Conformation Polymorphism Analysis (conformation + polymorphism_analysis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Conformation Polymorphism Analysis

  • single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis

  • Selected Abstracts

    Clonal dynamics of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

    Rong Yu
    Abstract The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) provides important evidence of anti-tumor immunity in vivo. However, TIL are usually not sufficient for inhibiting tumor growth. We explored the spatial and temporal aspects of clonal accumulation of TIL using RT-PCR/single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. In CMS5 fibrosarcomas in BALB/c mice, accumulated T,cell clones were specific in that dominant TIL were identical between distant tumors. Moreover, dominant TIL in the first tumor appeared consistently in the second tumor inoculated after formation of the first tumor. These results suggest that TIL show a certain level of specific tumor surveillance. When we characterized CD4+ and CD8+ TIL separately, CD8+ TIL were highly concentrated and persistently localized at the tumor site, while most CD4+ TIL clones were less concentrated and less persistent. A functional analysis showed that TIL had a certain degree of anti-tumor activity when CD4+ and CD8+ TIL were co-transferred. Co-transfer of CD4+ and CD8+ TIL exhibited equivalent anti-tumor activity, irrespective of tumor stage. However, the numbers of TIL did not increase after the early phase of tumor progression. These data suggest that TIL are specific to the tumor and potentially retain anti-tumor activity, although their accumulation in mice is impaired. [source]

    Ecology and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing microorganisms on and in plants

    Ilona Gasser
    Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates are energy reserve polymers produced by bacteria to survive periods of starvation in natural habitats. Little is known about the ecology of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria. To analyse the occurrence of this specific group on/in seven different plant species, a combined strategy containing culture-dependent and -independent methods was applied. Using microbial fingerprint techniques (single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis with specific primers for phaC gene encoding the key enzyme of the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis), a high number of bands were especially found for the rhizosphere. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed plant species-specific communities. Isolation of bacteria, recognition of brightly refractile cytoplasmatic inclusions, lipophilic stainings and a PCR strategy targeted on the phaC gene were used as a culture-dependent strategy for the detection of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria. Results again represent a high degree of plant specificity: the rhizosphere of sugar beet contained the highest number of positive strains. This was confirmed by quantitative PCR: the relative copy number of phaC was statistically and significantly enhanced in all rhizospheres in comparison with bulk soil. New polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacterial species were detected: for example, Burkholderia terricola, Lysobacter gummosus, Pseudomonas extremaustralis, Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Pseudomonas orientalis. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the rhizosphere is an interesting hidden reservoir for polyhydroxyalkanoate producers. [source]

    AML1/RUNX1 mutations are infrequent, but related to AML-M0, acquired trisomy 21, and leukemic transformation in pediatric hematologic malignancies

    Takeshi Taketani
    AML1/RUNX1, located on chromosome band 21q22, is one of the most important hematopoietic transcription factors. AML1 is frequently affected in leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome with 21q22 translocations. Recently, AML1 mutations were found in adult hematologic malignancies, especially acute myeloid leukemia (AML),M0 or leukemia with acquired trisomy 21, and familial platelet disorder with a predisposition toward AML. Through the use of polymerase chain reaction,single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, we examined the AML1 gene for mutations in 241 patients with pediatric hematologic malignancies, and we detected AML1 mutations in seven patients (2.9%). Deletion was found in one patient, and point mutations in four patients, including three missense mutations, two silent mutations, and one mutation within an intron resulting in an abnormal splice acceptor site. All of the mutations except for one were heterozygous. Mutations within the runt domain were found in six of seven patients. Six of seven patients with AML1 mutations were diagnosed with AML, and one had acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In three of these seven patients, AML evolved from other hematologic disorders. AML1 mutations were found in two of four AML-M0 and two of three patients with acquired trisomy 21. Patients with AML1 mutations tended to be older children. Three of four patients with AML1 mutations who received stem cell transplantation (SCT) are alive, whereas the remaining three patients with mutations without SCT died. These results suggest that AML1 mutations in pediatric hematologic malignancies are infrequent, but are possibly related to AML-M0, acquired trisomy 21, and leukemic transformation. These patients may have a poor clinical outcome. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A missense mutation in FIC1 is associated with greenland familial cholestasis

