Compatibilizer

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Compatibilizer

  • compatibilizer addition
  • compatibilizer content

  • Selected Abstracts


    Use of PP Grafted with Itaconic Acid as a New Compatibilizer for PP/Clay Nanocomposites

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 15 2006
    Edwin Moncada
    Abstract Summary: Functionalized PP samples with different percentages of grafted IA, i.e., 0.7, 1 or 1.8 wt.-%, with similar molecular weights were used as compatibilizers in PP/clay nanocomposites. PP nanocomposites containing 1 wt.-% of organically modified clays, i.e., montmorillonite, natural hectorite and synthetic hectorite and 3 wt.-% of grafted PP with three different percentages of grafted IA as compatibilizers and two commercial PP samples of different molecular weights were prepared by melt blending. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, TEM and tensile mechanical measurements. It was found that the molecular weight of PP used as matrix as well as the percentage of grafted IA of the compatibilizer affected the degree of intercalation/exfoliation of the clay and consequently the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. Values of 2,137 MPa for the modulus and 51 MPa for the tensile strength were obtained when natural hectorite was used and 2,117 and 40 MPa were obtained when montmorillonite was used. A comparative study was carried out, where PP grafted with maleic anhydride was used as the compatibilizer. Inferior mechanical properties were obtained for nanocomposites prepared by using this compatibilizer, where values of 1,607 MPa for the tensile modulus and 43 MPa for tensile strength were obtained. This result indicated that IA-grafted PP was far more efficient as compatibilizer for the formation of nanocomposites than commercially available maleic anhydride-grafted PP. Model showing interaction of the organically modified clay with grafted PP used as compatibilizer. [source]


    Rheological, morphological, mechanical, and barrier properties of PP/EVOH blends

    ADVANCES IN POLYMER TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Jong Ho Yeo
    Using the biaxially oriented film process, polypropylene (PP)/ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) blends with an improved barrier property could be obtained by generating a laminar structure of the dispersed phase in the matrix phase. This laminar morphology, induced by biaxial orientation, was found to result in a significant increase in the oxygen barrier property of PP/EVOH (85/15) blends by about 10 times relative to the pure PP. In this study, compatibility in the PP/EVOH blend system was evaluated by investigating the influence of compatibilizer on the rheological, morphological, and mechanical properties of the blends. In addition, the effects of compatibilizer content, draw ratio, and draw temperature on the oxygen permeability and morphology of biaxially drawn blend films were also studied. It was revealed that an optimum amount of compatibilizer, maleic anhydride grafted PP, should be used to improve the barrier property of the PP/EVOH blends with a well-developed laminar structure. The draw ratio and draw temperature had a significant influence on the permeability of the blends. The blend films exhibited a more pronounced laminar structure when the blends were stretched biaxially under processing conditions of higher draw ratio and draw temperature, resulting in higher barrier properties. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 20: 191,201, 2001 [source]


    Effect of EVA as compatibilizer on the mechanical properties, permeability characteristics, lamellae orientation, and long period of blown films of HDPE/clay nanocomposites

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Juliano Marini
    Abstract Two ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) resins with 19% (EVA19) and 28% (EVA28) of vinyl groups were used as compatibilizers for nanocomposites of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and nanoclays. Two nanoclays were also used, one with a nonpolar surfactant (C15A) and another with a polar surfactant (C30B). The HDPE/EVA19/C15A formed an intercalated structure, while the HDPE/EVA28/C30B had surfactant loss. Blown films of these compositions were produced. A two-phase morphology made of HDPE and EVA/nanoclay particles was observed, which was responsible for the increase in water vapor and oxygen permeability rates of the films. The elastic modulus E along the transverse direction of the films was higher than along the machine direction due to preserved orientation given by the spiral die; the lamellae orientation was measured by small-angle X-rays diffraction. The highest E was observed in the HDPE/EVA19/C15A film due to stronger interactions. The long period of the HDPE lamellas was not affected by the presence of the EVA and nanoclay. A model was proposed to explain the improvement in elastic modulus due to the processing conditions and components' interactions. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Synthesis and properties of poly(butylene terephthalate)/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization and in situ compatibilization

