Control Algorithms (control + algorithms)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering


Selected Abstracts


Model Based Control of a Parallel Robot , A Comparison of Control Algorithms

PROCEEDINGS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS & MECHANICS, Issue 1 2003
Hubert Hahn Prof. Dr.Article first published online: 25 MAR 200
In this contribution the control behavior of a special construction of a parallel robot, called multi-axes test facility, is investigated. After a brief discussion of the different tasks of the robot the construction of the robot is briefly presented. To solve the tasks, different control algorithms are derived based on model equations of different complexity of the robot. Depending on the task to be performed by the robot, the controllers compensate the kinematic and/or kinetic coupling of the degrees of freedom of the robot, stabilize the system and achieve the desired spatial motion of each degree of freedom as well as sufficient robustness with respect to parameter uncertainties and load variations. A few results obtained in computer simulations and laboratory experiments are presented and judged with respect to the quality of control, the closeness to reality of the computer simulations, and the amount of costs and work needed to realize the different solutions. [source]


Experimental performance evaluation of an equipment isolation using MR dampers

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 3 2009
Yu-Cheng Fan
Abstract Critical non-structural equipments, including life-saving equipment in hospitals, circuit breakers, computers, high technology instrumentations, etc., are vulnerable to strong earthquakes, and the failure of these equipments may result in a heavy economic loss. In this connection, innovative control systems and strategies are needed for their seismic protections. This paper presents the performance evaluation of passive and semi-active control in the equipment isolation system for earthquake protection. Through shaking table tests of a 3-story steel frame with equipment on the first floor, a magnetorheological (MR)-damper together with a sliding friction pendulum isolation system is placed between the equipment and floor to reduce the vibration of the equipment. Various control algorithms are used for this semi-active control studies, including the decentralized sliding mode control (DSMC) and LQR control. The passive-on and passive-off control of MR damper is used as a reference for the discussion on the control effectiveness. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Experimental verification of a wireless sensing and control system for structural control using MR dampers

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 10 2007
Chin-Hsiung Loh
Abstract The performance aspects of a wireless ,active' sensor, including the reliability of the wireless communication channel for real-time data delivery and its application to feedback structural control, are explored in this study. First, the control of magnetorheological (MR) dampers using wireless sensors is examined. Second, the application of the MR-damper to actively control a half-scale three-storey steel building excited at its base by shaking table is studied using a wireless control system assembled from wireless active sensors. With an MR damper installed on each floor (three dampers total), structural responses during seismic excitation are measured by the system's wireless active sensors and wirelessly communicated to each other; upon receipt of response data, the wireless sensor interfaced to each MR damper calculates a desired control action using an LQG controller implemented in the wireless sensor's computational core. In this system, the wireless active sensor is responsible for the reception of response data, determination of optimal control forces, and the issuing of command signals to the MR damper. Various control solutions are formulated in this study and embedded in the wireless control system including centralized and decentralized control algorithms. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Non-linear behavior of mass concrete in three-dimensional problems using a smeared crack approach

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 3 2005
H. Mirzabozorg
Abstract A smeared crack approach has been proposed to model the static and dynamic behavior of mass concrete in three-dimensional space. The proposed model simulates the tensile fracture on the mass concrete and contains pre-softening behavior, softening initiation, fracture energy conservation and strain rate effects under dynamic loads. The validity of the proposed model has been checked using the available experimental results under static and dynamic loads. The direct and indirect displacement control algorithms have been employed under incremental increasing static loads. It was found that the proposed model gives excellent results and crack profiles when compared with the available data under static loads. The Koyna Dam in India has been used to verify the dynamic behavior of the proposed model. It was found that the resulting crack profiles were in good agreement with the available experimental results. Finally, the Morrow Point Dam was analyzed, including the dam,reservoir interaction effects, to consider its non-linear seismic behavior. It was found that the resulting crack profiles were in good agreement with the contour of maximum principal stresses and no numerical instability occurred during the analysis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Steady-state power flow and voltage control by unified power-flow controllers, part 2: Applications

EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL POWER, Issue 2 2000
Y. H. Song
The unifiedpower-flowcontroller(UPFC) isa powerfuldeviceforthe reliejroj'transmission constraints. Part 1 of the paper proposes novel steady-state modelling and control algorithms for the study of UPFC, which use power-injection models to derive control parameters for UPFC to achieve the required line active power control and bus-voltage support. The proposed method does not change the symmetrical structures of Jacobian matrix, avoids the initialisations of control parameters and can cover a wide control range of UPFC due to the characteristics of optimal multiplier power-flow algorithms employed. This paper describes in detail the applications of the proposed theory in a 28-node system. The convergence of controlled power flow is analysed. Control performance has been evaluated. The numerical results presented clearly illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. [source]


