Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Competence

  • academic competence
  • clinical competence
  • communication competence
  • communicative competence
  • core competence
  • cultural competence
  • developmental competence
  • emotional competence
  • functional competence
  • immune competence
  • individual competence
  • language competence
  • management competence
  • mechanical competence
  • parenting competence
  • perceived competence
  • pragmatic competence
  • professional competence
  • social competence
  • surgical competence
  • vector competence

  • Terms modified by Competence

  • competence level
  • competence scale

  • Selected Abstracts


    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Functional Management Competence and Growth of Young Technology-Based Firms

    Sören Salomo
    Acknowledging an increased research interest into the success factors for young technology-based firms in the last decade, the present study serves two main purposes. First, we aim at developing a comprehensive concept of functional management competence in young technology-based firms. Functional management competence covers the understanding of and proficiency in managing specific functional tasks (Katz, 1974). As we focus on young technology-based firms, it is suggested that marketing, financial and technology management tasks are at the core of functional management competence. Second, we aim at delineating and validating an appropriate measurement model for functional management competence. In order to test the model's nomological validity, we investigate the impact of functional management competence on firm growth. Therefore, building on established firm development approaches, we propose a phase model for the development of young technology-based firms. Our study builds upon data from 212 young technology-based firms in the field of microtechnology, nanotechnology, electronics, optics and lasers. We use formative measurement models to establish valid and reliable constructs and a path model based on partial least squares modelling to investigate the performance effects. The results suggest that functional management competences generally are significant drivers of firm development speed. In particular, technology and marketing management competences are shown to impact development speed. While technology management competence is positively driving development speed, the marketing management competence impact on speed is mediated by competitive advantage of the new products developed by young technology-based firms. Financial management competence has no significant link to firm development speed. [source]

    Competence of New Emergency Medicine Residents in the Performance of Lumbar Punctures

    Richard L. Lammers MD
    Abstract Background: Medical students are taught some procedural skills during medical school, but there is no uniform set of procedures that all students learn before residency. Objective: To determine the level of competence in the performance of a lumbar puncture (LP) by new postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) emergency medicine (EM) residents. Methods: An observational study was conducted at three EM residencies with 42 PGY1 residents who recently graduated from 26 various medical schools. The LP procedure was divided into 26 major and 44 minor steps to create a scoring protocol. The model, procedure, and scoring protocol were validated by experienced emergency physicians. Subjects performed the procedure without interruption or feedback on an LP training model using a standard LP kit. A step was scored as "performed correctly" if two of the three evaluators concurred. Pre- and poststudy questionnaires assessed subjects' prior instruction and clinical experience with LP, self-confidence, sense of relevance, motivation, and fatigue. Results: Subjects completed an average of 14.8 (57%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 53% to 61%) of the major steps (range: 4,26) and 19.1 (43%; 95% CI = 42% to 45%) of the minor steps (range: 7,28) in 14.3 minutes (range: 3,22). Sixty-nine percent failed to obtain cerebrospinal fluid from the model. Subjects' levels of confidence changed slightly on a five-point scale from 2.8 ("little-to-some") before the test to 2.5 after the test. Eighty-three percent of the subjects previously performed LPs on patients during medical school (average attempts = 2.2; range: 0,10), but only 40% of those who did so were supervised by an attending during their first attempt. Conclusions: In the cohort studied, new PGY1 EM residents had not attained competence in performing LPs from training in medical school. Most new PGY1 residents probably require training, practice, and close, direct supervision of this procedure by attending physicians until the residents demonstrate competent performance. [source]

    Experimental Research and the Managerial Attitude: a tension to be resolved?

    This article analyses some typical consequences of a specific research policy on experimental research in biology. The policy is conducted by a national funding agency , the Swiss National Science Foundation , through a particular programme, the ,National Centres of Competence in Research' which is designed to promote both ,scientific excellence'and,managerial professionalism'. To study the possible tension between the two objectives, as a practical matter for researchers, the proposed analysis focuses on the interaction between two laboratory scientists and the administrators of a genomic platform. Access to the instruments of this platform is granted through a preliminary interview with those in charge of the platform. During that interview, researchers are required to explain why they want to use the platform services and what their expectations concerning their envisaged activities are. A tape-recorded interview is analysed in order to describe how turns at talking by the various parties, as well as the formulation of the problems encountered by a researcher, prove category-bound. The first part of the meeting (,problem exposition') is structured by the categorical device ,generalist researcher vs. specialist researcher', whilst the second part (,problem solving') is organised by the categorical device ,manager vs. user of the platform'. The ,scientific' problem becomes a ,technical' one and the choice of technique is partly based on financial reasons. The situation shows how managerial injunctions of research policy are not without practical consequences for research activities in situ. [source]

