Control

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Control

  • access control
  • accounting control
  • accurate control
  • acid control
  • active control
  • adaptive control
  • adaptive robust control
  • additional control
  • adequate control
  • adequate glycaemic control
  • adequate pain control
  • admission control
  • adult control
  • age control
  • age-matched control
  • age-matched healthy control
  • age-matched male control
  • age-matched normal control
  • aged control
  • air pollution control
  • alcohol control
  • ambient control
  • amplification control
  • anger control
  • angle control
  • appropriate control
  • asthma control
  • asymptomatic control
  • attentional control
  • automatic control
  • autonomic control
  • baroreflex control
  • baseline control
  • behavioral control
  • behavioural control
  • biochemical control
  • biological control
  • birth control
  • bladder control
  • blank control
  • blood flow control
  • blood glucose control
  • blood pressure control
  • body control
  • border control
  • bottom-up control
  • boundary control
  • bp control
  • bureaucratic control
  • call admission control
  • cancer control
  • cancer-free control
  • capital control
  • cardiac autonomic control
  • cardiovascular control
  • careful control
  • case control
  • caucasian control
  • cell cycle control
  • cell-cycle control
  • cellular control
  • central control
  • checkpoint control
  • chemical control
  • chirality control
  • circadian control
  • classical biological control
  • climate control
  • climatic control
  • clinical control
  • close control
  • closed-loop control
  • cognitive control
  • coherent control
  • community control
  • complete control
  • composition control
  • concurrent control
  • congestion control
  • connection admission control
  • conscious control
  • conservation biological control
  • consumer control
  • contamination control
  • coordinated control
  • corporate control
  • corresponding control
  • corrosion control
  • cost control
  • cultural control
  • cycle control
  • degradation control
  • descending control
  • developmental control
  • diabetes control
  • diabetic control
  • diet control
  • dietary control
  • differential control
  • diploid control
  • direct control
  • disease control
  • distant control
  • dominant control
  • doping control
  • drug control
  • dual control
  • dynamic control
  • effective control
  • efferent control
  • efficient control
  • effortful control
  • elderly control
  • electronic control
  • emission control
  • emotional control
  • endemic control
  • endocrine control
  • environmental control
  • epigenetic control
  • erosion control
  • error control
  • euthyroid control
  • excellent control
  • executive control
  • experimental control
  • external control
  • factor control
  • family control
  • fault-tolerant control
  • fdr control
  • feedback control
  • feedforward control
  • female control
  • fertile control
  • fertility control
  • financial control
  • fine control
  • fine motor control
  • flexible control
  • flood control
  • flow control
  • flux control
  • fly control
  • food safety control
  • force control
  • frequency control
  • full control
  • full-term control
  • fuzzy control
  • fuzzy logic control
  • gain control
  • general population control
  • generalized predictive control
  • genetic control
  • genomic control
  • glucose control
  • glycaemic control
  • glycemic control
  • good control
  • good glycaemic control
  • good glycemic control
  • good local control
  • good metabolic control
  • good symptom control
  • government control
  • grazer control
  • greater control
  • group control
  • growth control
  • healthy age-matched control
  • healthy control
  • healthy female control
  • hearing control
  • histological control
  • historical control
  • hiv-negative control
  • homeostatic control
  • horizon control
  • hormonal control
  • hospital control
  • hypertension control
  • hypothalamic control
  • i error control
  • immediate control
  • immigration control
  • immune control
  • immunological control
  • impaired control
  • impedance control
  • important control
  • improved control
  • improved glycaemic control
  • improving glycaemic control
  • impulse control
  • independent control
  • individual control
  • infection control
  • informal control
  • informal social control
  • inhibitory control
  • institutional control
  • insufficient control
  • intact control
  • intelligent control
  • intensive glycaemic control
  • internal amplification control
  • internal control
  • internal positive control
  • intuitive control
  • iterative learning control
  • job control
  • joint control
  • kinetic control
  • land degradation control
  • lean control
  • learner control
  • learning control
  • legal control
  • limited control
  • list control
  • littermate control
  • little control
  • local control
  • local tumor control
  • locomotion control
  • locoregional control
  • logic control
  • long-term control
  • low control
  • main control
  • major control
  • malaria control
  • male control
  • management control
  • manual control
  • margin control
  • matched control
  • matched healthy control
  • maternal control
  • matrix control
  • medium access control
  • metabolic control
  • microstructural control
