Concerns

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Concerns

  • another concern
  • body image concern
  • career concern
  • central concern
  • clinical concern
  • common concern
  • community concern
  • conservation concern
  • considerable concern
  • consumer concern
  • contemporary concern
  • core concern
  • cosmetic concern
  • cultural concern
  • current concern
  • development concern
  • ecological concern
  • emerging concern
  • empathic concern
  • environmental concern
  • ethical concern
  • existential concern
  • express concern
  • financial concern
  • fundamental concern
  • general concern
  • global concern
  • government concern
  • great concern
  • greater concern
  • greatest concern
  • growing concern
  • health concern
  • human right concern
  • image concern
  • important concern
  • important public health concern
  • increasing concern
  • initial concern
  • international concern
  • key concern
  • little concern
  • local concern
  • main concern
  • major concern
  • major public health concern
  • major safety concern
  • management concern
  • many concern
  • mental health concern
  • methodological concern
  • moral concern
  • national concern
  • ongoing concern
  • other concern
  • own concern
  • parent concern
  • parental concern
  • particular concern
  • patient concern
  • policy concern
  • political concern
  • potential concern
  • potential safety concern
  • practical concern
  • pragmatic concern
  • previous concern
  • primary concern
  • principal concern
  • public concern
  • public health concern
  • raise concern
  • real concern
  • recent concern
  • relate concern
  • right concern
  • rising concern
  • safety concern
  • security concern
  • serious concern
  • several concern
  • sexual concern
  • significant concern
  • similar concern
  • social concern
  • societal concern
  • somatic concern
  • special concern
  • specific concern
  • theoretical concern
  • traditional concern
  • welfare concern
  • widespread concern
  • women concern

  • Terms modified by Concerns

  • concern relate

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE SIXTIES: THE CALM AGAINST THE STORM, OR, LEVELS OF CONCERN

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2000
    Maxine Greene
    First page of article [source]


    ARE MENTAL STATE WELFARISM AND OUR CONCERN FOR NON-EXPERIENTIAL GOALS INCOMPATIBLE?

    PACIFIC PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2007
    EDUARDO RIVERA-LÓPEZ
    If there is not, then we should reject mental state welfarism. My thesis is that there is such a version. My argument relies on the distinction between "reality-centered desires" and "experience-centered desires". Mental state welfarism can accommodate our reality-centered desires and our desire that they be objectively satisfied. My general strategy is, at the level of the value theory, somewhat analogous to the strategy that indirect consequentialism applies at the level of moral obligation theory. To test my argument, I appeal to Nozick's well-known example of the Experience Machine. [source]


    THE CYANOTOXINS-BIOACTIVE METABOLITES OF CYANOBACTERIA: OCCURRENCE, ECOLOGICAL ROLE, TAXONOMIC CONCERNS AND EFFECTS ON HUMANS

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2001
    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Carmichael, W. W. Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 USA Cyanobacteria toxins (cyanotoxins) include cytotoxins and biotoxins with cytotoxins including about 60 compounds ranging from phytoalexins to animicrobials to enzyme inhibitors to compounds that can reverse multidrug resistance. Producer organisms include marine/brackish water Cystoseira, Hormothamnin, Lyngbya, Nodularia and Synechocystis, and the freshwater/terrestrial genera Anabaena, Dichotrix, Fischerella, Hapalosiphon, Lyngbya, Microcystis, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Planktothrix, Phormidium, Schizothrix, Scytonema, Spirulina, Stigonema and Symploca. Since many of these compounds have been identified, not during ecological studies, but during drug discovery investigations, their ecological role is only speculative. Biotoxins are responsible for acute lethal, acute, chronic and sub-chronic poisonings of wild/domestic animals and humans. They include the neurotoxins; anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s) and saxitoxins plus the hepatotoxins; microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsin. These compounds are included when referencing harmful algal blooms (HAB's) such as the more predominate marine PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning), DSP (diarrhetic shellfish poisoning), NSP (neurotoxic shellfish poisoning), ASP (amnesic shellfish poisoning) and EAS (estuary associated syndrome). The CTP (cyanobacteria toxin poisoning) organisms occur in freshwater lakes, ponds, rivers and reservoirs throughout the world. Organisms responsible for CTP's are Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrosperm- opsis, Microcystis, Nodularia, Nostoc Oscillatoria (Planktothrix), Trichodesmium and certain picoplanktic genera. Concern for animal and human health impairments arises from animal poisonings, associated with cyanobacteria waterblooms, beginning with the later part of the 1800's. It was not until the 1950's that we began to understand that cyanobacteria could indeed produce highly toxic compounds. A recent 1998 compilation of all available information on toxic cyanobacteria was published by the World Health Organization. This increasing focus on the role of cyanobacteria metabolites in chemical ecology, drug discovery and toxinology has placed new importance on using correct taxonomy for communication of responsible organisms. [source]


