Computer Graphics (computer + graphics)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hierarchical Structure Recovery of Point-Sampled Surfaces

Marco Attene
I.3 COMPUTER GRAPHICS; I.3.5 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling,Object hierarchies Abstract We focus on the class of ,regular' models defined by Várady et al. for reverse engineering purposes. Given a 3D surface,,represented through a dense set of points, we present a novel algorithm that converts,,to a hierarchical representation,. In,, the surface is encoded through patches of various shape and size, which form a hierarchical atlas. If,,belongs to the class of regular models, then,,captures the most significant features of,,at all the levels of detail. In this case, we show that,,can be exploited to interactively select regions of interest on,,and intuitively re-design the model. Furthermore,,,intrinsically encodes a hierarchy of useful ,segmentations' of,. We present a simple though efficient approach to extract and optimize such segmentations, and we show how they can be used to approximate the input point sets through idealized manifold meshes. [source]

BqR-Tree: A Data Structure for Flights and Walkthroughs in Urban Scenes with Mobile Elements

J.L. Pina
I.3.6 [Computer Graphics]: Graphics data structures and data types Abstract BqR-Tree, the data structure presented in this paper is an improved R-Tree data structure based on a quadtree spatial partitioning which improves the rendering speed of the usual R-trees when view-culling is implemented, especially in urban scenes. The city is split by means of a spatial quadtree partition and the block is adopted as the basic urban unit. One advantage of blocks is that they can be easily identified in any urban environment, regardless of the origins and structure of the input data. The aim of the structure is to accelerate the visualization of complex scenes containing not only static but dynamic elements. The usefulness of the structure has been tested with low structured data, which makes its application appropriate to almost all city data. The results of the tests show that when using the BqR-Tree structure to perform walkthroughs and flights, rendering times vastly improve in comparison to the data structures which have yielded best results to date, with average improvements of around 30%. [source]

Application of Visual Analytics for Thermal State Management in Large Data Centres

M. C. Hao
I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation,Display Algorithms; H.5.0 [Information Systems]: Information Interfaces and Presentation,General Abstract Today's large data centres are the computational hubs of the next generation of IT services. With the advent of dynamic smart cooling and rack level sensing, the need for visual data exploration is growing. If administrators know the rack level thermal state changes and catch problems in real time, energy consumption can be greatly reduced. In this paper, we apply a cell-based spatio-temporal overall view with high-resolution time series to simultaneously analyze complex thermal state changes over time across hundreds of racks. We employ cell-based visualization techniques for trouble shooting and abnormal state detection. These techniques are based on the detection of sensor temperature relations and events to help identify the root causes of problems. In order to optimize the data centre cooling system performance, we derive new non-overlapped scatter plots to visualize the correlations between the temperatures and chiller utilization. All these techniques have been used successfully to monitor various time-critical thermal states in real-world large-scale production data centres and to derive cooling policies. We are starting to embed these visualization techniques into a handheld device to add mobile monitoring capability. [source]

Geometry-Driven Local Neighbourhood Based Predictors for Dynamic Mesh Compression

Libor Vá
Computer Graphics [I.3.7]: Animation Abstract The task of dynamic mesh compression seeks to find a compact representation of a surface animation, while the artifacts introduced by the representation are as small as possible. In this paper, we present two geometric predictors, which are suitable for PCA-based compression schemes. The predictors exploit the knowledge about the geometrical meaning of the data, which allows a more accurate prediction, and thus a more compact representation. We also provide rate/distortion curves showing that our approach outperforms the current PCA-based compression methods by more than 20%. [source]

Adaptive and Feature-Preserving Subdivision for High-Quality Tetrahedral Meshes

D. Burkhart
I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Curve, surface, solid, and object representations Abstract We present an adaptive subdivision scheme for unstructured tetrahedral meshes inspired by the, -subdivision scheme for triangular meshes. Existing tetrahedral subdivision schemes do not support adaptive refinement and have traditionally been driven by the need to generate smooth three-dimensional deformations of solids. These schemes use edge bisections to subdivide tetrahedra, which generates octahedra in addition to tetrahedra. To split octahedra into tetrahedra one routinely chooses a direction for the diagonals for the subdivision step. We propose a new topology-based refinement operator that generates only tetrahedra and supports adaptive refinement. Our tetrahedral subdivision algorithm is motivated by the need to have one representation for the modeling, the simulation and the visualization and so to bridge the gap between CAD and CAE. Our subdivision algorithm design emphasizes on geometric quality of the tetrahedral meshes, local and adaptive refinement operations, and preservation of sharp geometric features on the boundary and in the interior of the physical domain. [source]