  • migration control
  • modal control
  • mode control
  • model control
  • model predictive control
  • model reference adaptive control
  • molecular control
  • molecular weight control
  • morphological control
  • morphology control
  • motion control
  • motor control
  • mrsa control
  • multivariate statistical process control
  • muscle control
  • naive control
  • naïve control
  • negative control
  • nervous control
  • neural control
  • neuroendocrine control
  • nitrogen control
  • noise control
  • non-allergic control
  • non-asthmatic control
  • non-atopic control
  • non-cancer control
  • non-diabetic control
  • non-exposed control
  • non-transgenic control
  • non-treated control
  • nonatopic control
  • nondiabetic control
  • nonirradiated control
  • nonlinear control
  • nonlinear predictive control
  • normal control
  • normal healthy control
  • normotensive control
  • normoxic control
  • on-line control
  • one control
  • online control
  • only control
  • optimal control
  • optimal feedback control
  • optimal glycemic control
  • organizational control
  • orientation control
  • other control
  • output feedback control
  • own control
  • pain control
  • pain-free control
  • pair-fed control
  • parasite control
  • parental control
  • party control
  • passive control
  • pediatric control
  • perceived behavioral control
  • perceived behavioural control
  • perceived control
  • periodontally healthy control
  • personal control
  • pest control
  • ph control
  • phase control
  • photoperiodic control
  • physiological control
  • pi control
  • pid control
  • placebo control
  • plaque control
  • political control
  • pollution control
  • polymerization control
  • poor asthma control
  • poor control
  • poor glycaemic control
  • poor glycemic control
  • poor impulse control
  • poor metabolic control
  • population control
  • position control
  • positive control
  • post-transcriptional control
  • postoperative pain control
  • postural control
  • potential control
  • power control
  • precise control
  • predator control
  • predictive control
  • pressure control
  • price control
  • primary control
  • process control
  • production control
  • proliferation control
  • proper control
  • proposed control
  • protein quality control
  • psychological control
  • quality control
  • quantitative control
  • rapid control
  • rate control
  • reaction control
  • real-time control
  • reference adaptive control
  • reflex control
  • regional control
  • regulatory control
  • remote control
  • rent control
  • repetitive control
  • respective control
  • respiratory control
  • response control
  • reversible control
  • rhythm control
  • rigorous control
  • risk factor control
  • robust adaptive control
  • robust control
  • robust nonlinear control
  • routine quality control
  • safety control
  • saline control
  • saline-treated control
  • sampled-data control
  • satisfactory control
  • security control
  • sedentary control
  • seizure control
  • selected control
  • selective control
  • service control
  • sham control
  • sham-operated control
  • shape control
  • sibling control
  • signal control
  • similar control
  • similar glycaemic control
  • simple control
  • simple genetic control
  • simultaneous control
  • size control
  • sliding mode control
  • sliding-mode control
  • social control
  • soil erosion control
  • solvent control
  • source control
  • spatial control
  • spatio-temporal control
  • spatiotemporal control
  • specific control
  • speed control
  • standard control
  • state control
  • state feedback control
  • statistical control
  • statistical process control
  • stereochemical control
  • stimulus control
  • stomatal control
  • strict control
  • strong control
  • strong genetic control
  • structural control
  • structure control
  • successful control
  • supervisory control
  • sustainable control
  • switching control
  • sympathetic control
  • symptom control
  • symptomatic control
  • system control
  • tectonic control
  • temperature control
  • temporal control
  • term control
  • therapeutic control
  • thermodynamic control
  • tick control
  • tight control
  • tight glycaemic control
  • tight glycemic control
  • time control
  • tobacco control
  • top-down control
  • topographic control
  • torque control
  • tracking control
  • traffic control
  • transcriptional control
  • translation control
  • translational control
  • treatment control
  • trophic control
  • tumor control
  • tumour control
  • type control
  • type i error control
  • ultrasound control
  • unaffected control
  • uncoated control
  • undisturbed control
  • unexposed control
  • unfertilized control
  • uninfected control
  • unrelated control
  • unselected control
  • untreated control
  • urinary control
  • user control
  • v control
  • vagal control
  • vasomotor control
  • vector control
  • vegetation control
  • vehicle control
  • vehicle-treated control
  • velocity control
  • vibration control
  • viral control
  • visual control
  • voltage control
  • volume control
  • vs. control
  • wait-list control
  • waiting list control
  • waitlist control
  • water control
  • weed control
  • weight control
  • white control
  • wild type control
  • wild-type control
  • wildtype control
  • wt control
  • young control