    From Red Lists to Species of Conservation Concern

    CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
    VERENA KELLER
    aves; conservación de especies; listas rojas; prioridades de conservación; Suiza Abstract:,National red lists of threatened animal and plant species prepared according to the criteria of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) adequately reflect the extinction risk of species within a country but cannot be used directly to set conservation priorities. In particular, the significance of national populations for the conservation of the species as a whole is not taken into account. We present a procedure that can be used to assess national responsibility based on the national red-list status of a species, the international importance of the national population, and the species' "historical rarity" status. We distinguished five responsibility classes for breeding birds: B1, threatened species with internationally important populations in Switzerland; B2, threatened species with internationally less important populations; B3, nonthreatened species with internationally important populations; B4, nonthreatened species with internationally less important populations; and B5, species that have never been common in Switzerland. Two responsibility classes were distinguished for birds occurring in Switzerland as visitors: G1, species with large concentrations in Switzerland and an unfavorable conservation status in Europe, and G2, species with large concentrations in Switzerland and a favorable conservation status in Europe. Two additional classes (G3 and G4) for visiting species occurring in internationally less important numbers are possible but were not analyzed in detail. Responsibility classes B1, B2, B3, G1, and G2 were defined as species of national conservation concern. We developed the method for birds in Switzerland, but it can be used in other countries and for other taxonomic groups as well. It is particularly suitable where national red lists are established according to IUCN guidelines. Resumen:,Las listas rojas nacionales de especies de animales y plantas amenazadas que siguen los criterios de la World Conservation Union (IUCN) reflejan adecuadamente el riesgo de extinción de especies en un país pero no pueden ser utilizadas directamente para definir prioridades de conservación. En particular, no se toma en cuenta el significado de poblaciones nacionales para la conservación de especies como tales. Presentamos un procedimiento que se puede utilizar para evaluar la responsabilidad nacional con base en el estatus de lista roja de una especie en un país, la importancia internacional de la población nacional y el estatus de "rareza histórica" de la especie. Distinguimos cinco clases de responsabilidad para aves residentes: B1, especies amenazadas con poblaciones internacionalmente importantes en Suiza; B2, especies amenazadas con poblaciones internacionalmente menos importantes; B3, especies no amenazadas con poblaciones internacionalmente importantes; B4, especies no amenazadas con poblaciones internacionalmente menos importantes; y B5, especies que nunca han sido comunes en Suiza. Se distinguieron dos clases de responsabilidad para aves que ocurren como visitantes en Suiza: G1, especies con grandes concentraciones en Suiza y un estatus de conservación desfavorable en Europa y G2, especies con grandes concentraciones en Suiza y un estatus de conservación favorable en Europa. Son posibles dos clases más, (G3 y G4) para especies visitantes que ocurren en números menos importantes internacionalmente, pero no fueron analizados en detalle. Las clases de responsabilidad B1, B2, B3, G1 y G2 fueron definidas como especies de interés nacional para la conservación. Desarrollamos el método para aves en Suiza, pero también se puede utilizar en otros países y con otros grupos taxonómicos, Es particularmente adecuado donde las listas rojas nacionales se establecen de acuerdo con lineamientos de IUCN. [source]


    Reassessing the value of nursery areas to shark conservation and management

    CONSERVATION LETTERS, Issue 2 2009
    Michael John Kinney
    Abstract Concern over declining shark populations has led to an intense interest in their conservation and management. Due to the difficulties involved in managing adult sharks, focus has been placed on young juvenile and neonate age classes that inhabit discrete inshore nursery areas. However, past confusion over what qualifies as a nursery habitat has led to the identification of vast coastal areas as nurseries, making conservation unfeasible. With the establishment of more discerning criteria for nursery area identification such concerns have been somewhat alleviated, but while effort has been put into defining, identifying, mapping, and in some cases protecting nursery areas, little attention has been paid to the practical value of nurseries for the recovery of exploited shark populations. Often neonate and young juveniles are considered the most critical age classes in terms of population stability/recovery, but evidence is mounting that suggests life stages outside the nursery may be more important in this regard. While nursery area protection should remain a component in shark management strategies it will be critical to link early life stage conservation with management strategies that encompass older individuals residing outside nurseries if effective management is to be achieved. [source]