QoS in IntServ-based IP networks: the peak rate policing

EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Issue 4 2003
Lorenzo Battaglia
In the last few years, IP has moved towards resource reservation, with the task to guarantee in the future Quality of Service (QoS). This has led to flow admission control algorithms based on the negotiation of standardised traffic parameters. QoS can be guaranteed in any network, a priori from the used technology, only if the used admission control algorithm wisely shares the network's resources among the users. Any admission control algorithm on its turn can do so, only if every user respects the negotiated traffic parameters. Since any user could, maliciously or not, send at a higher rate than negotiated, i.e. use a higher share of resources than the negotiated one, in every network in which admission control is performed, a policing algorithm is used. An ideal policer should guarantee to reject no packet of a well-behaved user and police contract violation as rigidly as possible. All this independently of the characteristics of the monitored stream and of the background traffic. This holds also for Integrated Services (IS) based IP networks. In these networks, every user negotiates a peak and an average rate. In this paper we present the solution to the peak rate policing issue. We adapt the Generic Cell Rate Algorithm (GCRA), well-known policer used in ATM networks, to police the peak rate of flows of packets with variable length. We intuitively call this modified GCRA Generic Packet Rate Algorithm (GPRA) and dimension its parameters so that independently of the characteristics of the policed flow and of the background traffic, no packets of a well-behaved user are rejected and that the flows of any misbehaving user are rigidly policed. Copyright 2003 AEI. [source]


Fuel Cell Vehicle Simulation , Part 1: Benchmarking Available Fuel Cell Vehicle Simulation Tools

FUEL CELLS, Issue 3 2003
K.H. Hauer
Abstract Fuel cell vehicle simulation is one method for systematic and fast investigation of the different vehicle options (fuel choice, hybridization, reformer technologies). However, a sufficient modeling program, capable of modeling the different design options, is not available today. Modern simulation programs should be capable of serving as tools for analysis as well as development. Shortfalls of the existing programs, initially developed for internal combustion engine hybrid vehicles, are: (i)Insufficient modeling of transient characteristics; (ii) Insufficient modeling of the fuel cells system; (iii) Insufficient modeling of advanced hybrid systems; (iv) Employment of a non-causal (backwards looking) structure; (v) Significant shortcomings in the area of controls. In the area of analysis, a modeling tool for fuel cell vehicles needs to address the transient dynamic interaction between the electric drive train and the fuel cell system. Especially for vehicles with slow responding on-board fuel processor, this interaction is very different from the interaction between a battery (as power source) and an electric drive train in an electric vehicle design. Non-transient modeling leads to inaccurate predictions of vehicle performance and fuel consumption. When applied in the area of development, the existing programs do not support the employment of newer techniques, such as rapid prototyping. This is because the program structure merges control algorithms and component models, or different control algorithms (from different components) are lumped together in one single control block and not assigned to individual components as they are in real vehicles. In both cases, the transfer of control algorithms from the model into existing hardware is not possible. This paper is the first part of a three part series and benchmarks the "state of the art" of existing programs. The second paper introduces a new simulation program, which tries to overcome existing barriers. Specifically it explicitly recognizes the dynamic interaction between fuel cell system, drive train and optional additional energy storage. [source]


Stability and accuracy analysis of a discrete model reference adaptive controller without and with time delay

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 9 2010
Oreste S. Bursi
Abstract Adaptive control techniques can be applied to dynamical systems whose parameters are unknown. We propose a technique based on control and numerical analysis approaches to the study of the stability and accuracy of adaptive control algorithms affected by time delay. In particular, we consider the adaptive minimal control synthesis (MCS) algorithm applied to linear time-invariant plants, due to which, the whole controlled system generated from state and control equations discretized by the zero-order-hold (ZOH) sampling is nonlinear. Hence, we propose two linearization procedures for it: the first is via what we term as physical insight and the second is via Taylor series expansion. The physical insight scheme results in useful methods for a priori selection of the controller parameters and of the discrete-time step. As there is an inherent sampling delay in the process, a fixed one-step delay in the discrete-time MCS controller is introduced. This results in a reduction of both the absolute stability regions and the controller performance. Owing to the shortcomings of ZOH sampling in coping with high-frequency disturbances, a linearly implicit L-stable integrator is also used within a two degree-of-freedom controlled system. The effectiveness of the methodology is confirmed both by simulations and by experimental tests. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Control strategies for timestep selection in finite element simulation of incompressible flows and coupled reaction,convection,diffusion processes

