Conformation Polymorphism (conformation + polymorphism)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Conformation Polymorphism

  • chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism
  • polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism
  • reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism
  • single strand conformation polymorphism
  • single-strand conformation polymorphism
  • strand conformation polymorphism

  • Terms modified by Conformation Polymorphism

  • conformation polymorphism analysis

  • Selected Abstracts

    Temperature dependence of Fe(III) and sulfate reduction rates and its effect on growth and composition of bacterial enrichments from an acidic pit lake neutralization experiment

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    J. MEIER
    ABSTRACT Microbial Fe(III) and sulfate reduction are important electron transport processes in acidic pit lakes and stimulation by the addition of organic substrates is a strategy to remove acidity, iron and sulfate. This principle was applied in a pilot-scale enclosure in pit lake 111 (Brandenburg, Germany). Because seasonal and spatial variation of temperature may affect the performance of in situ experiments considerably, the influence of temperature on Fe(III) and sulfate reduction was investigated in surface sediments from the enclosure in the range of 4,28 °C. Potential Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction rates increased exponentially with temperature, and the effect was quantified in terms of the apparent activation energy Ea measuring 42,46 kJ mol,1 and 52 kJ mol,1, respectively. Relatively high respiration rates at 4 °C and relatively low Q10 values (,2) indicated that microbial communities were well adapted to low temperatures. In order to evaluate the effect of temperature on growth and enrichment of iron and sulfate-reducing bacterial populations, MPN (Most Probable Number) dilution series were performed in media selecting for the different bacterial groups. While the temperature response of specific growth rates of acidophilic iron reducers showed mesophilic characteristics, the relatively high specific growth rates of sulfate reducers at the lowest incubation temperature indicated the presence of moderate psychrophilic bacteria. In contrast, the low cell numbers and low specific growth rates of neutrophilic iron reducers obtained in dilution cultures suggest that these populations play a less significant role in Fe and S cycling in these sediments. SSCP (Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism) or DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) fingerprinting based on 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria indicated different bacterial populations in the MPN dilution series exhibiting different temperature ranges for growth. [source]

    Islet autoimmunity and genetic mutations in Chinese subjects initially thought to have Type 1B diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2006
    D. Zhang
    Abstract Aims To explore the contribution of islet autoimmunity and genetic mutations in Chinese patients initially thought to have Type 1B diabetes. Methods A group of 33 Chinese patients with newly diagnosed Type 1B diabetes, were identified by the absence of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), IA-2, insulin, thyroid globulin or thyroid peroxidase, or high-risk HLA-DQ haplotypes. The cohort was further characterized by measurement of autoantibodies to carboxypeptidase H (CPH) and SOX13 using radioligand assays, and testing for genetic mutations associated with MODY3/MODY6 and mitochondrial diabetes. Mutations of HNF-1, (MODY3) and neuroD1/,2 (MODY6) genes were screened using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique and sequencing. Mitochondrial DNA mutations were analysed with polymerase chain reaction,restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results Within the cohort, we found one patient with a novel mutation, R321H (CGC,CAC) in exon 5 of the HNF-1, gene, one with ND1 mt3316 G,A mutation in mitochondrial DNA, five with Ala45Thr polymorphisms in the neuroD1/,2 gene, and two patients with autoantibodies to SOX13. Conclusions Some of the Chinese patients originally thought to have Type 1B diabetes do have other evidence of islet autoimmunity and genetic mutations involved in the underlying aetiology. This suggests that more rigorous screening for these conditions is needed before classifying subjects as having Type 1B diabetes. [source]

    Genetic variants of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in syndromes of severe insulin resistance.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2002
    Functional analysis of Ala513Pro, Gly1158Glu IRS-
    Abstract Aims To define further the role of IRS-1 mutations in human syndromes of severe insulin resistance. Methods The IRS-1 gene was scanned for mutations in 83 unrelated affected subjects and 47 unaffected individuals using fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism (fSSCP) analysis. A novel heterozygous mutation, Gly1158Glu, was found in one affected subject. Four and two subjects were heterozygous for the previously reported variants Gly972Arg and Ala513Pro, respectively. The previously identified variant Gly819Arg was found in one affected and one unaffected subject. While Gly972Arg has been described to alter the signalling properties of IRS-1, no functional studies of Ala513Pro or Gly1158Glu have been reported. Results Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably over-expressing the insulin receptor were transiently transfected with vectors expressing either wild-type, Glu1158 or Pro513 IRS-1. A modest increase in insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Glu1158 IRS-1 was observed. However, this did not result in any significant change in the association of Grb2 or the p85, subunit of PI3-kinase or of PI3-kinase activity. In parallel studies, the Pro513 IRS-1 variant was indistinguishable from wild-type IRS-1. Conclusions While subtle effects of these variants cannot be excluded in this system, it is unlikely that these variants are responsible for the extreme insulin resistance seen in the subjects harbouring them. Although IRS proteins play a central role in insulin signalling, functionally significant mutations in the IRS-1 gene are a rare cause of human syndromes of severe insulin resistance. [source]