    Redefining Emergency Medicine Procedures: Canadian Competence and Frequency Survey

    FRCPC, Ken Farion MD
    Objective: To redefine the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (RCPS) procedural skills list for Canadian emergency medicine (EM) residents through a national survey of EM specialists to determine procedural performance frequency and self-assessment of competence. Methods: The survey instrument was developed in three phases: 1) an EM program directors survey identified inappropriate or dated procedures, endorsing 127 skills; 2) a search of EM literature added 98 skills; and 3) an expert panel designed the survey instrument and finalized a list of 150 skills. The survey instrument measured the frequency of procedure performance or supervision, self-reported competence (yes/no), and endorsement of one of four training levels for each skill: undergraduate (UG), postgraduate (PG), knowledge only, or un-necessary (i.e., too infrequently performed to maintain competence). Results: All 289 Canadian EM specialists were surveyed by mail; 231 (80%) responded, 221 completed surveys, and 10 were inactive. More than 60% reported competence in 125 (83%) procedures, and 55 procedures were performed at least three times a year. The mean competence score was 121 (SD ± 17.7, median = 122) procedures. Competence score correlation with patient volume was r= 0.16 (p = 0.02) and with hours worked was r= 0.19 (p = 0.01). Competence score was not associated with year or route (residency vs grandfather) of certification. Each procedure was assigned to a training level using response consensus and decision rules (UG: 1%; PG: 82%; unnecessary: 17%). Conclusions: A survey of EM clinicians reporting competence and frequency of skill performance defined 127 procedural skills appropriate for Canadian RCPS postgraduate training and EM certification. [source]

    Competence of Children Adopted from the Former Soviet Union

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2000
    Teena McGuinness
    The former USSR led the way with the most children adopted from overseas into the United States from 1997-1999. This study (a) characterizes overall functioning of adoptees and (b) utilizes hierarchical regression analysis to evaluate both risks and protective influences of adoptive families and their relationships to child competence. Competence levels ranged from challenged to developmentally normal. Family cohesion and expressiveness were significantly associated with higher levels of child competence. [source]

    Reading Culture: Using Literature to Develop C2 Competence

    Virginia M. Scott
    The study compared the attitudes and performances of students who read a fact sheet about Côte d'Ivoire and the attitudes and performances of students who studied a poem about Côte d'Ivoire. We found that the students who read the fact sheet learned about the culture of Côte d'Ivoire in a rigid way that could foster stereotypes. Students who read the poem, on the other hand, explored their own feelings about the language and content of the poem. The study supports the notion that literary texts contribute to students' affective awareness and cognitive flexibility, and are therefore more effective for developing C2 competence. This study suggests ways to achieve the goals, articulated in the national standards, of fostering knowledge about and understanding of other cultures. [source]

    Analysing Competence: Gender and Identity at Work

    Bronwen Rees
    Competence approaches are among the techniques that claim to measure the behaviour, skills, knowledge and understanding crucial to effective managerial performance. It is claimed that competence approaches empower and develop managers while enabling them to meet organizational objectives. Since the bases for the techniques are avowedly scientific, they are said to provide organizations with a gender neutral form of assessment. In this paper we construct a theoretical framework in terms of which these claims can be analysed and assessed. Using this framework, we examine the competence approach as it has been implemented in six organizations in relation to the claim to objectivity. [source]

    Effect of exercise, aging and functional capacity on acute secretory immunoglobulin A response in elderly people over 75 years of age