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 3 2005
A. M. P. Valli
Abstract We propose two timestep selection algorithms, based on feedback control theory, for finite element simulation of steady state and transient 2D viscous flow and coupled reaction,convection,diffusion processes. To illustrate performance of the schemes in practice, we solve Rayleigh,Benard,Marangoni flows, flow across a backward-facing step, unsteady flow around a circular cylinder and chemical reaction systems. Numerical experiments confirm that the feedback controllers produce in some cases a very smooth stepsize variation, suggesting that robust control algorithms are possible. These experiments also show that parameter selection can improve timesteps when co-ordinated with the convergence control of non-linear iterations. Further, computational cost of the selection procedures is negligible, since they involve only storing a few extra vectors, computation of norms and evaluation of kinetic energy. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Delay aware reliable transport in wireless sensor networks

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 10 2007
Vehbi C. Gungor
Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are event-based systems that rely on the collective effort of several sensor nodes. Reliable event detection at the sink is based on collective information provided by the sensor nodes and not on any individual sensor data. Hence, conventional end-to-end reliability definitions and solutions are inapplicable in the WSN regime and would only lead to a waste of scarce sensor resources. Moreover, the reliability objective of WSN must be achieved within a certain real-time delay bound posed by the application. Therefore, the WSN paradigm necessitates a collective delay-constrained event-to-sink reliability notion rather than the traditional end-to-end reliability approaches. To the best of our knowledge, there is no transport protocol solution which addresses both reliability and real-time delay bound requirements of WSN simultaneously. In this paper, the delay aware reliable transport (DART) protocol is presented for WSN. The objective of the DART protocol is to timely and reliably transport event features from the sensor field to the sink with minimum energy consumption. In this regard, the DART protocol simultaneously addresses congestion control and timely event transport reliability objectives in WSN. In addition to its efficient congestion detection and control algorithms, it incorporates the time critical event first (TCEF) scheduling mechanism to meet the application-specific delay bounds at the sink node. Importantly, the algorithms of the DART protocol mainly run on resource rich sink node, with minimal functionality required at resource constrained sensor nodes. Furthermore, the DART protocol can accommodate multiple concurrent event occurrences in a wireless sensor field. Performance evaluation via simulation experiments show that the DART protocol achieves high performance in terms of real-time communication requirements, reliable event detection and energy consumption in WSN. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Unfairness of measurement-based admission controls in a heterogeneous environment

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 9 2001
Yuan-Cheng Lai
Abstract Admission controls are required to determine whether new connections should be admitted to networks. These controls ensure the quality of service (QoS) for data transmission. This paper introduces three measurement-based admission control algorithms called Measured Sum, Hoeffding Bound, and Adaptive Weight Factor. The unfairness of these algorithms in a heterogeneous environment is investigated. Simulation results indicate that the fairness of the Measured Sum exceeds that of the other methods. Admission of connections with large peak rates or travelling many hops can be difficult. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Nonlinear predictive control of smooth nonlinear systems based on Volterra models.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBUST AND NONLINEAR CONTROL, Issue 16 2010
Application to a pilot plant
Abstract There is a large demand to apply nonlinear algorithms to control nonlinear systems. With algorithms considering the process nonlinearities, better control performance is expected in the whole operating range than with linear control algorithms. Three predictive control algorithms based on a Volterra model are considered. The iterative predictive control algorithm to solve the complete nonlinear problem uses the non-autoregressive Volterra model calculated from the identified autoregressive Volterra model. Two algorithms for a reduced nonlinear optimization problem are considered for the unconstrained case, where an analytic control expression can be given. The performance of the three algorithms is analyzed and compared for reference signal tracking and disturbance rejection. The algorithms are applied and compared in simulation to control a Wiener model, and are used for real-time control of a chemical pilot plant. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A novel dual-mode predictive control strategy for constrained Wiener systems

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBUST AND NONLINEAR CONTROL, Issue 9 2010
Hai-Tao Zhang
Abstract In process industry, there exist many Wiener systems with input magnitude constraints for which, however, most of the existing control algorithms cannot guarantee to have sufficiently large regions of asymptotic stability. In this paper, the subspace method is applied to separate the nonlinear and linear blocks in a constrained multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) Wiener system and a novel dual-mode nonlinear model predictive control algorithm is developed to maximize the region of the asymptotic stability. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the virtues of this new control algorithm. The limitation is the requirement that the state and input matrices of the Wiener system's linear block should be accurately identified. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