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
    Fangjuan Wu
    Abstract A novel cyclic initiator was synthesized from dibutyl tin(IV) oxide and hydroxyl-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and was used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic butylene terephthalate oligomers to prepare poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/MWNT nanocomposites. The results of Fourier transform infrared and NMR spectroscopy confirmed that a graft structure of PBT on the MWNTs was formed during the in situ polymerization; this structure acted as an in situ compatibilizer in the nanocomposites. The PBT covalently attached to the MWNT surface enhanced the interface adhesion between the MWNTs and PBT matrix and, thus, improved the compatibility. The morphologies of the nanocomposites were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, which showed that the nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed in the PBT matrix when the MWNT content was lower than 0.75 wt %. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis were used to investigate the thermal properties of the nanocomposites. The results indicate that the MWNTs acted as nucleation sites in the matrix, and the efficiency of nucleation was closely related to the dispersion of the MWNTs in the matrix. Additionally, the thermal stability of PBT was improved by the addition of the MWNTs. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Compatibilization method applied to the chitosan-acid poly(L -lactide) solution

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
    Nugraha Edhi Suyatma
    Abstract We are testing the compatibilization of the chitosan/PLA blends by addition of diisocyanate and at studying the effect of several MDI concentrations (0.5 and 2.5% of the global blend mass, w/w). To evaluate the MDI efficiency as a compatibilizer of chitosan/PLA blends, we worked with the following methods: IRTF spectra with higher peak at 1558 cm,1 is due to the NH bonds that exist in urea and urethane, thermal properties shows that the temperature of the endothermic peaks of the chitosan/PLA blends with MDI is very close to the temperature of pure chitosane and SEM micrography shows that MDI addition decreases the PLA particles size in the chitosan mixture; they also comply with the compatibilization theory. After that the mechanical properties have been characterized: we can notice that the MDI compatibilized chitosan/PLA blends have a higher Young's modulus than the noncompatibilized blends. we are showed that the use of 0.5% MDI is not enough sufficient to obtain a compatibilization, because a part of the MDI can be consumed by water. The addition of MDI increases the performance of the mechanical properties of the blends. Therefore, with this compatibilization, we could obtain some chitosan/PLA blends that would be water-resistant and that would also keep their mechanical properties. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Effects of addition of acrylic compatibilizer on the morphology and mechanical behavior of amorphous polyamide/SAN blends

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
    D. Becker
    Abstract Amorphous polyamide (aPA)/acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer (SAN) blends were prepared using methyl methacrylate-maleic anhydride copolymer MMA-MA as compatibilizer. The aPA/SAN blends can be considered as a less complex version of the aPA/ABS (acrylonitrilebutadiene-styrene) blends, due to the absence of the ABS rubber phase in the SAN material. It is known that acrylic copolymer might be miscible with SAN, whereas the maleic anhydride groups from MMA-MA can react in situ with the amine end groups of aPA during melt blending. As a result, it is possible the in situ formation of aPA-g-MMA-MA grafted copolymers at the aPA/SAN interface during the melt processing of the blends. In this study, the MA content in the MMA-MA copolymer and its molecular weight was varied independently and their effects on the blend morphology and stress,strain behavior were evaluated. The morphology of the blends aPA/SAN showed a minimum in the SAN particle size at low amounts of MA in the compatibilizer, however, as the MA content in the MMA-MA copolymer was increased larger SAN particle sizes were observed in the systems. In addition, higher MA content in the compatibilizer lead to less ductile aPA/SAN blends under tensile testing. The results shown the viscosity ratio also plays a very important role in the morphology formation and consequently on the properties of the aPA/SAN blends studied. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Study of PET/PP/TiO2 microfibrillar-structured composites, part 1: Preparation, morphology, and dynamic mechanical analysis of fibrillized blends

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
    Wenjing Li
    Abstract The objective of this study was to manufacture and investigate a novel microfibrillar-reinforced material based on fibrillized blends of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), and TiO2 nanoparticles (300 nm and 15 nm in size). The uncompatibilized and compatibilized blends (polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride as compatibilizer) were extruded and subsequently cold-drawn into strands with a draw ratio of 10. The effects of compatibilizer and TiO2 particles on the structure and properties of drawn strands were investigated. Upon addition of compatibilizer, the preferential location of TiO2 particles shifted from the PET-dispersed phase to the PP matrix, which brought about different structures of the drawn strands. Differential scanning calorimetry study provided indications for a heterogeneous nucleation effect of the PET fibrils on the PP matrix and of the TiO2 particles on the PET fibrils. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the drawn strands are strongly dependent on the strand structures. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    Lignin in jute fabric,polypropylene composites