    Yuzuru Sakamoto
    Background: Age-associated decline in immune function and regulation, referred to as immunosenescence, brings about an increased incidence of infectious diseases in the aged; however, there are few data on the effect of aging and exercise on mucosal immune function in elderly people. Moreover, there is no evidence on whether the change in functional capacity affects mucosal immunity in elderly people. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of exercise, aging and functional capacity on mucosal immune function in elderly people over 75 years of age. Methods: The subjects were 92 community-dwelling elderly women aged over 75 years who lived in a rural community in Miyagi Prefecture. The subjects periodically performed approximately 20 min of low intensity exercise. Saliva samples were collected before and after exercise, and saliva flow (SF), secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) concentration (SIgA-C) and SIgA secretion rate (SIgA-SR) were determined. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) was used to measure functional capacity. Results: In comparison with before exercise, SF, SIgA-C and SIgA-SR were significantly increased after exercise in elderly subjects. In addition, when low and high value groups of resting SIgA levels were compared, acute SIgA responses were observed only in the low value group; however, there was no significant effect of aging and decline in functional capacity on exercise-induced SIgA response. Conclusion: These results suggest that resting SIgA levels influence the mucosal immune function response to exercise in elderly people over 75 years of age. [source]

    Comprehensive geriatric assessment for community-dwelling elderly in Asia compared with those in Japan: VI.

    Maubin in Myanmar
    Background: The objective of the present study is to compare the findings of comprehensive geriatric assessments of community-dwelling elderly in Maubin township, Myanmar with those in Japan. Methods: A cross-sectional, study was undertaken of community-dwelling people aged 60 years and over who were living in downtown Maubin and two rural villages near Maubin city, and 411 people aged 65 years and over who were living in Sonobe, Kyoto, Japan. They were examined using a common comprehensive geriatric assessment tool, which included interviews regarding activities of daily living (ADL), medical and social history, quality of life (QOL) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Anthropometric, neurobehavioral and blood chemical examinations were also conducted. Using anova and Post Hoc Scheffe's F -test, findings from the three groups were compared. Results: Scores of basic ADL, instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activities, social roles, QOL, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, body mass index, total cholesterol levels, blood hemoglobin levels and HDL levels were lower in Myanmar's elderly subjects than in Japanese ones. There was no significant difference in prevalence of depression. Mean blood pressure measurements and rates of subjects with systolic pressure > 140 mmHg or diastolic pressure > 90 mmHg and prevalence of stroke were higher in downtown Maubin than in Japan. The atherogenic index was higher in Myanmar's elderly than in Japanese. Conclusion: In Myanmar subjects had lower ADL and QOL scores than Japanese elderly. Of particular note is the higher prevalence of anemia and subjects with history of stroke in Myanmar than in Japan. Further study is needed to detect the cause of high prevalence of stroke in Myanmar. [source]

    Changes in TMIG-Index of Competence by subscale in Japanese urban and rural community older populations: Six years prospective study

    Yoshinori Fujiwara
    Objective: To examine the longitudinal changes in higher-level functional capacity in Japanese urban and rural community older populations. Design: Population-based cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies. Setting: Koganei city in a suburb of Tokyo, and Nangai village, Akita Prefecture, Japan. Participants: One thousand, five hundred and six older persons (793 in Koganei and 713 in Nangai) aged 65,83 years living at home. Main outcome measures: Disability in Instrumental Self-Maintenance (IADL), Intellectual Activity or Social Role, measured by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Results: At baseline, older men and women in the rural area, Nangai, had higher prevalence of disability in Intellectual Activity compared with respective counterparts in the urban area, Koganei. By contrast, disability in Social Role was more prevalent among elderly people in Koganei than in Nangai. In both areas older men and women had lowest prevalence of disability in IADL among three subscales. The six-year longitudinal survey on older persons who had initially no disability in all three subscales demonstrated that in urban Koganei older persons were most likely to be disabled in Social Role with advancing age, followed in turn by Intellectual Activity and IADL. By contrast, elderly people in rural Nangai were most likely to be disabled in Intellectual Activity, followed by Social Role and instrumental ADL. The Cox-proportional hazard model analysis for those who had no IADL disability at baseline revealed that the baseline level of Intellectual Activity or Social Role predicted significantly future onset of IADL disability in both areas even after controlling for sex, age, and chronic medical conditions. Conclusions: In both urban and rural community older populations, disability in Social Role and Intellectual Activity preceded IADL disability, and predicted significantly the future onset of IADL disability. [source]

    Impact of history or onset of chronic medical conditions on higher-level functional capacity among older community-dwelling Japanese adults