  • Terms modified by Control

  • control act
  • control action
  • control activity
  • control agent
  • control algorithm
  • control algorithms
  • control allele
  • control alone
  • control analysis
  • control animals
  • control antibody
  • control aphid
  • control application
  • control approach
  • control architecture
  • control area
  • control arm
  • control assessment
  • control association study
  • control behavior
  • control behaviour
  • control belief
  • control biopsy
  • control bird
  • control boy
  • control brain
  • control calf
  • control case
  • control cell
  • control cell line
  • control center
  • control chart
  • control cheese
  • control child
  • control chromosome
  • control circuit
  • control coefficient
  • control cohort
  • control colony
  • control command
  • control comparison
  • control concept
  • control condition
  • control configuration
  • control constraint
  • control construct
  • control counterpart
  • control cow
  • control culture
  • control dam
  • control data
  • control day
  • control deficit
  • control design
  • control design procedure
  • control device
  • control diet
  • control disorder
  • control disorders
  • control dog
  • control donor
  • control dough
  • control effects
  • control efficacy
  • control effort
  • control element
  • control embryo
  • control engineering
  • control environment
  • control establishment
  • control examination
  • control exercise
  • control experiment
  • control expression
  • control eye
  • control factor
  • control failure
  • control family
  • control feature
  • control feed
  • control female
  • control fetuse
  • control fibroblast
  • control field
  • control firm
  • control fish
  • control force
  • control framework
  • control free
  • control frequency
  • control fruit
  • control function
  • control gain
  • control gel
  • control gene
  • control graft
  • control group
  • control group consisting
  • control group design
  • control group patient
  • control group.
  • control groups
  • control hamster
  • control heart
  • control horse
  • control implant
  • control index
  • control individual
  • control infant
  • control initiative
  • control input
  • control insect
  • control intervention
  • control issues
  • control laboratory
  • control larva
  • control law
  • control leaf
  • control level
  • control limb
  • control limit
  • control line
  • control literature
  • control littermate
  • control loop
  • control lyapunov function
  • control male
  • control man
  • control material
  • control matrix
  • control measure
  • control measurement
  • control mechanism
  • control medium
  • control mesocosm
  • control method
  • control method.
  • control methodology
  • control methods
  • control mode
  • control model
  • control module
  • control monkey
  • control mother
  • control mouse
  • control muscle
  • control nerve
  • control nest
  • control nestling
  • control network
  • control nucleus
  • control objective
  • control ones
  • control only
  • control operations
  • control option
  • control outcome
  • control packet
  • control pair
  • control parameter
  • control parent
  • control participant
  • control pathway
  • control patient
  • control peptide
  • control performance
  • control period
  • control person
  • control phase
  • control pill
  • control placenta
  • control plant
  • control plasma
  • control plasmid
  • control plot
  • control point
  • control policy
  • control pond
  • control population
  • control practice
  • control pregnancy
  • control proband
  • control problem
  • control procedure
  • control process
  • control product
  • control program
  • control programme
  • control project
  • control property
  • control protein
  • control protocol
  • control purpose
  • control questionnaire
  • control rabbits
  • control range
  • control rat
  • control rate
  • control ratio
  • control region
  • control region sequence
  • control regions
  • control regulation
  • control research
  • control response
  • control retina
  • control right
  • control risk
  • control root
  • control run
  • control sample
  • control scale
  • control scheme
  • control score
  • control section
  • control sediment
  • control seed
  • control seedling
  • control sequence
  • control sera
  • control series
  • control serum
  • control session
  • control set
  • control side
  • control signal
  • control sirna
  • control site
  • control situation
  • control skin
  • control slice
  • control software
  • control soil
  • control solution
  • control space
  • control specimen
  • control stand
  • control standards
  • control status
  • control stimulus
  • control strain
  • control strategy
  • control stream
  • control structure
  • control studies
  • control study
  • control subject
  • control surface
  • control surgery
  • control synthesis
  • control system
  • control system design
  • control system performance
  • control tactic
  • control task
  • control technique
  • control techniques
  • control technology
  • control term
  • control test
  • control theory
  • control therapy
  • control time
  • control tissue
  • control tool
  • control tooth
  • control treatment
  • control tree
  • control trial
  • control trials
  • control trials register
  • control tumor
  • control unit
  • control v
  • control value
  • control valve
  • control variable
  • control vector
  • control volume
  • control volume method
  • control volunteer
  • control water
  • control woman
  • control zone

  • Selected Abstracts


    Differences in Trait Anger Among Children with Varying Levels of Anger Expression Patterns

    JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC NURSING, Issue 2 2006
    Marti Rice PhD
    PROBLEM:,Little research has been done with children to determine effects of using various patterns of anger expression on trait anger. The purpose was to examine differences in trait anger of children who indicated high, moderate, or low use of three patterns of anger expression. METHODS:,A convenience sample of 1,060 third through sixth graders completed trait anger and patterns of expressing anger instruments. FINDINGS:,High users of anger-out (anger expressed outwardly) had the highest trait anger for every grade while high users of anger-reflection/control had the lowest. CONCLUSIONS:,Anger-reflection/control may be more effective than anger-out in reducing trait anger in school-age children. [source]