    Electrophoretic analysis of sequence variability in three mitochondrial DNA regions for ascaridoid parasites of human and animal health significance

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 13 2008
    Ming-Wei Li
    Abstract Sequence variability in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 (nad1 and nad4), among and within Toxocara canis, T. cati, T. malaysiensis, T. vitulorum and Toxascaris leonina from different geographical origins was examined by a mutation-scanning approach. A portion of the cox1 gene (pcox1), a portion of the nad1 and nad4 genes (pnad1 and pnad4) were amplified separately from individual ascaridoid nematodes by polymerase chain reaction and the amplicons analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Representative samples displaying sequence variation in SSCP profiles were subjected to sequencing in order to define genetic markers for their specific identification and differentiation. While the intra-specific sequence variations within each of the five ascaridoid species were 0.2,3.7% for pcox1, 0,2.8% for pnad1 and 0,2.3% for pnad4, the inter-specific sequence differences were significantly higher, being 7.9,12.9% for pcox1, 10.7,21.1% for pnad1 and 12.9,21.7% for pnad4, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the combined sequences of pcox1, pnad1 and pnad4 revealed that the recently described species T. malaysiensis was more closely related to T. cati than to T. canis. These findings provided mtDNA evidence for the validity of T. malaysiensis and also demonstrated clearly the usefulness and attributes of the mutation-scanning sequencing approach for studying the population genetic structures of these and other nematodes of socio-economic importance. [source]

    Widespread capacity to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls by diverse microbial communities in soils with no significant exposure to PCB contamination

    Alexandre J. Macedo
    Summary The purpose of this work was to determine the extent of microbial metabolic potential for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils that have had no previous exposure to this class of xenobiotic pollutants. Soil and sediment samples of distinct characteristics from six sites in Germany were used to inoculate PCB oil (Aroclor 1242) microdroplets. All samples yielded multispecies biofilms, as revealed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of 16S rRNA genes, and sequence analysis of the main amplicons. Microbes representing 20 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in the biofilms, but only a few were common to all biofilms, namely those closely related to Aquabacterium sp., Caulobacter sp., Imtechium assamiensis, Nevskia ramosa, Parvibaculum lavamentivorans and Burkholderia sp. The PCB biofilm communities were always distinct from control biofilms developing from the same samples in the absence of PCB. All PCB droplet-grown biofilms degraded multiple PCB congeners but differed in the congener spectra they degraded. These findings reveal that microbial potential to degrade PCBs is widespread in soils that have not been subjected to PCB contamination, and that this potential is characteristic of consortia of very diverse phylogenetic composition. [source]

    Absence of p16 and p27 gene rearrangements and mutations in de novo myelodysplastic syndromes

    Sotirios G. Papageorgiou
    Abstract:, Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a group of clonal hematopoietic disorders characterized by dyshemopoiesis and frequent evolution to acute leukemia. Tumor suppressor gene inactivation may be involved in MDS pathogenesis. The two families of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) (INK4 family of p15, p16, p18 and p19 and CIP/KIP family of p21, p27 and p57) that negatively regulate cell cycle progression are known tumor suppressor genes. To determine whether genetic alterations of p16 and p27 genes play an important role in MDS pathogenesis, we examined DNA from 51 patients classified as 17 refractory anemias (RA), four refractory anemias with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), 19 refractory anemias with an excess of blasts (RAEB), 5 refractory anemias with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEB-t) and 6 chronic myelomonocytic leukemias (CMML). Southern blot analysis detected no homozygous deletions of p16 and p27. Polymerase chain reaction,single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR,SSCP) and sequencing did not reveal point mutations for both genes with the exception of two allelic polymorphisms, namely a C , G transition at 447 bp of p16exon3 and a T , A transition at 791 bp of p27exon1 genes. Our results suggest that mutations of p16 and p27 genes resulting in abnormal p16 and p27 proteins do not represent a mechanism of gene inactivation involved in the pathogenesis of MDS. [source]

    Comparative single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and microscopy-based analysis of nitrogen cultivation interactive effects on the fungal community of a semiarid steppe soil

    Jennifer L. Lowell
    Abstract The effects of nitrogen accretion on fungal diversity and community structure in early-seral (cultivated) and native (uncultivated) shortgrass steppe soils were evaluated using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and microscopy in a comparative experiment. Selected haplotypes generated from fungal 18S gene fragments were also sequenced for species identification. Microscopy-based analyses showed significantly shorter fungal hyphal lengths in the early-seral control plots in comparison with the native control plots (P<0.0003), independent of nitrogen addition. Although diversity indices did not show significant differences between the plots, SSCP analyses indicated that fungal community structure differed in the native and early-seral control sites. In nitrogen-amended sites, gene sequences from dominant haplotypes indicated a shift to a more common nitrogen-impacted fungal community. While nitrogen amendments appear to be more important than cultivation in influencing these soil fungal communities, hyphal lengths were only decreased due to cultivation. The use of microscopic and molecular techniques, as carried out in this study, provided integrative information concerning fungal community responses to wide spread stresses being imposed globally on terrestrial ecosystems, that is not provided by the individual techniques. [source]