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
    B. A. Acha
    Abstract In this work, the feasibility of using lignin as a compatibilizer for composites made from jute fiber fabric and polypropylene (PP) was studied. Since lignin contains polar (hydroxyl) groups and nonpolar hydrocarbon, it was expected to be able to improve the compatibility between the two components of the composite. It was found that lignin acted as , nucleation, fire retardant, and toughening agent for PP matrix. Jute composites exhibit higher stiffness, tensile strength, and impact behavior in respect to those of neat PP. Although scanning electron micrographic observations indicate that PP-jute adhesion was slightly improved by lignin addition, additional benefits were only obtained from impact behavior. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    Influence of compatibilizer on notched impact strength and fractography of HDPE,organoclay composites

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
    Waraporn Rattanawijan
    Abstract The focus of this study was the notched impact property of high-density polyethylene (HDPE),organoclay composites and the resultant morphology of impact-fractured surfaces. Composites with a different organoclay content and degree of organoclay dispersion were compared with neat HDPE under identical conditions. The degree of organoclay dispersion was controlled through the use of a compatibilizer, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene. It was found that the addition of organoclay can slightly increase the elastic modulus and notched impact strength of the composite. When the level of organoclay dispersion was improved by using compatibilizer, elastic modulus and toughness further increased. A significant increase in yield strength was also notable. The presence of organoclay was found to suppress strain hardening of the matrix during tensile testing. The impact-fractured surfaces of failed specimens were studied with scanning electron microscopy. The micromechanism for the increased toughness of HDPE,organoclay composites was discussed. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    Preparation and properties of dynamically cured PP/MAH- g -EVA/epoxy blends

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
    Xueliang Jiang
    Abstract A method concerning with the simultaneous reinforcing and toughening of polypropylene (PP) was reported. Dynamical cure of the epoxy resin with 2-ethylene-4-methane-imidazole (EMI-2,4) was successfully applied in the PP/maleic anhydride-grafted ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (MAH- g -EVA), and the obtained blends named as dynamically cured PP/MAH- g -EVA/epoxy blends. The stiffness and toughness of the blends are in a good balance, and the smaller size of epoxy particle in the PP/MAH- g -EVA/epoxy blends shows that MAH- g -EVA was also used as a compatibilizer. The structure of the dynamically cured PP/MAH- g -EVA/epoxy blends is the embedding of the epoxy particles by the MAH- g -EVA. The cured epoxy particles as organic filler increases the stiffness of the PP/MAH- g -EVA blends, and the improvement in the toughness is attributed to the embedded structure. The tensile strength and flexural modulus of the blends increase with increasing the epoxy resin content, and the impact strength reaches a maximum of 258 J/m at the epoxy resin content of 10 wt %. DSC analysis shows that the epoxy particles in the dynamically cured PP/MAH- g -EVA/epoxy blends could have contained embedded MAH- g -EVA, decreasing the nucleating effect of the epoxy resin. Thermogravimetric results show the addition of epoxy resin could improve the thermal stability of PP, the dynamically cured PP/MAH- g -EVA/epoxy stability compared with the pure PP. Wide-angle x-ray diffraction analysis shows that the dynamical cure and compatibilization do not disturb the crystalline structure of PP in the blends. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    Evaluation of polymethacrylic ionomer as compatibilizers for MCPA6/clay composites

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2008
    Tongfei Wu
    Abstract The compatibilization effects provided by polymethacrylic ionomer (PMMA ionomer) on monomer-casting polyamide6 (MCPA6)/clay (pristine sodium montmorillonite) composites were studied in this work. The PMMA ionomer used in this study was sodium polymethacrylate ionomer (PMMA Na+ -ionomer), which is a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and sodium methacrylate, prepared using emulsion polymerization. MCPA6/clay/PMMA Na+ -ionomer composites were prepared by in situ anionic ring-opening polymerization (AROP) of ,-caprolactam (CLA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) plus rheological measurement were used to characterize those composites. The results indicated that PMMA Na+ -ionomer is a good compatibilizer for this system. With increasing PMMA Na+ -ionomer content, a better dispersion of clay layers was successfully achieved in the MCPA6 matrix. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and XRD results indicated that well dispersed silicate layers limit the mobility of the MCPA6 molecule chains to crystallize, reduce the degree crystalline, and favor the formation of the ,-crystalline form of the MCPA6 matrix. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Improving low-density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends with graft copolymers