    The Anticipated Utility of Zoos for Developing Moral Concern in Children

    CURATOR THE MUSEUM JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
    John Fraser
    It proposes a new theory regarding the psychological value of such experiences for the development of identity. The study used a constructivist grounded theory approach to explore parenting perspectives on the value of zoo visits undertaken by eight families from three adjacent inner-city neighborhoods in a major American city. The results suggest that parents use zoo visits as tools for promoting family values. These parents felt that experiences with live animals were necessary to encourage holistic empathy, to extend children's sense of justice to include natural systems, and to model the importance of family relationships. The author concludes that parents find zoos useful as a tool for helping their children to develop skills with altruism, to transfer environmental values, to elevate children's self-esteem, and to inculcate social norms that they believe will aid in their children's social success in the future. [source]


    Local Heroes, Narrative Worlds and the Imagination: The Making of a Moral Curriculum Through Experiential Narratives

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 1 2008
    CAROLA CONLE
    ABSTRACT Concern about the impact of narrative worlds and their heroes offered by the media prompted research on encounters with moral models in experiential, narrative curricula. Researchers tracked the extension of a mandated Language Arts curriculum on "heroes" through the experiential narratives of four local heroes chosen collaboratively by teacher, students and researcher. They also elicited and analyzed responses from students to these narrative presentations in order to explore how students understood the narrative worlds presented to them. Instead of focusing on the personalities of the speakers, the researchers considered the experiential stories, and the moments of narrative encounter they offered, as the sources of immediate moral impact. However, this impact, it is suggested, did not adhere to a particular narrative in an undifferentiated manner. Instead, effects varied according to what a particular student brought to the encounter and how he or she was able to experience it. Material from two students' responses illustrates how they brought their own personal and socio-cultural contexts to the encounter, activating existing dispositions and reinforcing inclinations to behave in certain ways. There was some evidence that the students reconstructed the meaning of events in their lives, were able to interpret their environment in new ways, and constructed visions of possible futures based on this curricular experience. [source]


    BENEFITS TO RESEARCH SUBJECTS IN INTERNATIONAL TRIALS: DO THEY REDUCE EXPLOITATION OR INCREASE UNDUE INDUCEMENT?

    DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS, Issue 3 2008
    ANGELA BALLANTYNE
    ABSTRACT There is an alleged tension between undue inducement and exploitation in research trials. This paper considers claims that increasing the benefits to research subjects enrolled in international, externally-sponsored clinical trials should be avoided on the grounds that it may result in the undue inducement of research subjects. It proceeds from the premise that there are good grounds for thinking that, at least some, international research sponsors exploit trial participants because they do not provide the research population with a fair share of the benefits of research. This provides a prima facie argument for increasing the benefits for research participants. Concern over undue inducement is a legitimate moral concern; however, if this concern is to prevent research populations from receiving their fair share of benefits from research there must be sufficient evidence that these benefits will unduly influence patients' decision-making regarding trial participation. This article contributes to the debate about exploitation versus undue inducement by introducing an analysis of the available empirical research into research participants' motivations and the influence of payments on research subjects' behaviour and risk assessment. Admittedly, the available research in this field is limited, but the research that has been conducted suggests that financial rewards do not distort research subjects' behaviour or blind them to the risks involved with research. Therefore, I conclude that research sponsors should prioritise the prevention of exploitation in international research by providing greater benefits to research participants. [source]


    Clinical and Economic Factors Associated with Ambulance Use to the Emergency Department