    Epigenetic and genetic alterations of PTEN in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Li Wang
    Aim:, To investigate the roles of epigenetic and genetic alterations of the phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 gene (PTEN) in carcinogenesis and the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Methods:, A total of 56 cases of HCC tissues and six liver cell lines were studied for the expression of PTEN by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The PTEN gene mutations in exon5 and exon8 were detected by a combination of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was used to identify PTEN promoter methylation. Results:, Of the 56 cases of HCC, 24 (42.9%) expressed the PTEN protein. All surrounding liver tissues of the hepatoma (32 cases) were positive for PTEN. Of the six cell lines, three liver cancer cell lines showed a low expression of PTEN. Five mutations of 56 HCC samples were detected. All of them were located at intron4. No mutation was found in exon5 and exon8. After MSP analysis, we found nine cases of PTEN promoter methylation in 56 specimens (16.1%). However, no CpG island of PTEN was found to be methylated in all six liver cell lines. Conclusion:, The level of PTEN protein was altered in part of the HCC. The downregulation of PTEN expression may not be mainly associated with the PTEN mutations, but partly due to PTEN promoter methylation and other epigenetic regulation. [source]

    Linkage map organization of expressed sequence tags and sequence tagged sites in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    D. W. Severson
    Abstract A composite genetic linkage map for the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti was constructed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers. The map consists of 146 marker loci distributed across 205 cM, and includes several morphological mutant marker loci. Most of the genetic markers are derived from random cDNAs or Ae. aegypti genes of known function. A number of markers are derived from random genomic DNAs, including several cloned RAPD-PCR fragments, and also several cDNAs from Drosophila melanogaster. Most of the random cDNAs (80.2%) have high BlastX sequence identities to known genes, with the majority of matches to genes from D. melanogaster. Access to sequence data for all markers will facilitate their continued development for use in high-throughput SNP marker analyses and also provides additional physical anchor points for an anticipated genome sequencing effort. [source]

    Narrowing of the regions of allelic losses of chromosome 1p36 in meningioma tissues by an improved SSCP analysis

    Yanlei Guan
    Abstract Mapping loss of heterozygosity (LOH) regions in the genomes of tumor tissues is a practical approach for identifying genes whose loss is related to tumorigenesis. Conventional LOH analyses using microsatellite or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers require the simultaneous examination of tumor- and matched normal-DNA. Here, we improved the previously developed SNP-based LOH assay using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, so that LOH in tumor samples heavily contaminated with normal DNA can now be precisely estimated, even when matched normal DNA is not available. We demonstrate the reliability of the improved SSCP-based LOH detection method, called the LOH estimation by quantitative SSCP analysis using averaged control (LOQUS-AC), by comparing the results with those of the previous "LOH estimated by quantitative SSCP assay" (LOQUS) method. Using the LOQUS-AC assay, LOH was detected at a high consistency (98.1%) with the previous LOQUS method. We then applied this new method to characterize LOH profiles in 130 meningiomas, using 68 SNPs (i.e., a mean inter-SNP interval of 441 kbp) that are evenly distributed throughout chromosome 1p36. Benign, atypical and anaplastic meningiomas exhibited 1p36 LOH at frequencies of 48.39, 84.62 and 100.00%, respectively, using LOQUS-AC. Subsequently, we detected a candidate common LOH region on 1p36.11 that might harbor tumor suppressor genes related to malignant progression of meningioma. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mutations of the Wnt antagonist AXIN2 (Conductin) result in TCF-dependent transcription in medulloblastomas

    Arend Koch
    Abstract Medulloblastomas (MBs) represent the most common malignant brain tumors in children. Most MBs develop sporadically in the cerebellum, but their incidence is highly elevated in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli. These patients carry germline mutations in the APC tumor suppressor gene. APC is part of a multiprotein complex involved in the Wnt signaling pathway that controls the stability of ,-catenin, the central effector in this cascade. Previous genetic studies in MBs have identified mutations in genes coding for ,-catenin and its partners, APC and AXIN1, which cause activation of Wnt signaling. The pathway is negatively controlled by the tumor suppressor AXIN2 (Conductin), a scaffold protein of this signaling complex. To investigate whether alterations in AXIN2 may also be involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic MBs, we performed a mutational screening of the AXIN2 gene in 116 MB biopsy samples and 11 MB cell lines using single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing analysis. One MB displayed a somatic, tumor-specific 2 bp insertion in exon 5, leading to carboxy-terminal truncation of the AXIN2 protein. This tumor biopsy showed nuclear accumulation of ,-catenin protein, indicating an activation of Wnt signaling. In 2 further MB biopsies, mutations were identified in exon 5 (Glu408Lys) and exon 8 (Ser738Phe) of the AXIN2 gene, which are due to predicted germline mutations and rare polymorphisms. mRNA expression analysis in 22 MBs revealed reduced expression of AXIN2 mRNA compared to 8 fetal cerebellar tissues. Promoter hypermethylation could be ruled out as a major cause for transcriptional silencing by bisulfite sequencing. To study the functional role of AXIN2 in MBs, wild-type AXIN2 was overexpressed in MB cell lines in which the Wnt signaling pathway was activated by Wnt-3a. In this assay, AXIN2 inhibited Wnt signaling demonstrated in luciferase reporter assays. In contrast, overexpression of mutated AXIN2 with a deleted C-terminal DIX-domain resulted in an activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. These findings indicate that mutations of AXIN2 can lead to an oncogenic activation of the Wnt pathway in MBs. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    BRAF mutation associated with dysregulation of apoptosis in human colorectal neoplasms