    APPLYING MACHINE LEARNING TO LOW-KNOWLEDGE CONTROL OF OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHMS

    COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, Issue 4 2005
    Tom Carchrae
    This paper addresses the question of allocating computational resources among a set of algorithms to achieve the best performance on scheduling problems. Our primary motivation in addressing this problem is to reduce the expertise needed to apply optimization technology. Therefore, we investigate algorithm control techniques that make decisions based only on observations of the improvement in solution quality achieved by each algorithm. We call our approach "low knowledge" since it does not rely on complex prediction models, either of the problem domain or of algorithm behavior. We show that a low-knowledge approach results in a system that achieves significantly better performance than all of the pure algorithms without requiring additional human expertise. Furthermore the low-knowledge approach achieves performance equivalent to a perfect high-knowledge classification approach. [source]


    THE ROLE OF PUBLIC SOCIAL CONTROL IN URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS: A MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS OF VICTIMIZATION RISK,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    MARÍA B. VÉLEZ
    This study introduces public social control into multilevel victimization research by investigating its impact on household and personal victimization risk for residents across 60 urban neighborhoods. Public social control refers to the ability of neighborhoods to secure external resources necessary for the reduction of crime and victimization. I find that living in neighborhoods with high levels of public social control reduces an individual's likelihood of victimization, especially in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Given the important role that residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods can play in securing public social control, this contingent finding suggests that disadvantaged neighborhoods can be politically viable contexts. [source]


    CRIME (CONTROL) IS A CHOICE: DIVERGENT PERSPECTIVES ON THE ROLE OF TREATMENT IN THE ADULT CORRECTIONS SYSTEM

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 2 2005
    JAMES M. BYRNE
    [source]


    ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF MASS INCARCERATION ON INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL IN COMMUNITIES

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 2 2004
    JAMES P. LYNCH
    Research Summary: This paper reviews and evaluates the existing (and limited) evidence that increases in incarceration have affected the ability of residential neighborhoods to perform their traditional social control functions. It suggests that, although comparatively weak, the evidence points to the increases in the level and clustering in social and geographic space of incarceration as contributing to changes in the social organization of affected communities by weakening family formation, labor force attachments, and patterns of social interaction among residents. At the same time, however, the paper does find support for the contention that incarceration leads to reductions in crime in affected communities. Policy Implications: To the extent that mass incarceration disrupts patterns of social interaction, weakens community social organization, and decreases the stigma of imprisonment, its longer-run effects may be to reduce its effectiveness. [source]


    RIGHT-TO-CARRY CONCEALED HANDGUNS AND VIOLENT CRIME: CRIME CONTROL THROUGH GUN DECONTROL?,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 3 2003
    TOMISLAV V. KOVANDZIC
    Research Summary: "Right-to-Carry" (RTC) concealed-handgun laws mandate that authorities issue concealed handgun permits to qualified applicants. The supposition by those supporting the laws is that allowing private citizens to carry concealed handguns in public can reduce violent crime by deterring prospective criminals afraid of encountering armed civilians. Critics of the laws argue that violent altercations are more likely to turn deadly when more people carry guns. Whether the laws cause violent crime to increase or to decrease has become an important public policy question, as most states have now adopted such legislation. The present study evaluates Florida's 1987 RTC law, which prior research suggests plays a key role in the RTC debate. Specifically, we use panel data for 58 Florida counties from 1980 to 2000 to examine the effects on violent crime from increases in the number of people with concealed-carry permits, rather than before-after dummy and time-trend variables used in prior research. We also address many of the methodological problems encountered in earlier RTC studies. We present numerous model specifications, and we find little evidence that increases in the number of citizens with concealed-handgun permits reduce or increase rates of violent crime. Policy Implications: The main policy implication of this research is that there appears to be little gained in the way of crime prevention by converting restrictive gun carrying laws to "shall-issue" laws, although the laws might still prove beneficial by (1) eliminating arbitrary decisions on gun permit applications, (2) encouraging gun safety, (3) making permit holders feel safer when out in public, (4) providing permit holders with a more effective means of self-defense, and (5) reducing the costs to police departments of enforcing laws prohibiting unlicensed gun carrying. [source]


    ARGUING OVER [THE] REMOTE CONTROL: WHY INDIGENOUS POLICY NEEDS TO BE BASED ON EVIDENCE AND NOT HYPERBOLE

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 1 2007
    BOYD H. HUNTER
    Recent public debate on Indigenous issues has been provoked, inter alia, by a 2005 Centre for Independent Studies paper by Helen Hughes and Jenness Warin, who focused on the extent to which policies have been effective in improving the living conditions of Indigenous Australians since the era of self-determination commenced. Unfortunately, the quality of historical data is questionable, and hence we need an appreciation of the reliability of estimates. The 2002 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey allows a detailed interrogation of the reliability of estimates. This paper critically analyses socioeconomic changes between 1994 and 2002 for remote and other areas by comparing the recent data with analogous data collected in 1994. Changes in health status and a range of socio-economic indicators are documented to provide a more balanced assessment of the level of economic and social development in the respective areas. [source]


    MORAL FORMATION, CULTURAL ATTACHMENT OR SOCIAL CONTROL: WHAT'S THE POINT OF VALUES EDUCATION?