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2008
    D. E. El-Nashar
    Abstract Blends of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were prepared with different weight compositions with a plasticorder at 240C at a rotor speed of 64 rpm for 10 min. The physicomechanical properties of the prepared blends were investigated with special reference to the effects of the blend ratio. Graft copolymers, that is, LDPE-grafted acrylic acid and LDPE-grafted acrylonitrile, were prepared with ,-irradiation. The copolymers were melt-mixed in various contents (i.e., 3, 5, 7, and 9 phr) with a LDPE/PET blend with a weight ratio of 75/25 and used as compatibilizers. The effect of the compatibilizer contents on the physicomechanical properties and equilibrium swelling of the binary blend was investigated. With an increase in the compatibilizer content up to 7 phr, the blend showed an improvement in the physicomechanical properties and reduced equilibrium swelling in comparison with the uncompatibilized one. The addition of a compatibilizer beyond 7 phr did not improve the blend properties any further. The efficiency of the compatibilizers (7 phr) was also evaluated by studies of the phase morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and thermal properties (differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis). 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Poly(butylene terephthalate)/clay nanocomposite compatibilized with poly(ethylene- co -glycidyl methacrylate).

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2008

    Abstract Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/clay nanocomposite was prepared by blending PBT and commercial modified montmorillonite clays via a extruder by using poly(ethylene- co -glycidyl methacrylate) (PEGMA) as a compatibilizer (PBT/PEGMA/Clay). PEGMA and clay were also blended with PBT to prepare PBT/PEGMA and PBT/Clay, respectively. The morphology was investigated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The clays were aggregated together and phase separation was observed in PBT/Clay. The clays were exfoliated in PBT/PEGMA/Clay. The equilibrium melting temperature was estimated by linear and nonlinear Hoffman-Weeks relation. The influence of the PEGMA and clay on the PBT crystallizable ability was also investigated by Avrami model and undercooling (difference between crystallization and equilibrium melting temperature). Hoffman-Lauritzen relation was used to estimate chain fold surface free energy. The exfoliated silicates cause a large number nucleus center to enhance the crystallization in PBT/PEGMA/Clay. The presence of PEGMA can react with the PBT and an increase in viscosity would reduce molecular mobility and crystallization in PBT/PEGMA. The aggregated clays have a confinement effect on the segmental motion of PBT and hinder the crystallization in PBT/Clay. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Polyamide 6/maleated ethylene,propylene,diene rubber/organoclay composites with or without glycidyl methacrylate as a compatibilizer

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    Lingyan Zhang
    Abstract Polyamide 6 (PA6)/maleated ethylene,propylene,diene rubber (EPDM- g -MA)/organoclay (OMMT) composites were melt-compounded through two blending sequences. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was used as a compatibilizer for the ternary composites. The composite prepared through via the premixing of PA6 with OMMT and then further melt blending with EPDM- g -MA exhibited higher impact strength than the composite prepared through the simultaneous blending of all the components. However, satisfactorily balanced mechanical properties could be achieved by the addition of GMA through a one-step blending sequence. The addition of GMA improved the compatibility between PA6 and EPDM- g -MA, and this was due to the reactions between PA6, EPDM- g -MA, and GMA, as proved by Fourier transform infrared analysis and solubility (Molau) testing. In addition, OMMT acted as a compatibilizer for PA6/EPDM- g -MA blends at low contents, but it weakened the interfacial interactions between PA6 and EPDM- g -MA at high contents. Both OMMT and GMA retarded the crystallization of PA6. The complex viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus of the composites were obviously affected by the addition of OMMT and GMA. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Polypropylene/clay nanocomposites prepared by in situ grafting-melt intercalation with a novel cointercalating monomer