    Yoshinori Fujiwara
    Background: Many studies have examined the impact of chronic medical conditions on the age-related decline in basic activities of daily living (BADL) and the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), but less is known concerning the influence of chronic disease on physical, cognitive, social, and economic aspects of higher-level functional capacity. Methods: Subjects comprised 793 and 725 persons aged 65,84 years, living in an urban and a rural Japanese community, respectively. A baseline interview established any history of chronic medical conditions. Four years later, a second interview again assessed chronic disease, and higher-level functional capacity was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence. Results: Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that declines in total score and/or any of three subscales of the TMIG Index of Competence were significantly associated with a history of chronic disease, the onset of visual impairment and the development of hearing impairment, even after controlling for the subject's age, gender, educational attainment, and baseline TMIG Index of Competence. Episodes of stroke were significantly associated with declines in IADL. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease were also significantly associated with a decrease in functional competence, although each affected a different subscale of the TMIG Index of Competence. Conclusions: The present results underline the importance of controlling chronic medical conditions through a physically active lifestyle and an appropriate medical regimen in order to limit the age-related decline in functional capacity. [source]

    Prevalence and characteristics of older community residents with mild cognitive decline

    Yoshinori Fujiwara
    Background:, Cognitive impairment is a major health issue, but epidemiological data on mild cognitive decline have been almost absent in Japan. Methods: Of all residents aged 65 years and over living in Yoita town, Niigata Prefecture, Japan in the year 2000 (n = 1673), 1544 participated in the interview survey held at community halls or at home (92.3% response). They underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for assessment of cognitive function and answered questionnaires comprising socio-demographic, psychological, physical and medical, and social activity items. Higher-level functional capacities were evaluated with the Tokyo Metropolitan Index of Competence (TMIG-Index of Competence). According to subject's age and MMSE score, all subjects were classified into 3 groups: control (MMSE,>,1 SD below age-specific means), mild cognitive decline (MMSE,,,21 and ,,1 SD below age-specific means), and severe cognitive decline (MMSE,,,20), and compared various characteristics among these groups. Results: Mean MMSE score of the subjects showed a linear decline with advancing age. Among the participants, 232 (15.2%) were classified as mild cognitive decline. Compared with the controls, the subjects with mild cognitive decline reported poorer subjective health, more depressive moods, more history of stroke, more prevalence of basic activity of daily living (BADL) disability, and lower higher-level functional capacity, even after controlling for possible confounding factors. They also reported a low level of social activities: both participating in group activities and enjoying hobbies were less frequent. Their food intake pattern tended to be monotonous. Conclusions: Older persons with mild cognitive decline comprised a substantial proportion (15.2%) of the community-dwelling older population. In addition to lower cognitive function, they had lower levels of functional capacity and social activity. [source]

    Functional capacity in elderly Japanese living in the community

    Hiroshi Shibata
    The present addresses concepts, definitions, and measurements of functional capacity. Further, distributions of functional capacity are assessed by such various indices as activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence, and active life expectancy in the Japanese elderly. Further, predictors of functional status are demonstrated, and the impact of functional decline on quality of life is investigated in elderly Japanese living in the community. [source]

    Measurement of trust over time in hybrid inspection systems

    Reena Master
    A study was conducted to measure the effects of human trust and to determine how it develops over time in a hybrid inspection system given different types of errors (i.e., false alarms and misses). The study also looked at which of the four dimensions of trust (competence, predictability, reliability, and faith) were the best predictors of overall trust. Results from the study showed that trust is sensitive to the type of errors made by a system. There was a significant change in overall trust between the stages for the conservative and risky systems, but no significant change in the neutral system. In regards to the best predictors of trust, faith appeared as one of the predictors in all three trial blocks for the conservative and risky systems. As time progressed, predictability emerged in the second and third trial blocks for the conservative system. Competence played an important role in the development of trust for the risky system, whereas reliability played an important role for the neutral system. These results suggest that subjective ratings of trust and the properties of the system can be used to predict the allocation of functions in hybrid inspection systems. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 15: 177,196, 2005. [source]

    Applying the Infant-Toddler Social & Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) and Brief-ITSEA in early intervention