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 1 2000
    David Carr
    First page of article [source]


    2008,LITHUANIA'S YEAR OF SOBRIETY: ALCOHOL CONTROL BECOMES A PRIORITY OF HEALTH POLICY

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    AURELIJUS VERYGA
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THE HOLY GRAIL OF SUPPLY CONTROL: HAVE WE FOUND THE EVIDENCE?

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2009
    REBECCA MCKETIN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC CONTROL OF SEASONAL POLYPHENISM IN LARVAL COLOR AND ITS ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE IN A SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLY

    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2002
    Wade N. Hazel
    Abstract Seasonal polyphenism, in which different forms of a species are produced at different times of the year, is a common form of phenotypic plasticity among insects. Here I show that the production of dark fifth-instar caterpillars of the eastern black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes, is a seasonal polyphenism, with larvae reared on autumnal conditions being significantly darker than larvae reared on midsummer conditions. Both rearing photoperiod and temperature were found to have individual and synergistic effects on larval darkness. Genetic analysis of variation among full-sibling families reared on combinations of two different temperatures and photoperiods is consistent with the hypothesis that variation in darkness is heritable. In addition, the genetic correlation in larval darkness across midsummer and autumnal environments is not different from zero, suggesting that differential gene expression is responsible for the increase in larval darkness in the autumn. The relatively dark autumnal form was found to have a higher body temperature in sunlight than did the lighter midsummer form, and small differences in temperature were found to increase larval growth rate. These results suggest that this genetically based seasonal polyphenism in larval color has evolved in part to increase larval growth rates in the autumn. [source]


    MULTILEVEL FRAMING: AN ALTERNATIVE UNDERSTANDING OF BUDGET CONTROL IN PUBLIC ENTERPRISES

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2010
    Lars Fallan
    This paper addresses the question as to why there tends to be recurring budget deviations in public sector service organizations. In the public sector, budgets and actuals are loosely coupled, and budgets may serve other institutional functions than control purposes. However, little research has addressed how the framing of budget information may explain the different functions of the budgets as control devices. The paper argues that the valence of budget deviations varies between organizations, and that organizations that have a positively oriented valence towards budget surpluses have a propensity to underspend the budgets. Consequently, organizations that have a positively oriented valence towards budget deficits tend to overspend the budgets. The empirical part analyses the budget situations in the Central Bank of Norway and in a large university hospital in Norway. In the case of the Bank, it was found that underspending of budgets was framed as performance measures indicating high organizational efficiency. The Hospital, on the other hand, showed a different picture as budget deficits were the situation during all years studied. One main finding was the key actors' roles as translators of the society's expectations as to the fulfilling of the organizations' missions. These translators function as mediators between the institutional context and pressures, the organizations' goals and the internal budget processes. The conventional wisdom that the budget also acts as a means of communication and as symbols and ritual acts that reflect the institutional contingencies of the organizations, is further developed by describing how organizations' goals valence the role of budgets. [source]


    HORMONAL CONTROL OF THE VITELLOGENESIS IN THE JAPANESE OAK SILKWORM, ANTHERAEA YAMAMAZ (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE)

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2002
    YE Gong-yin
    Abstract Effects of ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone (JH) on vitellogenesis of the Japanese oak silkworm, Antheraea yamami are reported in this article. After topical treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone alone or JH analog (i.e. methoprene) alone and combined treatment with these two chemicals, vitellogenin (Vg) titers in the fat body and haemolymph at the pupal stage were mostly higher than those of the control, indicating that both ecdysteroid and JH exerted a promoting effect on the synthesis of Vg. In contrast, the Vg uptake was markedly inhibited by JH while stimulating effect of the ecdysteroid could be shown that vitellin (Vt) titer in the ovary was lower after methoprene treatments, but higher after 20-hydroxyecdyson treatments. Meanwhile, effects of these two hormones on Vg synthesis in the fat body were also tested with the incubation in vitro with Grace medium containing H-leucine and the hormones. The results demonstrated that Vg synthesis was stimulated after treating with methoprene alone or 20-hydroxyecdysone alone and combined treating with these two chemicals, and particularly ecdysteroid had more marked positive effect. To comprehensively concluded our results, it could be regarded that ecdysteroid play the main role in the regulation of vitellogenesis for the Japanese oak silkworm. [source]