Interactive Graphics for Computer Adaptive Testing

I. Cheng
K.3.1 [Computer Milieux]: Computer and Education , Computer Uses in Education; I.3.8 [Computing Methodologies]: Computer Graphics , Application Abstract Interactive graphics are commonly used in games and have been shown to be successful in attracting the general audience. Instead of computer games, animations, cartoons, and videos being used only for entertainment, there is now an interest in using interactive graphics for ,innovative testing'. Rather than traditional pen-and-paper tests, audio, video and graphics are being conceived as alternative means for more effective testing in the future. In this paper, we review some examples of graphics item types for testing. As well, we outline how games can be used to interactively test concepts; discuss designing chemistry item types with interactive 3D graphics; suggest approaches for automatically adjusting difficulty level in interactive graphics based questions; and propose strategies for giving partial marks for incorrect answers. We study how to test different cognitive skills, such as music, using multimedia interfaces; and also evaluate the effectiveness of our model. Methods for estimating difficulty level of a mathematical item type using Item Response Theory (IRT) and a molecule construction item type using Graph Edit Distance are discussed. Evaluation of the graphics item types through extensive testing on some students is described. We also outline the application of using interactive graphics over cell phones. All of the graphics item types used in this paper are developed by members of our research group. [source]

Fast Inverse Reflector Design (FIRD)

A. Mas
I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism; I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling , Physically based modeling; I.3.1 [Hardware architecture]: Graphics processors Abstract This paper presents a new inverse reflector design method using a GPU-based computation of outgoing light distribution from reflectors. We propose a fast method to obtain the outgoing light distribution of a parametrized reflector, and then compare it with the desired illumination. The new method works completely in the GPU. We trace millions of rays using a hierarchical height-field representation of the reflector. Multiple reflections are taken into account. The parameters that define the reflector shape are optimized in an iterative procedure in order for the resulting light distribution to be as close as possible to the desired, user-provided one. We show that our method can calculate reflector lighting at least one order of magnitude faster than previous methods, even with millions of rays, complex geometries and light sources. [source]

Time-Adaptive Lines for the Interactive Visualization of Unsteady Flow Data Sets

N. Cuntz
I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Line and Curve Generation; I.3.1 [Computer Graphics]: Parallel Processing Abstract The quest for the ideal flow visualization reveals two major challenges: interactivity and accuracy. Interactivity stands for explorative capabilities and real-time control. Accuracy is a prerequisite for every professional visualization in order to provide a reliable base for analysis of a data set. Geometric flow visualization has a long tradition and comes in very different flavors. Among these, stream, path and streak lines are known to be very useful for both 2D and 3D flows. Despite their importance in practice, appropriate algorithms suited for contemporary hardware are rare. In particular, the adaptive construction of the different line types is not sufficiently studied. This study provides a profound representation and discussion of stream, path and streak lines. Two algorithms are proposed for efficiently and accurately generating these lines using modern graphics hardware. Each includes a scheme for adaptive time-stepping. The adaptivity for stream and path lines is achieved through a new processing idea we call ,selective transform feedback'. The adaptivity for streak lines combines adaptive time-stepping and a geometric refinement of the curve itself. Our visualization is applied, among others, to a data set representing a simulated typhoon. The storage as a set of 3D textures requires special attention. Both algorithms explicitly support this storage, as well as the use of precomputed adaptivity information. [source]

A Shape Grammar for Developing Glyph-based Visualizations

P. Karnick
I.3.2 [Computer Graphics]: Graphics Systems; I.3.4 [Computer Graphics]: Graphics Utilities Abstract In this paper we address the question of how to quickly model glyph-based Geographic Information System visualizations. Our solution is based on using shape grammars to set up the different aspects of a visualization, including the geometric content of the visualization, methods for resolving layout conflicts and interaction methods. Our approach significantly increases modelling efficiency over similarly flexible systems currently in use. [source]

