Conversion Equations (conversion + equation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Quantitative gray-scale analysis in skeletal muscle ultrasound: A comparison study of two ultrasound devices

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 6 2009
Sigrid Pillen MD
Abstract Muscle ultrasound is a useful technique to detect neuromuscular disorders. Quantification of muscle echo intensity (EI) using gray-scale analysis is more reliable and more sensitive compared with visual evaluation of the images. We devised a method to reliably use EI normal values established with one ultrasound device for use with another device. Based on measurements in a dedicated phantom and in 7 healthy subjects, a conversion equation was calculated to convert the mean EI. The reliability of this equation was next evaluated in a follow-up study of 22 healthy children. Mean muscle EI could be reliably converted from one ultrasound device to another. This allows for normal values obtained with one device to be used with other devices, which is an important step forward toward the use of quantitative muscle ultrasound in daily clinical care. Muscle Nerve, 2009 [source]

Should biomass be considered more frequently as a currency in terrestrial arthropod community analyses?

Summary 1Community structure involving large taxonomical groups is frequently used to assess changes in ecosystems along environmental gradients or in response to disturbance. For terrestrial arthropods, abundance is generally used as the response variable in community data analyses; biomass, however, is generally a better indicator of the functionality of a species within a community, as it is strongly correlated with metabolism. 2In this study, we considered whether biomass should be used more often in community analyses with terrestrial arthropod biodiversity data, particularly when asking questions involving strong functional components. We selected 10 previously published and five unpublished Coleoptera abundance data sets, and produced biomass species-by-sample matrices using body length to body mass conversion equations, and then compared the results obtained using commonly used ecological analyses. 3Correlations between species abundance and biomass varied from strong to poor, depending on the taxa considered and on the sampling method used. We show that abundance and biomass can produce different results in community data analysis and lead to alternative interpretations for data sets with poor abundance to biomass correlations. 4Synthesis and applications. When dealing with databases showing poor abundance to biomass relationships, the question of the relevance of using biomass instead of abundance emerges, and the choice of the response variable to be used in analyses should be considered carefully. At the very least, when studying terrestrial arthropod biodiversity, one should consider the use of biomass with simple conversion equations that do not require obtaining the mass of individual specimens. This approach may lead to different interpretations. For research questions in which trophic interactions may play an important role, biomass may provide a broader and more accurate picture of the processes driving changes in community structure. [source]

Application of modern tensor calculus to engineered domain structures.


The theory of domain states is reviewed as a prerequisite for consideration of tensorial distinction of domain states. It is then shown that the parameters of the first domain in a ferroic phase transition from a set of isomorphic groups of the same oriented Laue class can be systematically and suitably represented in terms of typical variables. On replacing these variables by actual tensor components according to the previous paper [Kopský (2006), Acta Cryst. A62, 4764], we can reveal the tensorial parameters associated with each particular symmetry descent. Parameters are distinguished by the ireps to which they belong and this can be used to determine which of them are the principal parameters that distinguish all domain states, in contrast to secondary parameters which are common to several domain states. In general, the parameters are expressed as the covariant components of the tensors. A general procedure is described which is designed to transform the results to Cartesian components. It consists of two parts: the first, called the labelling of covariants, and its inverse, called the conversion equations. Transformation of parameters from the first domain state to other states is now reduced to irreducible subspaces whose maximal dimension is three in contrast with higher dimensions of tensor spaces. With this method, we can explicitly calculate tensor parameters for all domain states. To find the distinction of pairs of domain states, it is suitable to use the concept of the twinning group which is briefly described. [source]

Censusing and Measuring Lianas: A Quantitative Comparison of the Common Methods,

BIOTROPICA, Issue 5 2006
Stefan A. Schnitzer
ABSTRACT Lianas contribute to many aspects of tropical forest diversity and dynamics, and interest in liana ecology has grown substantially in recent years. Methods to census lianas and estimate biomass, however, differ among studies, possibly hindering attempts to compare liana communities. At Nouragues Research Station (French Guiana), we tested the extent to which liana abundance, basal area, and estimated biomass differed depending on stem diameter measurement location, inclusion of ramets, inclusion of lianas rooted within versus passing through the plot, and plot shape. We found that the mean per plot abundance and basal area of lianas were significantly greater when lianas were measured low on the stem, when ramets were included, and when lianas were sampled in transects (2 × 50 m) than in square plots (10 × 10 m). Mean per plot liana abundance and basal area were 21 percent and 58 percent greater, when stems were measured at the largest spot on the stem compared to 130 cm from the ground, respectively. Including liana ramets increased average per plot liana abundance, basal area, and estimated biomass by 19, 17, and 16 percent, respectively. To facilitate cross-study comparisons, we developed conversion equations that equate liana abundance, diameter, and basal area based on the measurements taken at four different stem locations. We tested these equations at Lambir Hills National Park, Malaysia and found that they did not differ significantly between the two sites, suggesting that the equations may be broadly applicable. Finally, we present a new allometric equation relating diameter and biomass developed from 424 lianas from five independent data sets collected in four countries. RÉSUMÉ Les lianes contribuent de diverse manière à la diversité et à la dynamique des forêts tropicales, et l'intérêt pour l'écologie des lianes s'est beaucoup accru ces dernières années. Cependant, les méthodes pour recenser les lianes et estimer leur biomasse varient d'une étude à l'autre, et peuvent entraver les tentatives de comparaison des communautés de lianes. A la Station de Recherche des Nouragues (Guyane Française), nous avons évalué la variation de l'abondance, de la surface terrière et de la biomasse des lianes, en fonction de la position de mesure du diamètre sur le tronc, de l'inclusion des rameaux, de l'inclusion des lianes enracinées dans la parcelle plutôt que passant dans la parcelle, et de la forme de la parcelle. Nous avons trouvé que l'abondance et la surface terrière moyennes des lianes par parcelle étaient significativement plus importantes lorsque les lianes étaient mesurées en bas de la tige, lorsque les rameaux étaient inclus, et lorsque les lianes étaient échantillonnées dans des transects (2x50m) plutôt que dans des parcelles carrées (10x10m). L'inclusion des rameaux dans l'échantillonnage augmentait l'abondance moyenne des lianes par parcelle de 19 pour cent, leur surface terrière de 17 pour cent et leur biomasse de 16 pour cent. Afin de faciliter les comparaisons entre études, nous avons développé des équations de conversion qui relient l'abondance, le diamètre et la surface terrière des lianes à partir de mesures prises à quatre endroits sur la tige. Nous avons testé la validité de ces équations au Parc National de Lambir Hills (Malaisie): les équations ne variaient pas de manière significative entre les deux sites, suggérant qu'elles pourraient être largement applicables. Finalement, nous présentons une nouvelle équation allométrique reliant diamètre et biomasse des lianes, construite à partir de 424 lianes de cinq ensembles de données échantillonnées dans quatre pays. [source]