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2008
    Pingan Song
    Abstract Polypropylene (PP)/clay nanocomposites were prepared by melt-compounding PP with organomontmorillonite (OMT), using maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP- g -MA) as the primary compatibilizer and N -imidazol- O -(bicyclo pentaerythritol phosphate)- O -(ethyl methacrylate) phosphate (PEBI) as the cointercalating monomer. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the larger interlayer spacing of OMT in PP was obtained due to the cointercalation monomer having a large steric volume and the d -spacing further increased with the addition of PP- g -MA, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the PEBI-containing PP nanocomposites exhibited better thermal stability than PEBI-free PP composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that the storage modulus was significantly enhanced, and the glass transition temperature (Tg) shifted slightly to low temperature with the incorporation of clay for PP/OMT hybrids. PEBI-containing PP/OMT composites gave a lower Tg value because of the strong internal plasticization effect of PEBI in the system. Cone calorimetry showed that the flame-retardancy properties of PP nanocomposites were highly improved with the incorporation of PEBI. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of PE-EPDM based jute fiber composites

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    Gautam Sarkhel
    Abstract The present investigation deals with the mechanical, thermal and viscoelastic properties of ternary composites based on low density polyethylene (LDPE)-ethylene,propylene,diene terpolymer (EPDM) blend and high density polyethylene (HDPE)-EPDM blend reinforced with short jute fibers. For all the untreated and compatibilizer treated composites, the variation of mechanical and viscoelastic properties as a function of fiber loading (10, 20 and 30 wt %) and compatibilizer concentration (1, 2, and 3%) were evaluated. The flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength, and hardness increased with increasing both the fiber loading and the compatibilizer dose. The storage modulus (E,) and loss modulus (E,) of the HDPE-EPDM/jute fiber composites were recorded higher compared to those of the LDPE-EPDM/jute fiber composites at all level of fiber loading and compatibilizer doses. The tan, (damping efficiency) spectra showed a strong influence of the fiber loading and compatibilizer dose on the , relaxation process of polymer matrix in the composite. The thermo-oxidative stability was significantly enhanced for treated composites compared to untreated composites. Scanning electron microscopy investigation confirmed that the higher values of mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the treated composites compared to untreated composites is caused by improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion as result of compatibilizer treatment. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Weld line characteristics of PC/ABS blend.

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008

    Abstract The effects of reactive compatibilizer and processing temperature on the morphology and the mechanical properties at the weld line of 60/40 (wt/wt) poly- carbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer blends were investigated. Amine functionalized styrene/n -phenyl maleimide/maleic anhydride terpolymer (amine-SPMIMA) was used as the in-situ reactive compatibilizer for PC/ABS blend. Weld tensile strength increased as the content of amine-SPMIMA was increased. Weld impact strength showed maximum value for the blend containing about 3% amine-SPMIMA. The variation in the mechanical property at the weld line was correlated with the change in the morphology of the blend. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Isothermal crystallization of high density polyethylene and nanoscale calcium carbonate composites

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2008
    Jiann-Wen HuangArticle first published online: 26 NOV 200
    Abstract High density polyethylene (HDPE) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanocomposites with maleic anhydride grafted HDPE (manPE) as a compatibilizer were prepared via compounding in a twin-screw extruder. The CaCO3 are well dispersed in the HDPE matrix from the observation of transmission electron microscope. The isothermal crystallization kinetics was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and simulated by Avrami and Tobin models. The nucleation constants and fold surface free energy were estimated from Lauritzen,Hoffman relation. The results indicate that both manPE and well-dispersed CaCO3 particles would act as nuclei to induce heterogeneous nucleation and enhance crystallization rate. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Novel high-dielectric-permittivity poly(vinylidene fluoride)/polypropylene blend composites: The influence of the poly(vinylidene fluoride) concentration and compatibilizer

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2007
    Zhi-Min Dang
    Abstract Novel high-dielectric-permittivity poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/polypropylene (PP) blend composites were prepared via a blending technology, and their dielectric properties were studied over wide ranges of temperatures and frequencies. To improve the interface bonding between PVDF and PP, a suitable compatibilizer, polypropylene- graft -maleic anhydride (PP- g -MAH), was employed. The results showed that the concentration of PVDF in the composites dominated the changes in the dielectric properties and that the use of PP- g -MAH could improve the interface interaction between PVDF and PP, resulting in an increase in the dielectric permittivity. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2007 [source]