    Nobunao Ikehara
    Abstract To understand the role of BRAF dysfunction in the carcinogenesis and progression/development of colorectal tumors, the authors investigated genetic alterations in the BRAF gene in human colorectal neoplasms as well as the effects of an RAS inhibitor in BRAF -mutant cells. Seven colon cancer cell lines and 116 colorectal tumors (34 adenomas and 82 adenocarcinomas) were analyzed. Genetic alterations in the BRAF and K- ras genes were examined using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing analyses. The growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of the FTI-277 RAS inhibitor in colon cancer cell lines were analyzed as well. An immunohistochemical study was also performed to investigate the correlations between the clinicopathologic parameters involved in the Ki-67 labeling index and the number of apoptotic bodies in tumor cells. FTI-277 did not suppress the proliferation of BRAF -mutant cells (WiDr and TCO), but remarkably inhibited the growth of K- ras mutant cells (LoVo). Interestingly, LoVo cells underwent apoptosis by FTI-277 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas WiDr cells were resistant to this agent. In tumor samples, BRAF mutations were found in 1 (3.0%) of 33 adenomas and 6 (7.2%) of 83 adenocarcinomas. No tumor exhibited mutations in both the BRAF and K- ras genes. Neither BRAF nor K- ras mutations correlated with the Ki-67 labeling index immunohistochemically. However, the number of apoptotic bodies was significantly decreased in the BRAF -mutant tumors. Mutation in the BRAF gene may contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis by upregulating the antiapoptotic role of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    DHPLC is superior to SSCP in screening p53 mutations in esophageal cancer tissues

    Osamu Yamanoshita
    Abstract Mutations of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene universally occur on exons 5,8 in human cancer. We analyzed these mutations in esophageal cancer tissue from 207 patients in China using 2 methods, single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), one of the most frequently used methods, and the recently developed denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and compared their sensitivity and efficiency. Exons 5,8 of p53 were amplified from esophageal cancer tissue genomes, screened for fragments of mutations and polymorphisms by SSCP and DHPLC in a blind study and confirmed by direct sequencing to detect the mutations and polymorphisms. The numbers detected by DHPLC were greater than those detected by SSCP, though the rate of mutations and polymorphisms was lower in SSCP than in DHPLC, which appeared to detect smaller mutations (substitutions and 1 bp insertions/deletions). Of the mutations with substitutions detected by DHPLC but not by SSCP, 50% substituted adenosine for other nucleotides, suggesting that these mutations are often missed when SSCP is used. According to these data, the sensitivity of SSCP and DHPLC was 81% and 97%, respectively, and the specificity was 97% and 85%, respectively. Our results suggest that DHPLC may be recommended over SSCP when screening gene mutations. Thus, rates of p53 mutations and polymorphisms in esophageal cancer tissue in Chinese patients were 49% and 41% by DHPLC and SSCP, respectively. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mutational Analysis and Functional Correlation With Phenotype in German Patients With Childhood-Type Hypophosphatasia

    Hideo Orimo
    Abstract The tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene from five German family members with childhood-type hypophosphatasia (HOPS) was analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)-direct sequencing method. Four novel missense mutations (T51M, R54S, L258P, and R374H) and two that had been described previously (A160T and R206W) were detected in the respective patients. Mutation A160T was detected in 3 distinct patients, and a polymorphism V505A that had been described previously was detected in the same allele as L258P mutation in 1 patient and in 2 fathers whose V505A alleles were not transmitted to the probands. No other mutations were found in 2 patients. Transient expression of the mutant proteins in COS-1 cells showed that the four novel mutations and R206W were severe alleles, whereas A160T was a moderate allele. Analysis of its enzymatic activity and genetic transmission patterns confirmed that V505A was a polymorphism. Immunoprecipitation of the transiently expressed proteins showed that levels of the 80-kDa mature form of the enzyme were diminished or absent with the severe alleles; instead, levels of high-molecular mass disulfide-linked aggregates were increased. These results suggest that in compound heterozygotes, the combination of severe and moderate alleles may combine to cause the mild phenotype seen in childhood-type HOPS. [source]

    Evidence for a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the KCNQ1 Potassium Channel that Underlies Susceptibility to Life-Threatening Arrhythmias