    Margaret J. Briggs-Gowan
    To examine the internal consistency and validity of the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) and Brief-ITSEA (BITSEA) parent-report questionnaires in an early intervention sample. A sociodemographically diverse sample of 192 parents of 11- to 36-month-old children referred to early intervention programs completed surveys containing the ITSEA, BITSEA, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Parents were interviewed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Evaluators blind to children's status on the ITSEA and BITSEA rated child behavior during developmental assessments. Finally, a subsample of 71 children was administered the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Findings support the internal consistency of the ITSEA and BITSEA, with the majority of Cronbach's alphas above .70. Supporting validity, ITSEA and BITSEA problem scores correlated significantly with CBCL Internalizing and Externalizing scores (rs=.28 to .78), as well as with observational ratings of problem behaviors on constructs paralleling the ITSEA domains (rs=.21 to .45). In contrast, ITSEA Competence and BITSEA Competence demonstrated moderate negative associations with CBCL scores (rs=,.39 to ,.43). Finally, ITSEA Competence and BITSEA Competence correlated significantly with developmental level on the Mullen, Vineland Socialization, and observational ratings of competence (rs=.25 to .43). Emphasizing the importance of addressing social-emotional issues in early intervention settings, 58.6% of children had high social-emotional/behavioral problems and/or low competence on the ITSEA; 39.8% had high ITSEA Problems and 38.5% had low ITSEA Competence. Results indicate the need to assess social-emotional adjustment in early intervention settings and support the use of the ITSEA and BITSEA for this purpose. [source]

    Depression status as a reliable predictor of functional decline among Japanese community-dwelling older adults: a 12-year population-based prospective cohort study

    Hajime Iwasa
    Abstract Objective This study aimed to examine a longitudinal relationship between depression status and functional decline among Japanese community-dwelling older adults, using a 12-year population-based, prospective cohort study design. Method A total of 710 men and women, aged 65 years and over, participated in the study. Katz's Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence were used to measure the functional capacities of basic activities of daily living (BADL) and higher-level competence, respectively. For the purpose of analysis, a decline in each subscale of functional capacity during the follow-up period were used as outcome variables; depression status assessed by the Japanese version of the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), with a cut-off of 11, was used as an independent variable; and age, gender, education level, history of chronic disease, hospitalization, smoking, physical activity, living alone, hearing problems, physical pain, dietary habits, and usual walking speed at baseline were used as covariates. Results Use of the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for potential confounders showed that depression status was significantly and independently associated with BADL decline (risk ratio (RR),=,1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13,1.89) and with higher-level competence decline (RR,=,1.56, 95% CI: 1.18,2.04). Conclusion Our study found an independent relationship between depression status and longitudinal change in functional capacity among community-dwelling older individuals, suggesting that depression status is a reliable predictor of functional decline (both of BADL decline and higher-level competence decline) in older adults. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    ARCHSECRET: a multi-item scale to measure service quality within the voluntary sector

    Liz Vaughan
    This paper provides an overview of the application of SERVQUAL reflecting the theoretical criticisms concerning disconfirmation model, process orientation, role of expectations and portability. The original SERVQUAL framework was found to be inappropriate for services that had no close analogue with the private sector. A qualitative research study was undertaken to establish the sector-specific criteria used by customers to evaluate service quality. The study identified 40 potentially unique features of the service as perceived by service recipients. These features were developed into a pilot survey instrument that comprised 40 questions, covering expectations, perceptions and importance. A pilot study was undertaken to test the instrument among disabled customers and their carers across the main centres of a national voluntary organisation. Analyses of the pilot survey data resulted in a set of 27 distinct statements across ten hypothesised service quality dimensions. These are Access, Responsiveness, Communication, Humaneness, Security, Enabling/Empowerment, Competence, Reliability, Equity, and Tangibles, giving rise to the acronym ARCHSECRET. The ARCHSECRET instrument is potentially a powerful diagnostic tool for managers in their pursuit of continuous quality improvement within voluntary sector organisations. Copyright © 2001 Henry Stewart Publications [source]

    Symbolic Attributes and Organizational Attractiveness: The moderating effects of applicant personality