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 8 2006
    Jennifer Prah Ruger PhD
    Background: Concern about ambulance diversion and emergency department (ED) overcrowding has increased scrutiny of ambulance use. Knowledge is limited, however, about clinical and economic factors associated with ambulance use compared to other arrival methods. Objectives: To compare clinical and economic factors associated with different arrival methods at a large, urban, academic hospital ED. Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all patients seen during 2001 (N= 80,209) at an urban academic hospital ED. Data were obtained from hospital clinical and financial records. Outcomes included acuity and severity level, primary complaint, medical diagnosis, disposition, payment, length of stay, costs, and mode of arrival (bus, car, air-medical transport, walk-in, or ambulance). Multivariate logistic regression identified independent factors associated with ambulance use. Results: In multivariate analysis, factors associated with ambulance use included: triage acuity A (resuscitation) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 51.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 33.1 to 79.6) or B (emergent) (OR, 9.2; 95% CI = 6.1 to 13.7), Diagnosis Related Group severity level 4 (most severe) (OR, 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.8), died (OR, 3.8; 95% CI = 1.5 to 9.0), hospital intensive care unit/operating room admission (OR, 1.9; 95% CI = 1.6 to 2.1), motor vehicle crash (OR, 7.1; 95% CI = 6.4 to 7.9), gunshot/stab wound (OR, 2.1; 95% CI = 1.5 to 2.8), fell 0,10 ft (OR, 2.0; 95% CI = 1.8 to 2.3). Medicaid Traditional (OR, 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.4), Medicare Traditional (OR, 1.8; 95% CI = 1.7 to 2.1), arrived weekday midnight,8 AM (OR, 2.0; 95% CI = 1.8 to 2.1), and age ,65 years (OR, 1.3; 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.5). Conclusions: Ambulance use was related to severity of injury or illness, age, arrival time, and payer status. Patients arriving by ambulance were more likely to be acutely sick and severely injured and had longer ED length of stay and higher average costs, but they were less likely to have private managed care or to leave the ED against medical advice, compared to patients arriving by independent means. [source]


    The rise of research on futures in ecology: rebalancing scenarios and predictions

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 12 2009
    Audrey Coreau
    Abstract Concern about the ecological consequences of global change has increasingly stimulated ecologists to examine the futures of ecological systems. Studying futures is not only a crucial element of the interaction between science, management and decision making, but also a critical research challenge per se, especially because futures cannot be observed or experimented on. In addition, researchers can encounter methodological and theoretical difficulties, which make interpretations and predictions problematic. In the literature which deals with futures of ecological systems two main lines of research can be distinguished: a predictive approach, which dominates the literature, can be contrasted with a rarer number of studies that elaborate potential scenarios for ecological systems. Scenario approaches currently concern mainly contacts with stakeholders or decision makers, or the use of climate scenarios to derive projections about ecological futures. We argue that a new direction for ecological futures research could be explored by using ecological scenarios in combination with predictive models to further fundamental ecological research, in addition to enhancing its applied value. Ecology Letters (2009) 12: 1277,1286 [source]


    Habitat use of age 0 Alabama shad in the Pascagoula River drainage, USA

    ECOLOGY OF FRESHWATER FISH, Issue 1 2010
    P. F. Mickle
    Mickle PF, Schaefer JF, Adams SB, Kreiser BR. Habitat use of age 0 Alabama shad in the Pascagoula River drainage, USA. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010: 19: 107,115. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract,, Alabama shad (Alosa alabamae) is an anadromous species that spawns in Gulf of Mexico drainages and is a NOAA Fisheries Species of Concern. Habitat degradation and barriers to migration are considered contributing factors to range contraction that has left just the Pascagoula River drainage population in Mississippi. We studied juvenile life history and autecology in three rivers within the drainage. We collected fish, habitat and physicochemical data in three habitat types (sandbar, open channel and bank) from June to October 2004,2006. Sandbar habitat was favoured by smaller individuals early in the year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) decreased through the summer as larger fish began occupying bank and open channel habitat. The most parsimonious model of abundance included year and river variables, while patterns of presence and absence were best explained by river, habitat type and physiochemical variables. While all three rivers in the drainage contained Alabama shad, fish were less abundant and had lower condition values in the Chickasawhay River. Earlier work suggested the Alabama shad may gradually move downstream towards the Gulf of Mexico in their first year. However, we found no evidence of this and captured large fish high in the drainage late in the year. [source]


    Agricultural incomes and the CAP

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2000
    Berkeley Hill
    Concern with the living standards of farmers is central to the CAP yet it demonstrates the muddled objectives, inappropriate indicators and misdirected interventions that are the stuff of analysts' worst nightmares. As a consequence, the performance of the CAP in terms of this fundamental aim has, in all likelihood, been very poor. Attempts to reorientate the CAP to be more in line with its declared objectives face enormous vested interests in the agricultural industry and among policy-makers. [source]


    Organization of connections of the basal and accessory basal nuclei in the monkey amygdala