    Ion Channel Polymorphism and Cardiac Arrhythmia. Introduction: Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetically heterogeneous arrhythmogenic disorder caused by mutations in at least five different genes encoding cardiac ion channels. It was suggested recently that common polymorphisms of LQTS-associated genes might modify arrhythmia susceptibility in potential gene carriers. Methods and Results: We examined the known LQTS genes in 95 patients with definitive or suspected LQTS. Exon-specific polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequence analyses identified six patients who carried only a single nucleotide polymorphism in KCNQ1 that is found in , 11% of the Japanese population. This 1727G> A substitution that changes the sense of its coding sequence from glycine to serine at position 643 (G643S) was mostly associated with a milder phenotype, often precipitated by hypokalemia and bradyarrhythmias. When heterologously examined by voltage-clamp experiments, the in vitro cellular phenotype caused by the single nucleotide polymorphism revealed that G643S- KCNQ1 forms functional homomultimeric channels, producing a significantly smaller current than that of the wild-type (WT) channels. Coexpression of WT- KCNQ1 and G643S- KCNQ1 with KCNE1 resulted in , 30% reduction in the slow delayed rectifier K+ current IKs without much alteration in the kinetic properties except its deactivation process, suggesting that the G643S substitution had a weaker dominant-negative effect on the heteromultimeric channel complexes. Conclusion: We demonstrate that a common polymorphism in the KCNQ1 potassium channel could be a molecular basis for mild IKs dysfunction that, in the presence of appropriate precipitating factors, might predispose potential gene carriers to life-threatening arrhythmias in a specific population. [source]

    Comparison between two PCR-based bacterial identification methods through artificial neural network data analysis

    Jie Wen
    Abstract The 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and 16S-23S rRNA spacer region genes are commonly used as taxonomic and phylogenetic tools. In this study, two pairs of fluorescent-labeled primers for 16S rRNA genes and one pair of primers for 16S-23S rRNA spacer region genes were selected to amplify target sequences of 317 isolates from positive blood cultures. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of both were then subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis by capillary electrophoresis after incomplete digestion by Hae III. For products of 16S rRNA genes, single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was also performed directly. When the data were processed by artificial neural network (ANN), the accuracy of prediction based on 16S-23S rRNA spacer region gene RFLP data was much higher than that of prediction based on 16S rRNA gene SSCP analysis data(98.0% vs. 79.6%). This study proved that the utilization of ANN as a pattern recognition method was a valuable strategy to simplify bacterial identification when relatively complex data were encountered. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 22:14,20, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency does not result from mutations in the promoter region of the G6PD gene

    Panayiotis G. Menounos
    Abstract In this study, we investigated whether glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) promoter mutations are responsible for G6PD deficiency. We analysed the G6PD proximal promoter and the 5, untranslated region (UTR) in 65 G6PD-deficient individuals, in which no mutations have been found in the G6PD gene coding sequences, using a nonradioactive polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR/SSCP) analysis. We identified no sequence variations in the G6PD core promoter or in the 5, UTR of these G6PD-deficient individuals, which indicates that G6PD deficiency is not associated with promoter mutations in the G6PD locus. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 17:90,92, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Polymorphism and signature of selection in the MHC class I genes of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    H. Schaschl
    The role and intensity of positive selection maintaining the polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus was investigated. The highly polymorphic set of MHC class I genes found was organized in a single linkage group. Between 5 and 14 sequence variants per individual were identified by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Segregation analysis studied in 10 three-spined stickleback families followed the expected pattern of Mendelian inheritance. The gamete fusion in three-spined stickleback thus seems to be random with respect to the MHC class I genes. The DNA sequence analyses showed that the expressed MHC class I loci are under strong selection pressure, possibly mediated by parasites. Codons that were revealed to be under positive selection are potentially important in antigen binding. MHC class I sequences did not form significant supported clusters within a phylogenetic tree. Analogous to MHC class II genes, it was not possible to assign the class I sequences to a specific locus, suggesting that the class I genes may have been generated by recent gene duplication. [source]

    p53 expression, K- ras gene mutation and microsatellite instability in gastric B-cell lymphomas

    Abstract Background and Aims:, Genetic mechanisms involved in the development of gastric B-cell lymphomas remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to clarify the roles of mutations of the p53 and K- ras genes, and microsatellite instability (MSI) in the development of gastric B-cell lymphomas. Methods:, We investigated p53 immunoreactivity, mutations of the K- ras gene, and MSI in 27 gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MZBCL) and 24 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). p53 immunoreactivity was examined using a monoclonal antibody, DO-7. Mutation of the K- ras gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. MSI was examined at five microsatellite loci with a microsatellite assay. Cases were classified as having high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) (, 2 loci showing instability), low-frequency MSI (MSI-L) (only one locus showing instability), or as microsatellite stable. Results:, p53 immunoreactivity was detected in 1 of 16 (6%) MZBCL and 8 of 19 (42%) DLBCL. Frequency of p53 immunoreactivity in DLBCL was significantly higher than that in MZBCL (P = 0.018). MSI-H was detected only in 1 of 20 (5%) DLBCL. None of the cases examined showed mutation of the K- ras gene. Conclusions:, These data suggest that mutations of the p53 gene may play an important role in the development of gastric DLBCL, and that mutations of the K- ras gene and MSI may be involved in little part of the development of gastric B-cell lymphomas. [source]