Tactics-Based Behavioural Planning for Goal-Driven Rigid Body Control

Stefan Zickler
Computer Graphics [I.3.7]: Animation-Artificial Intelligence; [I.2.8]: Plan execution, formation, and generation; Computer Graphics [I.3.5]: Physically based modelling Abstract Controlling rigid body dynamic simulations can pose a difficult challenge when constraints exist on the bodies' goal states and the sequence of intermediate states in the resulting animation. Manually adjusting individual rigid body control actions (forces and torques) can become a very labour-intensive and non-trivial task, especially if the domain includes a large number of bodies or if it requires complicated chains of inter-body collisions to achieve the desired goal state. Furthermore, there are some interactive applications that rely on rigid body models where no control guidance by a human animator can be offered at runtime, such as video games. In this work, we present techniques to automatically generate intelligent control actions for rigid body simulations. We introduce sampling-based motion planning methods that allow us to model goal-driven behaviour through the use of non-deterministic,Tactics,that consist of intelligent, sampling-based control-blocks, called,Skills. We introduce and compare two variations of a Tactics-driven planning algorithm, namely behavioural Kinodynamic Rapidly Exploring Random Trees (BK-RRT) and Behavioural Kinodynamic Balanced Growth Trees (BK-BGT). We show how our planner can be applied to automatically compute the control sequences for challenging physics-based domains and that is scalable to solve control problems involving several hundred interacting bodies, each carrying unique goal constraints. [source]

A Bayesian Monte Carlo Approach to Global Illumination

Jonathan Brouillat
I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics an Realism Abstract Most Monte Carlo rendering algorithms rely on importance sampling to reduce the variance of estimates. Importance sampling is efficient when the proposal sample distribution is well-suited to the form of the integrand but fails otherwise. The main reason is that the sample location information is not exploited. All sample values are given the same importance regardless of their proximity to one another. Two samples falling in a similar location will have equal importance whereas they are likely to contain redundant information. The Bayesian approach we propose in this paper uses both the location and value of the data to infer an integral value based on a prior probabilistic model of the integrand. The Bayesian estimate depends only on the sample values and locations, and not how these samples have been chosen. We show how this theory can be applied to the final gathering problem and present results that clearly demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian Monte Carlo. [source]

Replica Exchange Light Transport

Shinya Kitaoka
I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism; I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation Abstract We solve the light transport problem by introducing a novel unbiased Monte Carlo algorithm called replica exchange light transport, inspired by the replica exchange Monte Carlo method in the fields of computational physics and statistical information processing. The replica exchange Monte Carlo method is a sampling technique whose operation resembles simulated annealing in optimization algorithms using a set of sampling distributions. We apply it to the solution of light transport integration by extending the probability density function of an integrand of the integration to a set of distributions. That set of distributions is composed of combinations of the path densities of different path generation types: uniform distributions in the integral domain, explicit and implicit paths in light (particle/photon) tracing, indirect paths in bidirectional path tracing, explicit and implicit paths in path tracing, and implicit caustics paths seen through specular surfaces including the delta function in path tracing. The replica-exchange light transport algorithm generates a sequence of path samples from each distribution and samples the simultaneous distribution of those distributions as a stationary distribution by using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Then the algorithm combines the obtained path samples from each distribution using multiple importance sampling. We compare the images generated with our algorithm to those generated with bidirectional path tracing and Metropolis light transport based on the primary sample space. Our proposing algorithm has better convergence property than bidirectional path tracing and the Metropolis light transport, and it is easy to implement by extending the Metropolis light transport. [source]

Affective Modelling: Profiling Geometrical Models with Human Emotional Responses

Cheng-Hung Lo
Abstract In this paper, a novel concept, Affective Modelling, is introduced to encapsulate the idea of creating 3D models based on the emotional responses that they may invoke. Research on perceptually-related issues in Computer Graphics focuses mostly on the rendering aspect. Low-level perceptual criteria taken from established Psychology theories or identified by purposefully-designed experiments are utilised to reduce rendering effort or derive quality evaluation schemes. For modelling, similar ideas have been applied to optimise the level of geometrical details. High-level cognitive responses such as emotions/feelings are less addressed in graphics literatures. This paper investigates the possibility of incorporating emotional/affective factors for 3D model creations. Using a glasses frame model as our test case, we demonstrate a methodological framework to build the links between human emotional responses and geometrical features. We design and carry out a factorial experiment to systematically analyse how certain shape factors individually and interactively influence the viewer's impression of the shape of glasses frames. The findings serve as a basis for establishing computational models that facilitate emotionally-guided 3D modelling. [source]