    INFECTION CONTROL IN LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES: THE NEED FOR ENGAGEMENT

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 3 2009
    Denise R. Flinn MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AND ITS AWARENESS, TREATMENT, AND SATISFACTORY CONTROL THROUGH TREATMENT IN ELDERLY JAPANESE

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 2 2008
    Masayuki Ishine MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    A NEW APPROACH TO MODELING AND CONTROL OF A FOOD EXTRUSION PROCESS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND AN EXPERT SYSTEM

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2001
    OTILIA POPESCU
    ABSTRACT The paper presents a new approach to the modeling of the start-up part of a food extrusion process. A neural network model is proposed and its parameters are determined. Simulation results with real data are also presented. The inputs and outputs of the model are among those used by the human operator during the start-up process for control. An intelligent controller structure that uses an expert system and "delta-variations" to modify inputs is also proposed. [source]


    RADIO FREQUENCY-HOT WATER DIPS FOR POSTHARVEST CODLING MOTH CONTROL IN APPLES,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 6 2006
    J.D. HANSEN
    ABSTRACT A combination radio frequency-hot water dip method was examined as a potential quarantine treatment against fifth instars of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apples, Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf., which were intended for export to Japan. The apples were initially exposed to 27.12-MHz radio frequency energy at 12 kW for 2.75 min and were then submerged in a range of hot water dips (48,50C) for different durations. Efficacious tests were at 48C for >2 h, at 49C for >50 min and at 50C for >40 min. Fruit quality tests indicated that the best hot water parameters were at 50C for 40 min. Fruit quality after 2 weeks was cultivar dependent where "Fuji" apples tolerated heat treatment better than "Delicious" and "Gala" apples. None of the treated fruits were acceptable after 60 days. Regardless of cultivar, heat treatment resulted in loss of both peel and fresh colors, coupled with reduced firmness and increased external and internal damage. [source]


    MULTIVARIATE QUALITY CONTROL WITH APPLICATIONS TO SENSORY DATA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 6 2000
    DANIEL M. ENNIS
    ABSTRACT Sensory perceptions of consumer products are generally multivariate. Quality assurance of these products depends on methods that account for multidimensionality. In this paper it is shown how to set multivariate specifications and to use them to establish control charts and acceptance sampling plans for sensory measures of food and beverage products. OC curves describing the operating characteristics of the control charts and the sampling plans are given. [source]


    CONTAMINATION OF GRAINS BY MYCOTOXIN-PRODUCING MOLDS AND MYCOTOXINS AND CONTROL BY GAMMA IRRADIATION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2006
    NAGY H. AZIZ
    ABSTRACT Ninety random grain samples were collected and analyzed for mycotoxins, and the effect of gamma irradiation on the production of mycotoxins in grains was studied. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Fusarium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis and Cladosporium were the most common fungal genera isolated from grains. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium verrucosumwere the most common Aspergillus and Penicillium species in grains. Out of 120 Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates, 80 were mycotoxin producers. Analysis of grains revealed the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 ochratoxin A, cycolopiazonic acid and citrinin. Of the 90 samples, 67 were positive for one or more mycotoxin. Irradiation of grains at dose of 2.0 and 4.0 kGy decreased significantly the total fungal counts compared with unirradiated controls. After 100 days of storage at room temperature, the unirradiated grains were contaminated with high concentrations of mycotoxins as compared with irradiated 4.0-kGy samples. Mycotoxin production in grains decreased with increasing irradiation doses and was not detected at 6.0 kGy over 100 days of storage. [source]


    META-ANALYSIS OF GRAZER CONTROL OF PERIPHYTON BIOMASS ACROSS AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Helmut Hillebrand
    Grazer control of periphyton biomass has been addressed in numerous experimental studies in all kinds of aquatic habitats. In this meta-analysis, the results of 865 experiments are quantitatively synthesized in order to address the following questions: (i) Do lotic, lentic, and marine ecosystems differ in their degree of grazer control of periphyton biomass? (ii) Which environmental variables affect the degree of grazer control? (iii) How much does the result of these experiments depend on facets of experimental design? Across all ecosystems, the grazers removed on average 59% of the periphyton biomass, with grazing being significantly stronger for laboratory (65%) than for field (56%) experiments. Neither field nor lab experiments showed a significant difference among lotic, lentic, and coastal habitats. Among different taxonomic consumer groups, crustaceans (amphipods and isopods) and trichopteran larvae removed the highest proportion of periphyton biomass. Grazer effects increased with increasing algal biomass, with decreasing resource availability and with increasing temperature, especially in field experiments. Grazer effects also increased with increasing total grazer biomass in field experiments but showed the opposite trend in lab experiments, indicating a tendency toward overcrowded lab experiments. Other aspects of experimental design, such as cage type, size, and duration of the study, strongly affected the outcome of the experiments, suggesting that much care has to be placed on the choice of experimental design. [source]