    Dendritic cell susceptibility to hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection

    Maria-Cristina Navas
    Abstract In vitro infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was carried out to study their susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Immature dendritic cells and mature dendritic cells were incubated overnight at 37°C with HCV-positive (genotype 1) serum samples; the presence of the viral genome associated with the production of its replicative intermediate was used as evidence of infection. In immature dendritic cells, HCV RNA was detectable from days 1,10 post-infection (p.i.), and de novo synthesis of negative-strand HCV RNA could be demonstrated by a strand-specific rTth reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction at day 2. In mature dendritic cells, the positive-strand form was detectable from days 1,5 p.i., while the negative-strand HCV RNA appeared at days 1 and 2 p.i. Quasispecies present in the inoculum and 6 days p.i. were analyzed by sequencing hypervariable region 1 of the E2 protein. Only two of seven HVR variants present in the inoculum were found in HCV-infected immature dendritic cells. Another two HVR variants not found in the inoculum were recovered from infected immature dendritic cells, suggesting serum minor variants selection or virus evolution during in vitro replication. Analysis by single-strand conformation polymorphism assay of 5, untranslated region of HCV sequences showed that the patterns obtained from the inoculum and infected immature dendritic cells and mature dendritic cells differed slightly. These findings indicate that both immature dendritic cells and mature dendritic cells are susceptible to HCV genotype 1 infection, supporting at least HCV RNA replication. This model should be a valuable tool for the study of modulation of dendritic cell functions in HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 67:152,161, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The correlation between alteration of p16 gene and clinical status in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Chung-Hung Tsai
    Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the presence of alteration of the tumor suppressor gene p16 and to correlate these changes with the clinical status of the patients in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Forty-eight oral squamous cell carcinomas were included in the analyses. Deletion analysis was performed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mutation analysis was restricted to exon 1 and exon 2 of the p16 gene, previously shown to have a high incidence of mutations. The sequences containing exon 1 and exon 2 were amplified by PCR and screened with a single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. Samples showing band shifts in SSCP were sequenced by PCR direct sequencing. Western blots were used to detect the protein expression of the p16 gene, and the results were evaluated with regard to their biological relevance in correlation with clinicopathological factors. Seven (14.6%) deletions were found; 5 (10.4%) mutations were discovered and located in different codons; 26 (54%) specimens had no p16 protein expression; in 11 specimens with p16 deletion or mutation, p16 protein could not be detected. One mutation was non-sense. The p16 gene alterations showed no relationship with location and clinical stage of cancer; however, a close relationship between p16 alterations and cancer metastasis to neck lymph node was found. The alteration rate gradually elevated from well to poorly differentiated grades. We perceive two results. First, the alterations of the p16 gene are common in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Second, the alterations of the p16 gene may attribute to the metastatic behavior or histological grade of cancer cells. [source]

    Two genetically distinct units of Sinomanglietia glauca (Magnoliaceae) detected by chloroplast PCR-SSCP

    Zhi-Rong ZHANG
    Abstract Sinomanglietia glauca is a critically endangered species described from Jiangxi Province in the 1990s. Recently two populations were discovered from Yongshun County of west Hunan Province, about 450 km away from those in Jiangxi. Because of the new findings and the poor reproducibility inherent to RAPD and ISSR markers of previous studies, the population structure of this rare species was reanalyzed with chloroplast PCR-SSCP (single-stranded conformation polymorphism), including all of four recorded populations. The results showed that two distinct haplotypes characterized Jiangxi and Hunan populations separately, with no genetic variation occurring within regions. We postulated that this surprising pattern might result from habitat fragmentation and demographic bottlenecks during and/or after the Quaternary glaciation. On the basis of the pronounced genetic structure, two evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) were recommended for effective conservation of S. glauca. [source]

    Abstracts of the 8th Meeting of the Italian Peripheral Nerve Study Group: 65

    E Bellone
    Mutations in a gene encoding a novel protein of unknown function, the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1), are associated with one of the autosomal recessive forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT4A). Mutations in GDAP1 can cause both axonal and demyelinating inherited peripheral neuropathies. The GDAP1 gene maps on chromosome 8q21.1, encompassing 13.9 kb of genomic DNA. The coding sequence is comprised of six exons. Little is known about the function of GDAP1. The mouse homologue Gdap1 is highly expressed in brain. Northern-blot analysis showed that GDAP1 is also expressed in peripheral nerves, both in neurons and in Schwann cells. A series of Italian patients with demyelinating (n = 42) and axonal (n = 39) peripheral neuropathy with possible recessive inheritance was screened for mutations in the GDAP1 gene. The entire coding region, including exon-intron boundaries, was examined by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and direct sequencing. All patients were negative for the 17p11.2 duplication and for mutations in the MPZ, GJB1, PMP22 and EGR2 genes. SSCP analysis showed a few electrophoretic variants, in the exon 1, exon 3 and exon 4, respectively. Direct sequencing demonstrated the presence of a common single nucleotide polymorphism in the exon 4 (c.507T > G) and a nucleotide substitution in the exon 3. The latter was found in four patients, belonging to three families, and was not detected in a series of normal subjects. Further studies are in progress to evaluate the possible role of this variant in the pathophysiology of the disease. This work was partially supported by grants MURST 2000 to F.A. and Ministero della Sanità to P.M. [source]