Animating Quadrupeds: Methods and Applications

Ljiljana Skrba
I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: 3D Graphics and Realism , Animation Abstract Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In order to achieve this, several challenges need to be overcome: gathering and processing data that embodies the natural motion of an animal , which is made more difficult by the fact that most animals cannot be easily motion-captured; building accurate kinematic models for animals, with adapted animation skeletons in particular; and developing either kinematic or physically-based animation methods, either by embedding some a priori knowledge about the way that quadrupeds locomote and/or adopting examples of real motion. In this paper, we present an overview of the common techniques used to date for realistic quadruped animation. This includes an outline of the various ways that realistic quadruped motion can be achieved, through video-based acquisition, physics based models, inverse kinematics or some combination of the above. [source]

A Time Model for Time-Varying Visualization

M. Wolter
I.3.6 [Computer Graphics]: Methodology and Techniques; I.6.6 [Simulation and Modelling]: Simulation Output Analysis Abstract The analysis of unsteady phenomena is an important topic for scientific visualization. Several time-dependent visualization techniques exist, as well as solutions for dealing with the enormous size of time-varying data in interactive visualization. Many current visualization toolkits support displaying time-varying data sets. However, for the interactive exploration of time-varying data in scientific visualization, no common time model that describes the temporal properties which occur in the visualization process has been established. In this work, we propose a general time model which classifies the time frames of simulation phenomena and the connections between different time scales in the analysis process. This model is designed for intuitive interaction with time in visualization applications for the domain expert as well as for the developer of visualization tools. We demonstrate the benefits of our model by applying it to two use cases with different temporal properties. [source]

Compression of Human Motion Capture Data Using Motion Pattern Indexing

Qin Gu
I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism; E.4 [Coding and Information Theory]: Data Compaction and Compression Abstract In this work, a novel scheme is proposed to compress human motion capture data based on hierarchical structure construction and motion pattern indexing. For a given sequence of 3D motion capture data of human body, the 3D markers are first organized into a hierarchy where each node corresponds to a meaningful part of the human body. Then, the motion sequence corresponding to each body part is coded separately. Based on the observation that there is a high degree of spatial and temporal correlation among the 3D marker positions, we strive to identify motion patterns that form a database for each meaningful body part. Thereafter, a sequence of motion capture data can be efficiently represented as a series of motion pattern indices. As a result, higher compression ratio has been achieved when compared with the prior art, especially for long sequences of motion capture data with repetitive motion styles. Another distinction of this work is that it provides means for flexible and intuitive global and local distortion controls. [source]

Out-of-Core and Dynamic Programming for Data Distribution on a Volume Visualization Cluster

S. Frank
I.3.2 [Computer Graphics]: Distributed/network graphics; C.2.4 [Distributed Systems]: Distributed applications Abstract Ray directed volume-rendering algorithms are well suited for parallel implementation in a distributed cluster environment. For distributed ray casting, the scene must be partitioned between nodes for good load balancing, and a strict view-dependent priority order is required for image composition. In this paper, we define the load balanced network distribution (LBND) problem and map it to the NP-complete precedence constrained job-shop scheduling problem. We introduce a kd-tree solution and a dynamic programming solution. To process a massive data set, either a parallel or an out-of-core approach is required. Parallel preprocessing is performed by render nodes on data, which are allocated using a static data structure. Volumetric data sets often contain a large portion of voxels that will never be rendered, or empty space. Parallel preprocessing fails to take advantage of this. Our slab-projection slice, introduced in this paper, tracks empty space across consecutive slices of data to reduce the amount of data distributed and rendered. It is used to facilitate out-of-core bricking and kd-tree partitioning. Load balancing using each of our approaches is compared with traditional methods using several segmented regions of the Visible Korean data set. [source]

A Comparison of Tabular PDF Inversion Methods

D. Cline
I.3.0 [Computer Graphics]: General Abstract The most common form of tabular inversion used in computer graphics is to compute the cumulative distribution table of a probability distribution (PDF) and then search within it to transform points, using an,O(log n),binary search. Besides the standard inversion method, however, several other discrete inversion algorithms exist that can perform the same transformation inO(1) time per point. In this paper, we examine the performance of three of these alternate methods, two of which are new. [source]