    Bert Schreurs
    The present study examined the moderating influence of the Big Five personality factors in the relationship between five symbolic, trait-based inferences about organizations (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Prestige, and Ruggedness) and organizational attractiveness. Drawing on the similarity-attraction paradigm, six hypotheses were formulated, stating that the relationship between trait-based inferences and organizational attractiveness would be stronger for persons who perceive the organization as similar to them. Results of moderated regression analyses on data from a sample of 245 prospective applicants for the Belgian military revealed two significant two-way interactions, showing that Sincerity was positively related to organizational attractiveness only for individuals high on Conscientiousness, and that the relationship between Excitement and organizational attractiveness is more positive for individuals high on Openness to Experience. Practical implications, strengths and limitations, as well as directions for further research are presented. [source]

    Professional competence: factors described by nurses as influencing their development

    R. Tabari Khomeiran bs mscn phd
    Aim:, To discuss the results of a study that explored factors that may influence competence development. Background:, Competence, a controversial issue in health care settings, affects many aspects of the nursing profession, including education, practice and management. Although a number of research and discussion papers have explored the issue, in particular the meaning and assessment of nursing competence, to date little research has explored factors identified by nurses themselves as influencing their development of professional competence. Methods:, A purposive sample of 27 registered nurses was recruited from two university-affiliated hospitals. Data collection was by tape-recorded semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed according to the qualitative methodology of content analysis. Findings:, Six descriptive categories were identified from the data: experience, opportunities, environment, personal characteristics, motivation and theoretical knowledge. Conclusions:, The findings suggest that the factors influencing the process of developing professional competence in nursing extend across personal and extra-personal domains. An understanding of these factors may enhance the ability of nursing managers and educators to enable student and qualified nurses to pursue effective competency development pathways to prepare them to provide a high standard of care. These findings, which may have important implications for nursing practice, management and education, are being further tested in a larger study. [source]

    Transnational Competence in an Emergent Epoch

    Peter H. Koehn
    The article elaborates a framework for understanding the relevance of transnational competence to the dynamics that mark the transformations of our time. Nongovernmental stakeholders interacting through dense civil-society networks that permeate domestic-foreign frontiers bear increasing responsibility for the course of events. Based on linked interests, interorganizational knowledge generation and aggregation, partnerships, and interpersonal/intercultural interactions, they are deeply involved in addressing the many challenges posed by an ever more interdependent world. Transnational competence lubricates transterritorial networks and projects. Here, the authors extend earlier work that posited a worldwide skill revolution both by developing explicit dimensions of transnational competence and by introducing a behavioral component. The new framework provides analytical groundwork for explaining why some people, groups, and networks are more effective than others in forging meaningful transnational solidarities, negotiating and benefiting from the intensifying experience of globalization, and waging successful transnational campaigns. The article also probes how the spread of transnational competence is being facilitated by global migration and transmigration trends. The final section explores the governance implications of expanding transnational competency for the emergent epoch. [source]

    Review of Research Studies That Evaluated the Impact of Treatment for Childhood Cancers on Neurocognition and Behavioral and Social Competence: Nursing Implications

    Julia Challinor
    ISSUES AND PURPOSE. Given the increasing incidence of childhood cancer, increasing survivor rates, and documented incidence of sequelae, nurses need evidence on which to base interventions for families at risk. The authors review and critique research studies that evaluated the impact of treatment for childhood cancers. Implications for nursing practice are discussed. CONCLUSIONS. Research to evaluate the effects of treatment on neurocognition and behavioral and social competency of children with cancer has produced conflicting results. Most studies found deleterious effects on all three areas associated with childhood cancer treatment. Some studies, however, found no differences between childhood cancer survivors and children on therapy compared to normative data or healthy controls. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Knowledge of the short-and long-term impact of treatment for childhood cancer on neurocognition and behavioral and social competence allows nurses to design interventions that mitigate neurocognitive effects, decrease behavioral problems, and improve social competence. [source]