On robust control algorithms for nonlinear network consensus protocols

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBUST AND NONLINEAR CONTROL, Issue 3 2010
Qing Hui
Abstract Even though many consensus protocol algorithms have been developed over the last several years in the literature, robustness properties of these algorithms involving nonlinear dynamics have been largely ignored. Robustness here refers to sensitivity of the control algorithm achieving semistability and consensus in the face of model uncertainty. In this paper, we examine the robustness of several control algorithms for network consensus protocols with information model uncertainty of a specified structure. In particular, we develop sufficient conditions for robust stability of control protocol functions involving higher-order perturbation terms that scale in a consistent fashion with respect to a scaling operation on an underlying space with the additional property that the protocol functions can be written as a sum of functions, each homogeneous with respect to a fixed scaling operation, that retain system semistability and consensus. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Optimal operation of CVT-based powertrains

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBUST AND NONLINEAR CONTROL, Issue 11 2001
Rolf Pfiffner
Abstract Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVTs) are considered by many as a promising contribution to the improvement of the fuel economy of passenger cars. This paper discusses the fuel-optimal operation of a CVT-equipped powertrain in stationary and in transient conditions. The well-known optimal solution in the stationary case will be given only a short review discussing the importance of a correct CVT efficiency model. For transient vehicle operation so far only heuristic control strategies are known. This work aims to fill this gap. After detailed modelling of the complete powertrain and the introduction of a meaningful cost function, the resulting nonlinear optimal control problem is solved. The optimization is carried out for two different engines: a conventional SI engine and a downsized supercharged (DSC) SI engine. Each can be considered as a typical representative of the corresponding engine class. In both cases the optimal solutions are shown to be superior to standard CVT control algorithms, yielding larger gains in fuel economy for DSC engines. The optimal feedforward controls are then approximated by suboptimal feedback controllers that realize almost the same benefits in fuel economy at a substantially reduced computational effort. Finally, it is shown how the well-known ,single track modified' control approach can be changed such that it produces the same results as the suboptimal controller. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Automatic guidance of a four-wheel-steering mobile robot for accurate field operations

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 6-7 2009
Christophe Cariou
As world population growth requires an increasing level of farm production at the same time that environmental preservation is a priority, the development of new agricultural tools and methods is required. In this framework, the development of robotic devices can provide an attractive solution, particularly in the field of autonomous vehicles. Accurate automatic guidance of mobile robots in farming constitutes a challenging problem for researchers, mainly due to the low grip conditions usually found in such a context. From assisted-steering systems to agricultural robotics, numerous control algorithms have been studied to achieve high-precision path tracking and have reached an accuracy within 10 cm, whatever the ground configuration and the path to be followed. However, most existing approaches consider classical two-wheel-steering vehicles. Unfortunately, by using such a steering system, only the lateral deviation with respect to the path to be followed can be satisfactorily controlled. Indeed, the heading of the vehicle remains dependent on the grip conditions, and crabwise motions, for example, are systematically observed on a slippery slope, leading to inaccurate field operations. To tackle this drawback, a four-wheel-steering (4WS) mobile robot is considered, enabling servo of both lateral and angular deviations with respect to a desired trajectory. The path tracking control is designed using an extended kinematic representation, allowing account to be taken online of wheel skidding, while a backstepping approach permits management of the 4WS structure. The result is an approach taking advantage of both rear and front steering actuations to fully compensate for sliding effects during path tracking. Moreover, a predictive algorithm is developed in order to address delays induced by steering actuators, compensating for transient overshoots in curves. Experimental results demonstrate that despite sliding phenomena, the mobile robot is able to automatically and accurately achieve a desired path, with lateral and angular errors, respectively, within 10 cm and 2 deg, whatever its shape and whatever the terrain conditions. This constitutes a promising result in efforts to define efficient tools with which to tackle tomorrow's agriculture challenge. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


The constant-Jacobian method for kinematics of a three-DOF planar micro-motion stage

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 2 2002
W. J. Zhang
This paper concerns the development of a class of devices that generate end-effector motion in the range of less than 100 ,m and with sub-nanometer resolution; in particular, a parallel manipulator configuration that generates a planar x - y -, motion is considered. The parallel manipulator is implemented as a compliant mechanism. A problem with parallel manipulators is that the forward kinematics is usually too complex, which can hinder the implementation of advanced control algorithms. The contribution of this paper is that a simple method, called the constant-Jacobian (CJ) method, is developed based on the pseudo-rigid body (PRB) approach to compliant mechanisms. The experiment validates the CJ method. 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