Transferring the Rig and Animations from a Character to Different Face Models

Verónica Costa Orvalho
I.3.7 Computer Graphics: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism. Animation Abstract We introduce a facial deformation system that allows artists to define and customize a facial rig and later apply the same rig to different face models. The method uses a set of landmarks that define specific facial features and deforms the rig anthropometrically. We find the correspondence of the main attributes of a source rig, transfer them to different three-demensional (3D) face models and automatically generate a sophisticated facial rig. The method is general and can be used with any type of rig configuration. We show how the landmarks, combined with other deformation methods, can adapt different influence objects (NURBS surfaces, polygon surfaces, lattice) and skeletons from a source rig to individual face models, allowing high quality geometric or physically-based animations. We describe how it is possible to deform the source facial rig, apply the same deformation parameters to different face models and obtain unique expressions. We enable reusing of existing animation scripts and show how shapes nicely mix one with the other in different face models. We describe how our method can easily be integrated in an animation pipeline. We end with the results of tests done with major film and game companies to show the strength of our proposal. [source]

Compression and Importance Sampling of Near-Field Light Sources

Albert Mas
I.3.7 Computer Graphics: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism Abstract This paper presents a method for compressing measured datasets of the near-field emission of physical light sources (represented by raysets). We create a mesh on the bounding surface of the light source that stores illumination information. The mesh is augmented with information about directional distribution and energy density. We have developed a new approach to smoothly generate random samples on the illumination distribution represented by the mesh, and to efficiently handle importance sampling of points and directions. We will show that our representation can compress a 10 million particle rayset into a mesh of a few hundred triangles. We also show that the error of this representation is low, even for very close objects. [source]

Tangible Heritage: Production of Astrolabes on a Laser Engraver

G. Zotti
I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational geometry and object modelling , geometric algorithms, languages and systems; I.3.8 [Computer Graphics]: Applications Abstract The astrolabe, an analog computing device, used to be the iconic instrument of astronomers during the Middle Ages. It allowed a multitude of operations of practical astronomy which were otherwise cumbersome to perform in an epoch when mathematics had apparently almost been forgotten. Usually made from wood or sheet metal, a few hundred instruments, mostly from brass, survived until today and are valuable museum showpieces. This paper explains a procedural modelling approach for the construction of the classical kinds of astrolabes, which allows a wide variety of applications from plain explanatory illustrations to three-dimensional (3D) models, and even the production of working physical astrolabes usable for public or classroom demonstrations. [source]

Guest Editorial: Selected Papers from the 18th Brazilian Symposium on Computer Graphics and Image Processing (SIBGRAPI' 2005)

Maria Andréia
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Multiresolution Random Accessible Mesh Compression

Junho Kim
This paper presents a novel approach for mesh compression, which we call multiresolution random accessible mesh compression. In contrast to previous mesh compression techniques, the approach enables us to progressively decompress an arbitrary portion of a mesh without decoding other non-interesting parts. This simultaneous support of random accessibility and progressiveness is accomplished by adapting selective refinement of a multiresolution mesh to the mesh compression domain. We present a theoretical analysis of our connectivity coding scheme and provide several experimental results. The performance of our coder is about 11 bits for connectivity and 21 bits for geometry with 12-bit quantization, which can be considered reasonably good under the constraint that no fixed neighborhood information can be used for coding to support decompression in a random order. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling [source]

Wrinkling Coarse Meshes on the GPU

J. Loviscach
The simulation of complex layers of folds of cloth can be handled through algorithms which take the physical dynamics into account. In many cases, however, it is sufficient to generate wrinkles on a piece of garment which mostly appears spread out. This paper presents a corresponding fully GPU-based, easy-to-control, and robust method to generate and render plausible and detailed folds. This simulation is generated from an animated mesh. A relaxation step ensures that the behavior remains globally consistent. The resulting wrinkle field controls the lighting and distorts the texture in a way which closely simulates an actually deformed surface. No highly tessellated mesh is required to compute the position of the folds or to render them. Furthermore, the solution provides a 3D paint interface through which the user may bias the computation in such a way that folds already appear in the rest pose. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Animation, I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Color, shading, shadowing, and texture [source]

Implicit Surface Modelling with a Globally Regularised Basis of Compact Support

C. Walder
We consider the problem of constructing a globally smooth analytic function that represents a surface implicitly by way of its zero set, given sample points with surface normal vectors. The contributions of the paper include a novel means of regularising multi-scale compactly supported basis functions that leads to the desirable interpolation properties previously only associated with fully supported bases. We also provide a regularisation framework for simpler and more direct treatment of surface normals, along with a corresponding generalisation of the representer theorem lying at the core of kernel-based machine learning methods. We demonstrate the techniques on 3D problems of up to 14 million data points, as well as 4D time series data and four-dimensional interpolation between three-dimensional shapes. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Curve, surface, solid, and object representations [source]