    Clients' experiences of living at home with a mechanical ventilator

    Randi Ballangrud
    Abstract Title.,Clients' experiences of living at home with a mechanical ventilator. Aim., This paper reports on a study of how clients experience living with home mechanical ventilation and how they experience care and supervision of healthcare personnel. Background., The number of people living at home with mechanical ventilators is increasing, and this is considered a successful approach to reducing incapacity and mortality. Method., Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 service users in 2006. The informants were 18,75 years old and had varying diagnoses and levels of functioning. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Findings., Two main themes emerged: Theme 1. Having a home ventilator enhances quality of life , a life worth living. The ventilator treatment builds up strength and improves well-being. Participants emphasized that it was important to feel in control of their own situation and had an overriding wish to live a normal and active life; Theme 2. Competence and continuity of healthcare personnel are factors for success. The experience was that competence and follow-up by healthcare personnel varied, and that good quality teaching and information were important. Conclusion., Users of home mechanical ventilators should be active partners in their own care so that their experience is taken into account. It is important for clients having home mechanical ventilation to be empowered and have control in their daily lives, as well as having competent caregivers and continuity of care. [source]

    Preliminary Development of a Model and Measure of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Competence

    Brian H. Spitzberg
    The rationale for developing a theoretical model of computer-mediated communication (CMC) competence is established through review of social trends in the use of new media technologies. Special attention is paid to the role new media play in the formation and development of personal relationships. A model of CMC competence is then developed along the lines of motivation, knowledge, skills, context, and outcomes as a metaphorical typology for organizing existing CMC research. This research is reviewed as it informs, and is organized by, the model of CMC competence. A sampling of formal propositions resulting from the model is elaborated, and the results of preliminary pilot studies of the model are reviewed. The model is offered as a first step in examining individual differences in the domain of CMC relationships and media choice. [source]

    Strategy for Implementation of IFAC International Education Guideline No. 9: "Prequalification Education, Tests of Professional Competence and Practical Experience of Professional Accountants": A Task Force Report of the International Association for Accounting Education and Research (IAAER)

    Belverd E. Needles
    This paper provides strategies for implementing the recommendations of the International Education Guideline No. 9 (hereafter referred to as Guideline), issued by the International Federation of Accountants. The three principal implementation issues addressed in this paper are as follows. (1) How to instill the characteristics of lifelong learning in future professional accountants through accounting education. (2) How to design and implement a program of accounting education that achieves the objectives of the Guideline. (3) How to develop awareness and encourage adoption of the recommendations of the Guideline by communicating and disseminating information through a series of projects within IFAC's constraints and policies. [source]

    Professional Competence as Ways of Being: An Existential Ontological Perspective

    Jörgen Sandberg
    abstract Current theories propose that professional competence is primarily constituted by scientific and tacit knowledge, knowing-in-action, understanding of work or practice. While providing valuable insights we contend that they present a fragmented understanding of professional competence. In particular, they do not adequately explain how central aspects of practice such as knowledge and understanding are integrated into a specific professional competence in work performance. An existential ontological perspective is proposed as offering a more comprehensive and integrative analysis of professional competence. It is explored through an empirical study of corporate lawyers and the findings suggest that professional competence should be understood as ways of being. The results show that different ways of practising corporate law distinguish and integrate a specific understanding of work, a particular self-understanding, other people, and tools into distinct forms of competence in corporate law. [source]

    Building Research Competence in Nursing Through Mentoring

    Mary W. Byrne
    Purpose: To explore how mentoring can be used to build research competence in nursing in various professional and geographic settings. Organizing construct: The traditional concept of mentoring in interdisciplinary health professions and its application to nursing research. Methods: Literature review of MEDLINE and CINAHL databases 1990,2001 and personal reflections on mentoring and mentored experiences. Findings: Mentoring relationship models identified include: traditional mentor and protégé, team, peer, inclusive, and mentoring forward. E-mentoring strategies facilitate interactions for long-distance relationships. Discrete projects, multiple mentor sources, and mutually beneficial peer relationships can enable mentoring across one's career. Psychosocial dimensions of mentoring support creative work. When scholarly productivity with funded research is the desired outcome, intense involvement of a protégé with an expert researcher is essential. Conclusion: Choices among mentoring models can be made in accordance with resources, priorities, and objectives congruent with a given nursing setting and time, but optimum scholarly productivity requires experts and sustained support. [source]

    Using Peer Review to Measure Competence in Fetal Heart Monitoring Practice

    Professional Issues
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Erratum: "Mothers and Fathers in the Workplace: How Gender and Parental Status Influence Judgments of Job-Related Competence"

    Article first published online: 16 MAY 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Understanding Buyer and Supplier Power: A Framework for Procurement and Supply Competence

    Andrew Cox