    Mutations in GPIIIa molecule as a cause for Glanzmann thrombasthenia in Indian patients

    S. NAIR
    Summary.,Background:,Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) results from a quantitative or qualitative defect of GPIIb,IIIa complex, the fibrinogen receptor on platelets, which plays a very important role in platelet aggregation. In this report we describe the molecular studies on 22 patients with Glanzmann Thrombasthenia at our institute. Objectives:,The main objective was to identify the mutations present in our GT population in order to establish a strategy for genetic counseling and antenatal diagnosis. Methods:,Twenty-two patients with GT were included in the present study. Complete blood count (CBC), platelet aggregation, flow cytometry, Western blot, single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were performed in all the patients. The patients showing an abnormal migration pattern in SSCP or DGGE were sequenced further on an automated sequencer. Results:,Of the 22 patients studied, mutations were detected in 12 individuals. Of these, 11 were novel mutations and one mutation Y115C was reported earlier. Flow cytometric analysis showed the absence of receptors in type I GT, highly reduced levels in type II GT and normal levels in type III GT. The DGGE analysis and SSCP analysis of the patients showed different migration patterns. Sequencing was performed in all patients showing an abnormal migration pattern. Of the 22 cases studied mutations could be detected in 12 cases of GT. We could detect six patients with point mutations, four patients with insertions and five patients with deletion mutations. Exon 4 has been found to be the most common site for mutations in our patients. Conclusion:,This study has shown a wide array of mutations present in our GT patients which would be extremely useful in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis, essential in preventing these disorders in succeeding generations. [source]

    Dynamics of hepatitis C virus quasispecies turnover during interferon- , treatment

    M. von Wagner
    Summary. Interferon- , (IFN) has been shown to accelerate the evolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants (quasispecies) in nonresponder patients. Different sensitivities of HCV variants to IFN are discussed as a possible mechanism. In the present study, quasispecies were investigated in detail by a newly established and validated direct solid-phase sequencing of the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), during the initial 3 months of IFN therapy. According to single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, 14 of 26 (54%) virologic nonresponders with quasispecies evolution were identified. Six representative patients with SSCP changes were selected for frequent HVR1 sequencing. Pre-existing variants were identified by cloning and sequencing of the pretreatment serum HCV sample. In one patient the major type was substituted by a minor variant within 3 days of treatment while in the majority of patients the pretreatment major type did not decline before days 26,57 of treatment. Total serum HCV RNA levels remained constant in all patients. In conclusion, although quasispecies evolution during IFN therapy is common, it occurs after a wide range of time intervals after initiation of therapy. Thus, nonresponse to IFN cannot exclusively be explained by changes in the quasispecies. [source]

    Reduced expression of the Rassf1a gene and its aberrant DNA methylation in pancreatic duct adenocarcinomas induced by N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine in hamsters

    Kyoko Shimizu
    Abstract Alterations of the Rassf1a gene were investigated in pancreatic duct adenocarcinomas (PDAs) induced by N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) in hamsters. Female Syrian golden hamsters received 70 mg/kg BOP, followed by repeated exposures to an augmentation pressure regimen consisting of a choline-deficient diet combined with a sequential course of DL -ethionine, L -methionine, and 20 mg/kg BOP. A total of 15 PDAs were obtained, and total RNAs were assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression of the Rassf1a was significantly reduced in PDAs (P,<,0.005) compared with normal pancreatic tissues. For analysis of methylation status, bisulfite sequencing was performed. Normal tissues were all unmethylated in the 5, upstream region of Rassf1a. In contrast, four PDAs were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expression of the Rassf1a gene. Using reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, mutations were detected in 3 out of 15 PDAs (20%). These results suggested that alterations of the Rassf1a gene may be involved in development of PDAs induced by BOP in hamsters. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Glacial refugia and recolonization pathways in the brown seaweed Fucus serratus

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 17 2007
    Abstract The last glacial maximum (20 000,18 000 years ago) dramatically affected extant distributions of virtually all northern European biota. Locations of refugia and postglacial recolonization pathways were examined in Fucus serratus (Heterokontophyta; Fucaceae) using a highly variable intergenic spacer developed from the complete mitochondrial genome of Fucus vesiculosus. Over 1500 samples from the entire range of F. serratus were analysed using fluorescent single strand conformation polymorphism. A total of 28 mtDNA haplotypes was identified and sequenced. Three refugia were recognized based on high haplotype diversities and the presence of endemic haplotypes: southwest Ireland, the northern Brittany-Hurd Deep area of the English Channel, and the northwest Iberian Peninsula. The Irish refugium was the source for a recolonization sweep involving a single haplotype via northern Scotland and throughout Scandinavia, whereas recolonization from the Brittany-Hurd Deep refugium was more limited, probably because of unsuitable soft-bottom habitat in the Bay of Biscay and along the Belgian and Dutch coasts. The Iberian populations reflect a remnant refugium at the present,day southern boundary of the species range. A generalized skyline plot suggested exponential population expansion beginning in the mid-Pleistocene with maximal growth during the Eems interglacial 128 000,67 000 years ago, implying that the last glacial maximum mainly shaped population distributions rather than demography. [source]