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 6 2000
    Eva Bonda
    Abstract PLEASE NOTE: Expression of Concern (EJN, 12:11, p4153) The present study investigated the intrinsic connections of the basal and accessory basal nuclei of the Macaca fascicularis monkey by means of the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Analysis of the intranuclear connections of the basal nucleus indicates that there are five modules: dorsal, intermediate, ventral lateral, ventral medial and periamygdaloid sulcal cortex. The dorsal division projects to the intermediate division. Laterally, the intermediate division projects to the ventral lateral division and dorsal parts of the ventral medial division. Ventrally, the ventral lateral division projects to the ventral medial division and periamygdaloid sulcal cortex, which appears to constitute a medial extension of the basal nucleus onto the cortical surface of the amygdala. Medially, the ventral medial division projects to the intermediate and dorsal divisions. Thus, the connections between these modules form functional microcolumns within the nucleus with distinct patterns of information flow that are dorsal to ventral laterally, lateral to medial ventrally, and ventral to dorsal medially. Observations on the intranuclear connections of the accessory basal nucleus suggest that they are organized into two relatively distinct domains: the dorsal division projects to the ventral division and the ventral division projects primarily to the ventromedial division. Projections to other amygdaloid areas originate in select divisions of the basal and accessory basal nuclei, and are topographically distributed. The organization of intrinsic connections of the basal nuclei correlates with specific amygdalo-cortical connections and suggests that extensive convergence of information takes place within the amygdala, which potentially influences activity at both the temporal and parietal pathways and hippocampal fields. [source]


    Child Weight Status and Young Adult Quality of Life: Is There a Reason for Concern?

    FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    Holly S. Kihm
    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between child weight status and young adult quality of life. One hundred sixty-four college students participated in the study. Students completed four questionnaires that were used to assess physical and psychosocial variables. Several statistical analyses, including correlations and hierarchal regression models, were employed to test the study's hypotheses. Results from the study showed that child weight status was negatively associated with adult quality of life, and child self-concept was a mediating variable within the relationship. Recognizing the relationship between child weight status and young adult quality of life stresses the importance of addressing psychosocial concerns related to weight status during childhood in efforts to achieve a greater quality of life in adulthood. [source]


    Broadbill swordfish: status of established fisheries and lessons for developing fisheries

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2000
    P. Ward
    Guidelines for the assessment and management of developing swordfish fisheries are derived through an examination of five swordfish fisheries. As they develop, swordfish fisheries may be inclined to local depletion around underwater features, such as seamounts and banks. Few nations have applied the precautionary approach in managing their developing swordfish fisheries. Without controls, swordfish fisheries expand geographically and fishing effort increases, often overshooting optimum levels. However, it is difficult to distinguish clear evidence of fishery collapse; modern longliners harvest widely distributed tuna and swordfish and they are able to relocate to distant areas or switch between target species in response to fluctuations in species abundance and price. Furthermore, the wide distribution of swordfish combined with year-round spawning and high growth rates amongst juveniles probably contribute to the apparent resilience of swordfish stocks to intensive harvesting. Over half the world's swordfish catch is taken as an incidental catch of longliners fishing for tuna. In several areas, such as the North Atlantic, catch quotas have sometimes caused tuna longline fishers to discard swordfish. Minimum size limits have also resulted in discarding of swordfish in tuna fisheries and in dedicated swordfish fisheries. In addition to weakening the effectiveness of those management measures, bycatch and discarding add to the complexities of managing swordfish fisheries and to uncertainties in assessing the stocks. Longliners that target swordfish often fish at high latitudes where interactions with marine wildlife, such as seabird, are generally more frequent than at low latitudes. Concern over incidental catches of marine wildlife and other species is becoming a driving force in the management of several swordfish fisheries. Fishery management organisations will need to implement management measures to protect non-target species and gather reliable data and information on the situation by placing observers on boats fishing for swordfish. [source]


    Income Inequality as a Public Health Concern: Where Do We Stand?

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 1p1 2003
    Commentary on "Is Exposure to Income Inequality a Public Health Concern?"
    First page of article [source]


    New Routes to the PhD: Cause for Concern?

    HIGHER EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2004
    Bill Johnston
    Recent developments suggest that the PhD is at a turning point. Professional groups have criticised the so-called ,traditional PhD'. New routes to the PhD are proposed by several bodies and endorsed by one funding council. In light of these developments, it is appropriate to ask what the implications are for the PhD and for the academy. A focus group was used to gather student responses to these developments. The findings show qualified support: students agree that the PhD should cater for different careers but challenge what they see as a simplistic channelling of PhD routes. This paper demonstrates apparent consensus on the need for change in the PhD and reveals movement beyond reconceptualisation towards reconstruction. However, we argue that there is cause for concern in the lack of attention paid to student views and the continuing neglect of quality issues in the PhD. [source]