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
    Leo W. J. Klomp
    Greenland familial cholestasis is a severe form of intrahepatic cholestasis described among indigenous Inuit families in Greenland. Patients present with jaundice, pruritus, bleeding episodes, and steatorrhea, and die in childhood due to end-stage liver disease. We investigated the possibility that Greenland familial cholestasis is caused by a mutation in FIC1, the gene defective in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 and many cases of benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the FIC1 exons, a missense mutation, 1660 G,A (D554N), was detected and was shown to segregate with the disease in Inuit patients from Greenland and Canada. Examination of liver specimens from 3 Inuit patients homozygous for this mutation revealed bland canalicular cholestasis and, on transmission electron microscopy, coarsely granular Byler bile, as previously described in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1. These data establish Greenland familial cholestasis as a form of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 and further underscore the importance of unimpeded FIC1 activity for normal bile formation. [source]

    BRCA2 gene mutations in Greek patients with familial breast cancer ,,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2002
    Athanasios Armakolas
    Abstract Family history is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of breast cancer. The isolation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the two major predisposing genes in familial and to early onset breast and ovarian cancer, has resulted to the identification of a large number of families with mutations in these two genes. Despite the large number of distinct mutations detected in both genes, several mutations have been found to recur in unrelated families of diverse geographical origin. We have analyzed 27 Greek patients with familial breast cancer the majority of those having one first and one second degree relatives affected and 28 patients with sporadic breast cancer for BRCA2 germline mutations. The techniques used were single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) followed by sequencing. Furthermore, the clinical presentation and prognosis of BRCA2 associated breast cancer cases was compared to 20 adequately matched for age and date of diagnosis (within one year) sporadic breast cancer patients. We identified three novel BRCA2 mutations (3058delA, 6024delTA, and 4147delG) in the ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) and one already known (2024del5) germline BRCA2 gene mutation in five different breast cancer families. The 4147delG mutation was detected in two unrelated patients. BRCA2 germline mutations were correlated with early-onset breast cancer RR=4.77 (95% CI: 0.666-34.463). Although patients with BRCA2 germline mutations did not have a distinct histological phenotype they had an improved overall survival (100% vs 65%). Our findings suggest that there is a cluster of novel mutations in exons 10 and 11 in Greek patients with familial breast cancer. These mutations appear to have a milder clinical phenotype when compared to the rest of the study group. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Assessment of the rind microbial diversity in a farmhouse-produced vs a pasteurized industrially produced soft red-smear cheese using both cultivation and rDNA-based methods

    C. Feurer
    Abstract Aims:, The diversity of the surface flora of two French red-smear soft cheeses was examined by cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods to assess their composition and to evaluate the accuracy of both approaches. Methods and Results:, Culture-independent methods used involved 16S ribosomal DNA gene cloning and sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP). The culture-dependent method used involved direct culture and macroscopic observation, polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene from DNA extracted from single colonies followed by complete sequencing of the gene. Only few species were recovered by both approaches either in the pasteurized and the farmer cheese. A large diversity of isolates or 16S rDNA sequences related to marine bacteria was identified at the surface of both cheeses. Conclusions:, The results indicated that all three techniques were informative and complementary to allow a more accurate representativeness of the cheese surface biodiversity. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Cultivation and molecular methods have to be combined in order to obtain an extended view of the bacterial populations of complex ecosystems. [source]

    Response of methanogen populations to organic load increase during anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewater

    Aurora Rizzi
    Abstract Process performances of an upflow anaerobic filter treating olive mill wastewater and the response of methanogenic Archaea to increasing volumetric organic load (VOL) were studied. At a VOL of 15 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L,1 day,1, 90% of the influent COD was removed. Following a VOL increase from 6 to 15 g COD L,1 day,1, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) titre of hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium, determined by magnetic capture of the target DNA and group-specific PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene, decreased from 1011 to 108 cells g,1 sludge, while that of Methanomicrobiaceae and relatives increased from 104 to 106 cells g,1 sludge. Methanosaeta -like acetoclastic methanogens were less affected by VOL variation and dominated at high VOL with a 16S rRNA gene PCR titre of 109 cells g,1 sludge. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the PCR-amplified archaeal 16S rRNA gene showed a stable band pattern, indicating that VOL variation affected the methanogen PCR titre but not the archaeal community structure. Copyright 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences support allozyme evidence for cryptic radiation of New Zealand Peripatoides (Onychophora)