Robustness of time-scale learning of robot motions to uncertainty in acquired knowledge

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 10 2001
C.C. Cheah
A disadvantage of present iterative learning control algorithms is that they are generally applicable only in cases where a certain task is performed over and over again. Consequently, if knowledge or control inputs acquired from learning a task can be used on similar tasks, learning will be more efficient. Recently, several methods for constructing the control input of a new motion based on the control inputs acquired from previous learning of similar tasks have been proposed. However, these methods assumed that the perfect control inputs could be obtained from the previous learning. In practice, the control inputs could never be obtained exactly from learning in the presence of certain uncertainties such as disturbance and measurement noises. In addition, it is also not known for sure how the basic motion patterns should be chosen for learning. In this article, the robustness problem of the time-scale learning control to uncertainty in the acquired learning control inputs is formulated and solved. From the analysis, certain new insights such as its implication to choices of basic motion patterns for time-scale learning will be discussed. Simulation results of a 3-link robot are presented to illustrate the analysis. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


Adaptive exponential stabilization of mobile robots with unknown constant-input disturbance

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 6 2001
Weiguo Wu
This paper concentrates on the discussions on stabilization of mobile robots with unknown constant-input disturbance. Continuous time-varying adaptive controllers are designed for mobile robots in a chain-form by using Lyapunov approach. With the property of homogeneous systems, uncertain mobile robots governed by the proposed control algorithms become homogeneous of order 0 to achieve exponential stability. Simulation results validate the theoretical analysis. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


On singular behaviors of impedance-based repeatable control for redundant robots

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 4 2001
Chau-Chang Wang
This article addresses the association between the unstiffening phenomena in structural mechanics and the algorithmic singularities encountered in the impedance-based repeatable control algorithms used to command redundant manipulators. It is well known that velocity control schemes such as the pseudoinverse control schemes do not guarantee repeatability for redundant manipulators. In other words, for a closed end-effector trajectory, the joints do not, in general, exhibit a closed trajectory. One way to overcome this problem is to model each joint with compliance and incorporate a second-order correction term for the pseudoinverse. With this model, the joint configuration adopted by the manipulator at a given point in task space is one which minimizes the artificial potential energy of the system and is locally unique. In terms of statics, this is equivalent to saying that the elastic structure reaches its static equilibrium under external load. Keep this analogy in mind. We know that the impedance control commands the manipulator to mimic the behavior of an elastic articulated chain. For any phenomena observable on a real elastic structure, we should be able to find its counterpart embedded in the impedance control. In this article, we analyze the performance of such repeatable control algorithms from the point of view of structure mechanics. Singularities in the algorithm are examined and their significance in mechanics are also discussed. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


Nonlinear temperature control of a batch suspension polymerization reactor

POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 6 2002
Mohammad Shahrokhi
This paper concerns nonlinear temperature control of a batch polymerization reactor where suspension polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) takes place. For this purpose, four control algorithms, namely, a fix proportional-integral (PI) controller, an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and two globally linearizing control (GLC) schemes, one for known kinetic model (GLC-I) and the other for unknown kinetic model (GLC-II), are selected. The performances of these controllers are compared through simulation and real-time studies in the presence of different levels of parameter uncertainty. The results indicate that GLCI and GLC-II have better performances than fix PI and adaptive PID, especially in case of strong gel effect. The worst performance belongs to adaptive PID because of rapid model changes in gel effect region. GLC-II has a simpler structure than GLC-I and can be used without requiring the kinetic model. In implementation of GLC-I the closed loop observer should be used because of model uncertainties. [source]


FCCU simulation based on first principle and artificial neural network models

ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2009
Maria Mihe
Abstract A first principle model has been developed for the reactor,regenerator system based on construction and operating data from an industrial fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU). The first principle model takes into account the main FCCU subsystems: reactor riser, regenerator, stripper, catalyst circulation lines, air blower, wet gas compressor and main fractionator. A five-lump kinetic scheme has been considered for the reactions taking place in the reactor riser. Subsequently, an artificial neural network (ANN) model has been built for the complex FCCU system. The dynamic simulator, based on the previously developed first principle model, served as the source of reliable data for ANN design, training and testing. The ANN developed model was successfully trained and tested. Comparison between first principle and neural network based model leads to a very good match between the two models. Results show the substantial reduction of the computation time featured by the ANN model compared to the first principle model, demonstrating its potential use for real-time implementation in model-based control algorithms. Copyright 2009 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]