    Women in Science, Engineering and Technology: A Review of The Issues

    HIGHER EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2002
    Diane Bebbington
    Concern continues to be expressed over women's difficulties in advancing their careers as academic scientists. Though some sciences may be numerically ,feminised', few women reach the upper echelons of science. Scant attention has been paid to issues of the progression of women from non,traditional backgrounds, such as those from ethnic minorities, who may be particularly disadvantaged. What research there is indicates a variation between the sciences in terms of women's careers and patterns that are replicated globally. Explanations are now focusing on how the scientific culture itself acts as a barrier to women rather than on the notion that women themselves lack the requisite skills. The Athena Project is a policy response to this issue. Future research and policy needs to look more closely at differences between the sciences, how women from diverse backgrounds experience the academic labour market and epistemological connections between employment and engagement with the scientific agenda. [source]


    Safety of nevirapine in pregnancy

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 1 2007
    U Natarajan
    Background Nevirapine has been widely used in pregnancy for its efficacy, low pill burden, bioavailability and rapid transplacental transfer. Concern about nevirapine toxicity during pregnancy has emerged over recent years. Objectives The aims of the study were to document the frequency of cutaneous and hepatic toxicity secondary to nevirapine use during pregnancy and to compare rates in women starting nevirapine during the current pregnancy with those in women who had commenced nevirapine prior to the current pregnancy. Design This was a retrospective, comparative, five-centre study carried out in London, UK, in 1997,2003. Methods All HIV-1-infected women who received nevirapine as part of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy were included in the study. Data on demographics, HIV infection risk, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) status, surrogate markers at initiation of therapy, other medications hepatitis B and C virus coinfection and clinical data relating to potential toxicity were collated and analysed. Results Fifteen of 235 eligible women (6.4%) developed rash and eight (3.4%) developed hepatotoxicity, including four with coexistent rash, giving a combined incidence of 19 potential cases of nevirapine toxicity during pregnancy (8.1%). Alternative causes of rash/hepatotoxicity were suspected in seven cases and only 10 mothers (5.8%) discontinued nevirapine. Of the 170 women who commenced nevirapine during this pregnancy, 13 (7.6%) developed rash and eight (4.7%) hepatotoxicity, a combined incidence of 10%. Only two of 65 women with nevirapine exposure prior to this pregnancy developed rash (3.1%). Conclusions Nevirapine-containing ART was well tolerated in this cohort of pregnant women. Although pregnancy did not appear to increase the risk of nevirapine-associated toxicity compared to published adult data, CD4 count may be less predictive of toxicity in pregnancy. [source]


    A critical review of appropriate conceptual models for use by coronary care nurses

    INTERNATIONAL NURSING REVIEW, Issue 1 2008
    F. Timmins bns ffnrcsi nfesc rnt rgn phd msc bsc
    Background:, There is little evidence of the extent of conceptual model use within cardiovascular nursing. Concern exists within nursing that nursing theory and conceptual model use within practice is less than optimal. It is further suggested that there is little evidence of nursing theory occupying its true position as the central tenet of nursing practice and cardiovascular nurses have been challenged to reconsider this aspect of practice. Aim:, The aim of this review is to explore the effectiveness of conceptual models used within cardiovascular nursing to further explore their potential benefit. Methods:, Using key terms, a search was conducted using electronic databases CINAHL and PUBMED; yielding seven papers that fulfilled selection criteria. Findings:, Few papers related to research studies in the area. However, of those identified significant examination and testing of concepts emerged within the studies. Rather than merely using concepts as an organizing framework or a component of the study, theories alluded to were scrutinized and consistently applied. Although studies identified mostly referred to specific testing and examination of aspects of conceptual models, the notion of self-care and support for clients emerges as a strong theme within the review. The relationship between nurse and client seemed to be pivotal in any noted improvements. Conclusions:, The findings have limited application to practice. In the absence of large-scale longitudinal studies, only selected aspects of conceptual models or theory were scrutinized. Further research is required in this area to identify conceptual models of nursing that are most appropriate for cardiovascular nursing care. [source]


    Commerce and Imagination: The Sources of Concern about International Human Rights in the US Congress

    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2010
    Ellen A. Cutrone
    Do members of Congress put human rights concerns on the agenda in response to their constituents' demands for trade protection? Humanitarian concern may be an important motive, but the normative weight of these issues also makes them a potentially powerful tool for politicians with less elevated agendas. They may criticize the behavior of countries with whom their constituents must compete economically, while overlooking the actions of countries with which their constituents have more harmonious economic relations. This paper tests several hypotheses about the salience of human rights concerns in the politics of US foreign policy using data on congressional speeches during the late 1990s gathered from the Congressional Record. We find evidence that, while humanitarian interests remain an important motive for raising human rights issues, the economic interests of their constituents influence which members of Congress speak out on these questions, and the countries on which they focus their concern. [source]