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    S. A. Trewick
    Abstract A combination of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and sequencing were used to survey cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity among New Zealand ovoviviparous Onychophora. Most of the sites and individuals had previously been analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. A total of 157 peripatus collected at 54 sites throughout New Zealand were screened yielding 62 different haplotypes. Comparison of 540-bp COI sequences from Peripatoides revealed mean among-clade genetic distances of up to 11.4% using Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) analysis or 17.5% using general time-reversible (GTR + I + ,) analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed eight well-supported clades that were consistent with the allozyme analysis. Five of the six cryptic peripatus species distinguished by allozymes were confirmed by mtDNA analysis. The sixth taxon appeared to be paraphyletic, but genetic and geographical evidence suggested recent speciation. Two additional taxa were evident from the mtDNA data but neither occurred within the areas surveyed using allozymes. Among the peripatus surveyed with both mtDNA and allozymes, only one clear instance of recent introgression was evident, even though several taxa occurred in sympatry. This suggests well-developed mate recognition despite minimal morphological variation and low overall genetic diversity. [source]

    Single copy nuclear DNA markers characterized for comparative phylogeography in Australian wet tropics rainforest skinks

    G. Dolman
    Abstract In order to investigate population history and demography in skinks endemic to the wet tropics of Australia, multiple nuclear DNA markers were sought. The utility of 72 primers (including 63 published intron-spanning ,CATS' primers) was tested. Seven loci were characterized and shown to be single copy by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Primers to five nuclear loci were developed, four with utility in skinks and three with utility in frogs. These observations extend the available information on intron-spanning primers for amphibians and reptiles. [source]

    Mutational and expression analysis of CDK1, cyclinA2 and cyclinB1 in epilepsy-associated glioneuronal lesions

    V. Schick
    Gangliogliomas and focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) constitute glioneuronal lesions, which are frequently encountered in biopsy specimens of patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy and relate to impaired differentiation and migration of neural precursors. However, their molecular pathogenesis and relationship are still largely enigmatic. Recent data suggest several components of the insulin-pathway, including TSC1 and TSC2 mutated in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), to be altered in gangliogliomas and FCD with Taylor type balloon cells (FCDIIb). The proteins tuberin (TSC2) and hamartin (TSC1) constitute a tumour suppressor mechanism involved in cell-cycle control. Hamartin and/or tuberin were reported to colocalize and/or interact with CDK1, cyclinB1 and cyclinA2 that are critically involved in cell-size and cell-growth control. Here, we have carried out mutational and expression analyses of CDK1, cyclinB1 and cyclinA2 in gangliogliomas and FCDIIb. Mutational screening was performed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis in gangliogliomas (n = 20), FCDIIb (n = 35) and controls. CyclinB1 revealed a polymorphism (G to A, cDNA Position 966, GenBank: NM_031966) in exon 7 with similar frequencies in FCDIIb, gangliogliomas and control specimens (FCD n = 9/35; gangliogliomas n = 5/20; control n = 20/100). We used real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine expression levels of CDK1, cyclinB1 and cyclinA2 in 10 FCDIIb and nine gangliogliomas compared with unaffected adjacent control tissue of the same patients. We observed significantly lower expression of CDK1 and cyclinA2 in FCDIIb vs. controls whereas no significant expression differences were present for CDK1, cyclinB1 and cyclinA2 in gangliogliomas. Our data strongly argue against mutational events of CDK1, cyclinB1 and cyclinA2 to play a role in gangliogliomas or FCDIIb. However, a potential functional significance of lower expression for the cell-size and cell-cycle regulators CDK1 and cyclinA2 in FCDIIb composed of large dysplastic neurones and balloon cells needs to be further resolved. [source]

    Sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatoblastoma-like features in an adult