    Major histocompatibility complex class II variation in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 9 2006
    Abstract Habitat destruction and human activity have greatly impacted the natural history of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Although the genetic diversity of neutral markers has been examined in this endangered species, no previous work has examined adaptive molecular polymorphisms in the giant panda. Here, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB locus was investigated in the giant panda, using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analysis. Comparisons of DNA samples extracted from faecal and blood samples from the same individual revealed that the two materials yielded similar quantities and qualities of DNA, as well as identical SSCP patterns and allelic sequences, demonstrating the reliability of DNA isolation from panda faeces. Analysis of faecal samples from 60 giant pandas revealed relatively low number of alleles: seven alleles. However, the alleles were quite divergent, varying from each other by a range of 7,47 nucleotide substitutions (4,25 amino acid substitutions). Construction of a neighbour-joining tree and comparisons among DRB alleles from other species revealed that both similar and highly divergent alleles survived in the bottlenecked panda populations. Despite species-specific primers used and excellent faecal DNA isolated, a lower level of heterozygosity than expected was still observed due to inbreeding. There were three types of evidence supporting the presence of balancing selection in the giant panda: (i) an obvious excess of nonsynonymous substitutions over synonymous at the antigen-binding positions; (ii) trans -species evolution of two alleles between the giant panda and other felids; and (iii) a more even distribution of alleles than expected from neutrality. [source]

    Evolutionary history of the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) species complex as inferred from mtDNA phylogeography and gill-raker numbers

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 14 2005
    Abstract We compared mitochondrial DNA and gill-raker number variation in populations of the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) species complex to illuminate their evolutionary history, and discuss mechanisms behind diversification. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing 528 bp of combined parts of the cytochrome oxidase b (cyt b) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) mithochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, we documented phylogeographic relationships among populations and phylogeny of mtDNA haplotypes. Demographic events behind geographical distribution of haplotypes were inferred using nested clade analysis (NCA) and mismatch distribution. Concordance between operational taxonomical groups, based on gill-raker numbers, and mtDNA patterns was tested. Three major mtDNA clades were resolved in Europe: a North European clade from northwest Russia to Denmark, a Siberian clade from the Arctic Sea to southwest Norway, and a South European clade from Denmark to the European Alps, reflecting occupation in different glacial refugia. Demographic events inferred from NCA were isolation by distance, range expansion, and fragmentation. Mismatch analysis suggested that clades which colonized Fennoscandia and the Alps expanded in population size 24 500,5800 years before present, with minute female effective population sizes, implying small founder populations during colonization. Gill-raker counts did not commensurate with hierarchical mtDNA clades, and poorly with haplotypes, suggesting recent origin of gill-raker variation. Whitefish designations based on gill-raker numbers were not associated with ancient clades. Lack of congruence in morphology and evolutionary lineages implies that the taxonomy of this species complex should be reconsidered. [source]

    Field studies on the environmental fate of the Cry1Ab Bt-toxin produced by transgenic maize (MON810) and its effect on bacterial communities in the maize rhizosphere

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 8 2005
    Abstract Field studies were done to assess how much of the transgenic, insecticidal protein, Cry1Ab, encoded by a truncated cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), was released from Bt-maize MON810 into soil and whether bacterial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of MON810 maize were different from those of the rhizosphere of nontransgenic maize cultivars. Bacterial community structure was investigated by SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from community DNA. Using an improved extraction and detection protocol based on a commercially available ELISA, it was possible to detect Cry1Ab protein extracted from soils to a threshold concentration of 0.07 ng/g soil. From 100 ng of purified Cry1Ab protein added per gram of soil, only an average of 37% was extractable. At both field sites investigated, the amount of Cry1Ab protein in bulk soil of MON810 field plots was always lower than in the rhizosphere, the latter ranging from 0.1 to 10 ng/g soil. Immunoreactive Cry1Ab protein was also detected at 0.21 ng/g bulk soil 7 months after harvesting, i.e. in April of the following year. At this time, however, higher values were found in residues of leaves (21 ng/g) and of roots (183 ng/g), the latter corresponding to 12% of the Cry1Ab protein present in intact roots. A sampling 2 months later indicated further degradation of the protein. Despite the detection of Cry1Ab protein in the rhizosphere of MON810 maize, the bacterial community structure was less affected by the Cry1Ab protein than by other environmental factors, i.e. the age of the plants or field heterogeneities. The persistence of Cry1Ab protein emphasizes the importance of considering post-harvest effects on nontarget organisms. [source]