    Reassessing Legitimacy in the European Union

    JCMS: JOURNAL OF COMMON MARKET STUDIES, Issue 4 2002
    Andrew Moravcsik
    Concern about the EU's ,democratic deficit' is misplaced. Judged against existing advanced industrial democracies, rather than an ideal plebiscitary or parliamentary democracy, the EU is legitimate. Its institutions are tightly constrained by constitutional checks and balances: narrow mandates, fiscal limits, super,majoritarian and concurrent voting requirements and separation of powers. The EU's appearance of exceptional insulation reflects the subset of functions it performs , central banking, constitutional adjudication, civil prosecution, economic diplomacy and technical administration. These are matters of low electoral salience commonly delegated in national systems, for normatively justifiable reasons. On balance, the EU redresses rather than creates biases in political representation, deliberation and output. [source]


    Agriculture and ,Improvement' in Early Colonial India: A Pre-History of Development

    JOURNAL OF AGRARIAN CHANGE, Issue 4 2005
    DAVID ARNOLD
    The doctrine of ,improvement' has often been identified with the introduction , and presumed failure , of the Permanent Settlement in Bengal in 1793. Although recognized as central to British agrarian policies in India, its wider impact and significance have been insufficiently explored. Aesthetic taste, moral judgement and botanical enthusiasm combined with more strictly economic criteria to give an authority to the idea of improvement that endured into the middle decades of the nineteenth century. Concern for improvement also reflected dissatisfaction with India's apparent poverty and deficient material environment; it helped stimulate data-collection and ambitious schemes of agrarian transformation. A precursor of later concepts of development, not least in its negative presumptions about India and the search for external agencies of change, improvement yet shows many of the false starts and intrinsic limitations early attempts to transform rural India entailed. This article reassesses the significance of improvement in the first half of the nineteenth century in India, especially as illustrated through contemporary travel literature and through the aims and activities of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India. [source]


    Neutropenia Associated with Mirtazapine Use: Is a Drop in the Neutrophil Count in a symptomatic Older Adults a Cause for Concern?

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 8 2002
    Ali Ahmed MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Niche overlap between marsupial and eutherian carnivores: does competition threaten the endangered spotted-tailed quoll?

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    A. S. Glen
    Summary 1The significance of top-down regulation by carnivores is receiving increasing global recognition. As a consequence, key objectives in many programmes that seek to maintain ecosystem function now include conserving carnivores and understanding their interactions. This study examined overlap in resource use (space and diet) of introduced eutherian carnivores and an endangered marsupial carnivore, the spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus, in eastern Australia. We also investigated mechanisms of niche partitioning and evidence for interspecific aggression. 2Dietary overlap between quolls, red foxes Vulpes vulpes and wild dogs Canis lupus ssp. was assessed by analysis of scats. Trapping, radio-tracking and direct observations were used to quantify spatial overlap between quolls, foxes, wild dogs and feral cats Felis catus. 3Dietary overlap among the carnivores was extensive. Medium-sized mammals were the most important prey for all three predators, indicating potential for exploitative interactions. However, hunting of different size classes of secondary prey and consumption by quolls of more arboreal prey than their counterparts may assist coexistence. Remains of quoll were found in two dog scats, and cat hair in another, possibly indicating intraguild predation. 4We observed extensive spatial overlap between quolls and eutherian carnivores. However, we inferred from dietary data that quolls foraged primarily in forested habitat, while canids foraged mainly in cleared habitat. 5Synthesis and applications. Our results indicate strong potential for competition between spotted-tailed quolls and eutherian carnivores, and thus a situation where control of introduced predators may be desirable, not only for the conservation of prey species but also for the protection of native carnivores. Concern over potential non-target mortality of quolls has hindered efforts to control foxes in eastern Australia using poison baits. We contend that, rather than harming quoll populations, baiting for foxes should aid the conservation of quolls and should be implemented in areas of sympatry where fox numbers are high. [source]


