss after liposuction, visceral fat was not modified. Patients treated with orlistat showed a greater reduction in visceral fat, although not statistically significant. Orlistat use induced a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values of 20.0±22.5 mg/dL, compared with an increase of 8.46±20.1 mg/dL in controls (p=.07). CONCLUSIONS Visceral fat does not decrease despite weight loss after liposuction. Orlistat use postliposuction might be a useful tool because it shows a tendency to reduce visceral fat and improve blood lipids profile. [source]

    Impact of substance use on the physical health of patients with bipolar disorder

    M. P. Garcia-Portilla
    Garcia-Portilla MP, Saiz PA, Benabarre A, Florez G, Bascaran MT, Díaz EM, Bousoño M, Bobes J. Impact of substance use on the physical health of patients with bipolar disorder. Objective:, To describe the impact of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis on metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk in bipolar patients. Method:, Naturalistic, cross-sectional, multicenter Spanish study. Current use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis was determined based on patient self-reports. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999,2000 and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria, and cardiovascular risk using the Framingham and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation functions. Results:, Mean age was 46.6 years, 49% were male. Substance use: 51% tobacco, 13% alcohol and 12.5% cannabis. Patients who reported consuming any substance were significantly younger and a higher proportion was male. After controlling for confounding factors, tobacco was a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) (unstandardized linear regression coefficient 3.47, 95% confidence interval 1.85,5.10). Conclusion:, Substance use, mainly tobacco, was common in bipolar patients. Tobacco use negatively impacted CHD risk. [source]

    Serum adiponectin and resistin levels in major depressive disorder

    S. M. Lehto
    Lehto SM, Huotari A, Niskanen L, Tolmunen T, Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Honkalampi K, Ruotsalainen H, Herzig K-H, Viinamäki H, Hintikka J. Serum adiponectin and resistin levels in major depressive disorder. Objective:, To examine the role of the adipose-tissue-derived low-grade inflammation markers adiponectin and resistin in major depressive disorder (MDD) in a population-based sample. Method:, Serum levels of adiponectin and resistin were measured from 70 DSM-IV MDD subjects and 70 healthy controls. Depression severity was assessed with the 29-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results:, The MDD group had lowered serum adiponectin levels. Regression modelling with adjustments for age, gender, overweight, several socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome showed that each 5.0 ,g/ml decrease in serum adiponectin increased the likelihood of MDD by approximately 20% (P = 0.01). The resistin levels correlated with atypical (P = 0.02), but not with typical depressive symptoms (P = 0.12). Conclusion:, Our findings suggest that the lowered adiponectin levels in MDD are depression-specific and not explained by conventional low adiponectin-related factors such as such as coronary heart disease and metabolic disorders. [source]

    Preconditioning and postconditioning: new strategies for cardioprotection

    D. J. Hausenloy
    Despite optimal therapy, the morbidity and mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains significant, particularly in patients with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. New strategies for cardioprotection are therefore required to improve the clinical outcomes in patients with CHD. Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) as a cardioprotective strategy has not fulfilled it clinical potential, primarily because of the need to intervene before the index ischaemic event, which is impossible to predict in patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, emerging studies suggest that IPC-induced protection is mediated in part by signalling transduction pathways recruited at time of myocardial reperfusion, creating the possibility of harnessing its cardioprotective potential by intervening at time of reperfusion. In this regard, the recently described phenomenon of ischaemic postconditioning (IPost) has attracted great interest, particularly as it represents an intervention, which can be applied at time of myocardial reperfusion for patients presenting with an AMI. Interestingly, the signal transduction pathways, which underlie its protection, are similar to those recruited by IPC, creating a potential common cardioprotective pathway, which can be recruited at time of myocardial reperfusion, through the use of appropriate pharmacological agents given as adjuvant therapy to current myocardial reperfusion strategies such as thrombolysis and primary percutaneous coronary intervention for patients presenting with an AMI. This article provides a brief overview of IPC and IPost and describes the common signal transduction pathway they both appear to recruit at time of myocardial reperfusion, the pharmacological manipulation of which has the potential to generate new strategies for cardioprotection. [source]

    Genetic variation and decreased risk for obesity in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    M. L. Hart Sailors
    Aim:, To investigate the effects of variation in the leptin [LEP (19A>G)] and melanocortin-4 receptor [MC4R (V103I)] genes on obesity-related traits in 13,405 African-American (AA) and white participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Methods:, We tested the association between the single-locus and multilocus genotypes and obesity-related measures [body mass index (BMI), body weight (BW), waist,hip ratio, waist circumference and leptin levels], adjusted for age, physical activity level, smoking status, diabetic status, prevalence of coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Results:, AA and white female carriers of the MC4R I103 allele exhibited significantly lower BW than non-carriers of this allele (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively). AA female carriers of both the LEP A19 allele and the MC4R I103 allele were 63% [odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.18,0.78)] less likely to be obese, and white female carriers of the same two alleles were 46% [OR = 0.54, 95% CI (0.32,0.91)] less likely to be obese, than non-carriers of the variant alleles. Female carriers of both the LEP A19 and MC4R I103 alleles had significantly lower BW (p < 0.05), BMI (p < 0.05) and plasma leptin (p < 0.01) than the non-carriers of both the alleles. Carriers of the two variant alleles had lower BMI over the 9-year course of the ARIC study and significantly lower weight gain from age 25 years. No significant joint effect of these two variants was observed in males. Conclusion:, These results suggest that variation within the LEP and MC4R genes is associated with reduced risk for obesity in females. [source]

    Cardiovascular metabolic syndrome , an interplay of, obesity, inflammation, diabetes and coronary heart disease

    J. S. Rana
    Cardiovascular disease is currently one of the biggest causes of morbidity and mortality facing humanity. Such a paradigm shift of disease pattern over the last century has only worsened due to the alarming global prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In recent years there is increasing focus on inflammation as one of the key players in the patho-physiology of these disorders. In addition to these overt risk factors new research is unraveling the significance of a constellation of early metabolic abnormalities that include weight gain, insulin resistance, prehypertension and a specific pattern of dyslipidaemia. There exists a complex interrelationship of these various metabolic disorders and their effect on cardiovascular system. Simplified explanation can be that inflammation increases insulin resistance, which in turn leads to obesity while perpetuating diabetes, high blood pressure, prothrombotic state and dyslipidaemia. While inflammation and insulin resistance have direct adverse effects on cardiac muscle, these metabolic abnormalities as a whole cause causes cardiovascular complications; warranting a multi pronged therapeutic and preventive approach for the ,Cardiovascular Metabolic Syndrome' as an entity. [source]