    CHARACTERIZATION OF A DINOFLAGELLATE CRYPTOCHROME BLUE-LIGHT RECEPTOR WITH A POSSIBLE ROLE IN CIRCADIAN CONTROL OF THE CELL CYCLE,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Stephanie A. Brunelle
    Karenia brevis (C. C. Davis) G. Hansen et Moestrup is a dinoflagellate responsible for red tides in the Gulf of Mexico. The signaling pathways regulating its cell cycle are of interest because they are the key to the formation of toxic blooms that cause mass marine animal die-offs and human illness. Karenia brevis displays phased cell division, in which cells enter S phase at precise times relative to the onset of light. Here, we demonstrate that a circadian rhythm underlies this behavior and that light quality affects the rate of cell-cycle progression: in blue light, K. brevis entered the S phase early relative to its behavior in white light of similar intensity, whereas in red light, K. brevis was not affected. A data base of 25,000 K. brevis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) revealed several sequences with similarity to cryptochrome blue-light receptors, but none related to known red-light receptors. We characterized the K. brevis cryptochrome (Kb CRY) and modeled its three-dimensional protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis of the photolyase/CRY gene family showed that Kb CRY is a member of the cryptochrome DASH (CRY DASH) clade. Western blotting with an antibody designed to bind a conserved peptide within Kb CRY identified a single band at ,55 kDa. Immunolocalization showed that Kb CRY, like CRY DASH in Arabidopsis, is localized to the chloroplast. This is the first blue-light receptor to be characterized in a dinoflagellate. As the Kb CRY appears to be the only blue-light receptor expressed, it is a likely candidate for circadian entrainment of the cell cycle. [source]


    THE LONG AND THE SHORT OF FLAGELLAR LENGTH CONTROL

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
    Peter L. Beech
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    LIGHT REGULATION OF PHYCOBILISOME BIOSYNTHESIS AND CONTROL BY A PHYTOCHROME-LIKE PHOTORECEPTOR

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2000
    K. Terauchi
    Ambient light quality changes dramatically affect the composition of light harvesting structures, the phycobilisomes, in many cyanobacterial species. In the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon, shifts in the ratio of red to green light lead to transcriptional changes and altered synthesis of several phycobilisome components. This process is called complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). These two colors have opposite effects: red light activates an operon encoding the biliprotein phycocyanin (PC) and inactivates the operon encoding phycoerythrin (PE), whereas green light activates PE synthesis and shuts down PC synthesis. The effects of red and green light on CCA are photoreversible. Thus, CCA is similar to transcriptional processes that are controlled by phytochromes, a family of eukaryotic red/far red photoreversible photoreceptors. We are using molecular genetics to determine the mechanisms by which F. diplosiphon senses changes in the color of light of its environment. Initial mutant generation and complementation lead to the discovery of three CCA regulatory components that are part of a complex two component system. The most interesting of these is RcaE (regulator of chromatic adaptation), a histidine kinase-class protein containing a region in its amino-terminal half with similarity to the chromophore binding domains of phytochromes. Within this region, RcaE contains a cysteine residue in a similar location as that used for covalent attachment of the open-chain tetrapyrrole chromophore in phytochromes. We will present recent data characterizing RcaE, including in vivo analysis of the chromophore that is attached to RcaE, as well as results from our recent isolation of a new CCA regulatory component. [source]


    NURSES' KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF VASCULAR ACCESS INFECTION CONTROL IN HAEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND

    JOURNAL OF RENAL CARE, Issue 2 2008
    DipNS, Margaret Higgins RN
    SUMMARY Vascular access hygiene is an integral component of haemodialysis care. Ensuring nurses possess sufficient knowledge and utilise recommended guidelines on infection control is essential for safe practice and patient safety. The study aimed to investigate nurses' knowledge and practice of vascular access infection control among adult haemodialysis patients in the Republic of Ireland. A confidential self-completion questionnaire was sent to all 190 qualified nurses employed in nine haemodialysis units in the Republic of Ireland, which assessed knowledge and behaviour in infection control. Although 92% of respondents reported that policies had been developed by their units and 47% had received infection control education in the previous year, knowledge and adherence to best practice demonstrated significant scope for improvement. The study recommended the development of standard guidelines and regular reviews and updates of policies. Systems should also be developed to ensure a high level of compliance. [source]