    Bioprocesses for the removal of nitrogen oxides from polluted air

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    Yaomin Jin
    Abstract Nitrogen oxides (NOx) of environmental concern are nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). They are hazardous air pollutants that lead to the formation of acid rain and tropospheric ozone. Both pollutants are usually present simultaneously and are, therefore, called NOx. Another compound is N2O which is found in the stratosphere where it plays a role in the greenhouse effect. Concern for environmental and health issues coupled with stringent NOx emission standards generates a need for the development of efficient low-cost NOx abatement technologies. Under such circumstances, it becomes mandatory for each NOx-emitting industry or facility to opt for proper NOx control measures. Several techniques are available to control NOx emissions: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), adsorption, scrubbing, and biological methods. Each process offers specific advantages and limitations. Since bioprocesses present many advantages over conventional technologies for flue gas cleaning, a lot of interest has recently been shown for these processes. This article reviews the major characteristics of conventional non-biological technologies and recent advances in the biological removal of NOx from flue gases based on the catalytic activity of either eucaryotes or procaryotes, ie nitrification, denitrification, the use of microalgae, and a combined physicochemical and biological process (BioDeNOx). Relatively uncomplicated design and simple operation and maintenance requirements make biological removal a good option for the control of NOx emissions in stationary sources. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Ultimate Concern and Language Engagement: A Reexamination of the Opening Message of the Dao-De-Jing

    JOURNAL OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, Issue 4 2000
    Bo Mou
    [source]


    Determinants of Online Privacy Concern and Its Influence on Privacy Protection Behaviors Among Young Adolescents

    JOURNAL OF CONSUMER AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2009
    SEOUNMI YOUN
    With Rogers' protection motivation theory as the theoretical framework, this study identified determinants of young adolescents' level of privacy concerns, which, in turn, affects their resultant coping behaviors to protect privacy. Survey data from 144 middle school students revealed that perceived risks of information disclosure increased privacy concerns, whereas perceived benefits offered by information exchange decreased privacy concerns. Subsequently, privacy concerns had an impact on risk-coping behaviors such as seeking out interpersonal advice or additional information (e.g., privacy statement) or refraining from using Web sites that ask for personal information. Counter to our expectation, privacy self-efficacy did not appear to be related to privacy concerns. Implications of privacy education to protect online privacy among young adolescents were discussed. [source]


    A11. The influence of the media on eating disorders

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 5 2000
    S. Almond
    Background The cause of eating disorders is multifactorial. One of these is sociocultural factors which include family, peers and the media. It has been suggested that constant media pressures can lead to body dissatisfaction, which may result in distorted eating patterns. Aims To review the role of the media in relation to eating disorders Results There has been a shift in the media portrayal of the 'ideal' body size for women, from the voluptuous curved figure of Marilyn Monroe in the 1950s to a thinner 'waif-like' look of Kate Moss in the 1980s. In the mass media shape and weight define perfection. Women perceive themselves as being bigger than they actually are. Their figure deviates from the ideal thus resulting in self body dissatisfaction. 'All I see is these pretty models, I wish I could look like one of them.' ( Wertheim et al. 1997 ) The 'ideal' body image is far from the physiologic norm. Supermodels are born with a specific body type and what the public doesn't understand is that they cannot diet to achieve it. 'Women don't set out to be anorexic, they begin by thinking they're too fat because everywhere they go the media is telling them that they are right' ( Barrett, 1997) Products are often advertised displaying the ideal body shape in the hope that it will enhance the product and create body dissatisfaction. Purchasing the product is perceived as a positive step towards reaching the 'perfect' body image. Concern surrounds the appearance of such advertisements in magazines aimed at adolescent girls, as at this age they are particularly vulnerable to the influences of the media. Stice and Shaw (1994) stated that exposure to the thin 'idea' may have a negative effect on emotions leading to body dissatisfaction. Such emotions include depression, stress, guilt, shame, insecurity, unhappiness, and lower self-confidence. A study by Schotte et al. (1990) indicated that negative emotions can disrupt eating behaviour. Dieters watching a frightening film increased their food intake, whereas nondieters did not. Conclusion The media are not solely responsible for eating disorders but they do contribute by promoting the 'ideal' physique. There is some resistance to media messages, as the majority of people do not develop distorted eating patterns. [source]


    Environmental Concern and the Metaphysics of Education

    JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, Issue 4 2000
    Michael Bonnett
    We are only beginning to understand the significance of the issues which our environmental situation raises, and their implications for philosophy of education have yet to receive the depth of consideration they merit. This paper argues that certain strands of environmental concern invite us to reconsider the metaphysical basis of education. Having identified some senses in which education is properly construed as metaphysical, it explores questions posed for the conceptions of knowledge, truth, personhood and morality in which education is rooted, and for the versions of reality and the relationship to nature in which it invites pupils to participate. [source]