    Min-Sun Cho
    A mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor of the liver arising in an adult is rare and is mostly classified as sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, a case of sarcomatoid HCC in an adult with hepatoblastoma (HB)-like features, which produced difficulty in the differential diagnosis between sarcomatoid HCC and mixed HB, is presented. The epithelial component of the tumor composed of poorly differentiated HCC, Edmondson's grade III, and more primitive components, which were embryonal and small cell undifferentiated components of HB-like areas. The small undifferentiated cells surrounded HCC and the embryonal component of HB-like area, and revealed transition partly to areas of rhabdomyosarcoma. A small portion of chondrosarcoma was also noted. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that HCC and the embryonal component of HB-like areas expressed alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and cytokeratin 8. The small undifferentiated cells were negative for AFP but stained with cytokeratin 8 as well as CD56, which is a marker of primitive cells in many sarcoma and HB. It is not certain whether small undifferentiated cells belong to hepatic progenitor cells or primitive mesenchymal cells. Polymerase chain reaction,single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for beta-catenin mutation using microdissection revealed no mutation of any components. A review was undertaken of the cases previously reported as adult hepatoblastoma without detailed immunohistochemical study and consider many of them may be sarcomatoid HCC. These primitive and sarcomatoid components would be arising from the dedifferentiation process of HCC. [source]

    Genetic analysis of CC16, OGG1 and GCLC polymorphisms and susceptibility to COPD

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Shengming LIU
    Background and objectives: The importance of genetic susceptibility in COPD has not been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between susceptibility to COPD and polymorphisms in the Clara cell 16 kDa secretory protein (CC16), 8-hydroxy-guanine glycosylase (OGG1) and glutamatecysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) genes in a southern Chinese population of Han nationality. Methods: A case-control study was performed on 166 paired subjects with or without COPD, who were randomly selected from a pool of 310 paired subjects. These subjects were selected from epidemiological survey participants, with matched-pairs being strictly localized in the Guangzhou urban and Shaoguan rural areas. The following polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis: 38 A/G in exon 1 of the CC16 gene, 1245C/G in exon 7 of the OGG1 gene and ,129C/T in the GCLC gene. Genotype frequencies and allelic frequencies were analysed. Results: There were no significant differences in the distribution of genotype frequencies for CC16 38 A/G, OGG1 1245C/G or GCLC ,129C/T between the COPD and non-COPD subjects. The distribution of the allelic frequencies of these three genes also showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms in CC16 38 A/G, OGG1 1245C/G and GCLC ,129C/T are not associated with susceptibility to COPD in a southern Chinese population of Han nationality. [source]

    Chromosomal anomalies in oligodendroglial tumors are correlated with clinical features

    CANCER, Issue 5 2003
    M.D., Martin J. van den Bent Ph.D.
    Abstract BACKGROUND Patients who have oligodendrogliomas (OD) that demonstrate loss of both 1p and 19q appear to have a better prognosis after they receive chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with patients who have OD without these characteristics. It is unclear whether this improvement in outcome is due only to a better response to treatment. The authors investigated the correlation between genetic and clinical characteristics of OD in 33 patients who received chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine for recurrent disease after receiving radiotherapy. METHODS The initial presentation, prior treatments, overall survival, and response to chemotherapy were assessed. The 1p and 19q status in OD lesions was determined with fluorescence in situ hybridization on paraffin embedded, archival material using locus specific probes. P53 mutations were assessed by polymerase chain reaction,single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and immunohistochemistry for P53; the proliferation index was assessed with the MIB-1 antibody. RESULTS Patients who had OD lesions with a combined loss of 1p and 19q typically presented with low-grade tumors that manifested with seizures of long-standing duration. In contrast, patients who had OD lesions without a combined loss of 1p and 19q usually presented with focal deficits that required immediate treatment. Both the response rate to chemotherapy and the time to disease progression after chemotherapy were significantly better in patients who had a combined loss of 1p and 19. Tumors with classic OD morphology more often had a combined loss of 1p and 19q, although the genotype was better at identifying patients with chemoresponsive tumors. P53 mutations were observed in three tumors, none of which had a combined loss of 1p and 19q. CONCLUSIONS OD lesions with combined a loss of 1p and 19q have a more indolent nature compared with OD lesions that do not have these losses. Virtually all patients with these tumors present with low-grade tumors accompanied by seizures and remain stable for prolonged periods. Future trials must keep these tumor types apart. Cancer 2003;97:1276,84. 2003 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.11187 [source]