    A MODEL TO ENHANCE WETLAND DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONTROL,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 1 2002
    Erik R. Lee
    ABSTRACT: A dynamic, compartmental, simulation model (WETLAND) was developed for the design and evaluation of constructed wetlands to optimize nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control. The model simulates the hydrologic, nitrogen, carbon, dissolved oxygen (DO), bacteria, vegetative, phosphorous, and sediment cycles of a wetland system. Written in Fortran 77, the WETLAND models both free-water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SSF) wetlands, and is designed in a modular manner that gives the user the flexibility to decide which cycles and processes to model. WETLAND differs from many existing wetland models in that the interactions between the different nutrient cycles are modeled, minimizing the number of assumptions concerning wetland processes. It also directly links microbial growth and death to the consumption and transformations of nutrients in the wetland system. The WETLAND model is intended to be utilized with an existing NPS hydro-logic simulation model, such as ANSWERS or BASINS, but also may be used in situations where measured input data to the wetland are available. The model was calibrated and validated using limited data from a FWS wetland located at Benton, Kentucky. The WETLAND predictions were not statistically different from measured values for of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorous. Effluent DO predictions were not always consistent with measured concentrations. A sensitivity analysis indicated the most significant input parameters to the model were those that directly affected bacterial growth and DO uptake and movement. The model was used to design a hypothetical constructed wetland in a subwatershed of the Nomini Creek watershed, located in Virginia. Two-year simulations were completed for five separate wetland designs. Predicted percent reductions in BOD5 (4 to 45 percent), total suspended solids (85 to 100 percent), total nitrogen (42 to 56 percent), and total phosphorous (38 to 57 percent) were similar to levels reported by previous research. [source]


    LOCAL GROWTH CONTROL AT THE BALLOT BOX: REAL EFFECTS OR SYMBOLIC POLITICS?

    JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2007
    MAI THI NGUYEN
    ABSTRACT:,Growth control regulations are pervasive in local jurisdictions throughout the United States; yet there is still much uncertainty about their effectiveness in slowing down or halting growth. Moreover, there is considerable debate over whether there are unintended (or sometimes intended) exclusionary consequences that disproportionately affect minority and low-income populations. Employing multiple regression analyses, this study examines the effects of growth control ballot measures, adopted by voters, on housing growth and sociodemographic change in local jurisdictions. The findings from the multiple regression analyses reveal that cities in which growth controls were adopted at the ballot box do have slower rates of housing growth. There is also evidence that ballot box growth controls reduce growth in Hispanic and lower-income populations. Overall, the results from this study suggest that the adoption of ballot box growth controls is not merely "symbolic politics," but has real measurable consequences on housing growth. Unfortunately, growth controls adopted by the ballot box may also contribute to the sociospatial segregation of cities by race/ethnicity and income. [source]


    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI (VRE) IN A RENAL UNIT

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    MacGinley R
    [source]


    WATER CONTROL AND CEREAL MANAGEMENT ON THE BRONZE AGE IBERIAN PENINSULA: LA MOTILLA DEL AZUER

    OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    GONZALO ARANDA
    Summary. Archaeological research conducted in the La Mancha region (central area of the Iberian Peninsula) has made it possible to identify motillas. This specific type of archaeological site consists of a central fortification surrounded by an inhabited area. They appear in high densities throughout the plains of this area, distributed at regular intervals and located in places where the phreatic level is closest to the surface and the water has low salinity. The strong relationship between sites and water has subsequently been supported by fieldwork, especially in the Motilla del Azuer settlement, where a complex well that was cut into the natural terrace to reach the phreatic level has been documented. Research has also demonstrated that the large-scale storage of cereals was another significant function. The quantity and capacity of the different storage systems documented in two large enclosures suggest that these sites were engaged in the control and management of cereals. [source]


    CONTROL OF LAND, PEOPLE, AND MINDS

    ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    Article first published online: 5 JUL 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    KEEPING IN CONTROL: THE MODEST IMPACT OF THE EU ON DANISH LEGISLATION

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, Issue 1 2010
    JØRGEN GRØNNEGAARD CHRISTENSEN
    Membership of the EU and the scope of European integration are still contested issues in Danish politics. However, the impact of EU legislation on Danish legislation is relatively modest and highly concentrated within the field generally related to the regulation of the internal market. Strong upstream procedures at both the interdepartmental and the parliamentary level have been installed that effectively protect Danish policy-makers against political surprises in EU legislative politics. Upstream procedures are much stronger than the downstream ones for overseeing the implementation of EU policies and they ensure a high degree of consensus on specific EU legislation, both among the political parties in the Danish Parliament and among affected interests. As a result the transposition of directives is mainly a ministerial responsibility, and within the well-established fields of cooperation, the decree is the preferred legal instrument. [source]