Principles and Applications of Computer Graphics in Medicine

F.P. Vidal
Abstract The medical domain provides excellent opportunities for the application of computer graphics, visualization and virtual environments, with the potential to help improve healthcare and bring benefits to patients. This survey paper provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in this exciting field. It has been written from the perspective of both computer scientists and practising clinicians and documents past and current successes together with the challenges that lie ahead. The article begins with a description of the software algorithms and techniques that allow visualization of and interaction with medical data. Example applications from research projects and commercially available products are listed, including educational tools; diagnostic aids; virtual endoscopy; planning aids; guidance aids; skills training; computer augmented reality and use of high performance computing. The final section of the paper summarizes the current issues and looks ahead to future developments. [source]

A System for View-Dependent Animation

Parag Chaudhuri
In this paper, we present a novel system for facilitating the creation of stylized view-dependent 3D animation. Our system harnesses the skill and intuition of a traditionally trained animator by providing a convivial sketch based 2D to 3D interface. A base mesh model of the character can be modified to match closely to an input sketch, with minimal user interaction. To do this, we recover the best camera from the intended view direction in the sketch using robust computer vision techniques. This aligns the mesh model with the sketch. We then deform the 3D character in two stages - first we reconstruct the best matching skeletal pose from the sketch and then we deform the mesh geometry. We introduce techniques to incorporate deformations in the view-dependent setting. This allows us to set up view-dependent models for animation. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism - Animation 7 Figure 7. Our system takes as input a sketch (a), and a base mesh model (b), then recovers a camera to orient the base mesh (c), then reconstructs the skeleton pose (d), and finally deforms the mesh to find the best possible match with the sketch (e). [source]

Dye Advection Without the Blur: A Level-Set Approach for Texture-Based Visualization of Unsteady Flow

D. Weiskopf
Dye advection is an intuitive and versatile technique to visualize both steady and unsteady flow. Dye can be easily combined with noise-based dense vector field representations and is an important element in user-centric visual exploration processes. However, fast texture-based implementations of dye advection rely on linear interpolation operations that lead to severe diffusion artifacts. In this paper, a novel approach for dye advection is proposed to avoid this blurring and to achieve long and clearly defined streaklines or extended streak-like patterns. The interface between dye and background is modeled as a level-set within a signed distance field. The level-set evolution is governed by the underlying flow field and is computed by a semi-Lagrangian method. A reinitialization technique is used to counteract the distortions introduced by the level-set evolution and to maintain a level-set function that represents a local distance field. This approach works for 2D and 3D flow fields alike. It is demonstrated how the texture-based level-set representation lends itself to an efficient GPU implementation and therefore facilitates interactive visualization. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism [source]

Instant Volumetric Understanding with Order-Independent Volume Rendering

Benjamin Mora
Rapid, visual understanding of volumetric datasets is a crucial outcome of a good volume rendering application, but few current volume rendering systems deliver this result. Our goal is to reduce the volumetric surfing that is required to understand volumetric features by conveying more information in fewer images. In order to achieve this goal, and in contrast with most current methods which still use optical models and alpha blending, our approach reintroduces the order-independent contribution of every sample along the ray in order to have an equiprobable visualization of all the volume samples. Therefore, we demonstrate how order independent sampling can be suitable for fast volume understanding, show useful extensions to MIP and X-ray like renderings, and, finally, point out the special advantage of using stereo visualization in these models to circumvent the lack of depth cues. Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image, Generation, I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional graphics and realism. [source]

DiFi: Fast 3D Distance Field Computation Using Graphics Hardware

Avneesh Sud
We present an algorithm for fast computation of discretized 3D distance fields using graphics hardware. Given a set of primitives and a distance metric, our algorithm computes the distance field for each slice of a uniform spatial grid baly rasterizing the distance functions of the primitives. We compute bounds on the spatial extent of the Voronoi region of each primitive. These bounds are used to cull and clamp the distance functions rendered for each slice. Our algorithm is applicable to all geometric models and does not make any assumptions about connectivity or a manifold representation. We have used our algorithm to compute distance fields of large models composed of tens of thousands of primitives on high resolution grids. Moreover, we demonstrate its application to medial axis evaluation and proximity computations. As compared to earlier approaches, we are able to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the running time. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Distance fields, Voronoi regions, graphics hardware, proximity computations [source]