    Effect of dispersion state of organoclay on cellular foam structure and mechanical properties of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer/ethylene-1-butenecopolymer/organoclay nanocomposite foams

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2007
    Keun-Wan Park
    Abstract In this study, our goal is to obtain lower density of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)/ethylene-1-butene copolymer (EtBC) foams without sacrificing mechanical properties. For this purpose EVA/EtBC/organoclay (Cloisite 15A, Closite 30B) nanocomposite foams were prepared. To investigate the effect of compatibilizer on the dispersion state of organoclay in cellular foam structure and mechanical properties of the EVA/EtBC/organoclay foams composites were prepared with and without maleic anhydride grafted EtBC (EtBC-g-MAH). The dispersion of organoclay in EVA/EtBC/organocaly foams was investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The EVA/EtBC nanocomposite foamswith the compatibilzer, especially EVA/EtBC/Cloisite 15A/EtBC-g-MAH foams displayed more uniform dispersion of organoclay than EVA/EtBC nanocomposite foams without the compatibilzer. As a result, EVA/EtBC/Cloisite 15A/EtBC-g-MAH foams have the smallest average cell size and highest 100% tensile modulus followed by EVA/EtBC/Cloisite 30B/EtBC-g-MAH foams. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 104: 3879,3885, 2007 [source]


    Effect of ethylene glycidyl methacrylate compatibilizer on the structure and mechanical properties of clay nanocomposites modified with ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2007
    B. R. Guduri
    Abstract The structure and mechanical properties of clay modified with ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer in the presence of ethylene glycidyl methacrylate (EGMA) were investigated as a function of compatibilizer and clay contents. The structure and properties were determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The presence of EGMA caused strong exfoliation of the clay in the polymer matrix, although at higher clay contents, some clay layers still existed. The more effective exfoliation, however, did not seem to substantially influence the tensile properties of the nanocomposites because the EGMA itself had a much stronger influence, which overshadowed any possible influence that the EGMA,clay interaction may have had on these properties. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites (as studied by TGA) improved in the presence of EGMA. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 4095,4101, 2007 [source]


    Noncovalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes using graft copolymer with naphthalene and its application as a reinforcing filler for poly(styrene- co -acrylonitrile)

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 19 2010
    Kyung Tae Kim
    Abstract A new compatibilizer, poly(vinyl benzyloxy ethyl naphthalene)- graft -poly(methyl methacrylate), for poly(styrene- co -acrylonirile) (SAN)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites was synthesized. It has been identified that naphthalene unit in backbone of compatibilizer interacts with MWCNTs via ,, interaction and that the PMMA graft of the compatibilizer is miscible with the SAN matrix. When a small amount of compatibilizer was added to SAN/MWCNT composites, MWCNTs were more homogeneously dispersed in SAN matrix than the case without compatibilizer, indicating that the compatibilizer improves the compatibility between SAN and MWCNTs. As a consequence, mechanical and electrical properties of the composites with compatibilizer were largely improved as compared with those of composites without compatibilizer. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 4184,4191, 2010 [source]


    Morphological, mechanical, and rheological studies of PVC/ABS blends in the presence of maleic anhydride

    JOURNAL OF VINYL & ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Pegah Mohammad Hosseinpour
    A novel method of enhancing compatibility in PVC/ABS blends is the use of ABS-grafted-(maleic anhydride) (ABS- g -MAH) as a compatibilizer. In this study, maleic anhydride was grafted onto ABS (initiated by peroxide) in an internal mixer. Grafting degree was determined by a back-titration method, and certain amounts of the resultant ABS- g -MAH were added to PVC/ABS blends during their melt blending in the mixer. The weight ratio of PVC to ABS was kept at 70:30. Evaluation of compatibilization was accomplished via tensile and notched Izod impact tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and rheological studies. According to the SEM micrographs, better dispersion of the rubber phase and its finer size in properly compatibilized blends were indications of better compatibility. Besides, in the presence of a proper amount [5 parts per hundred parts of PVC (php)] of ABS- g -MAH, PVC/ABS blends showed significantly higher impact strengths than uncompatibilized blends. This result, in turn, would be an indication of better compatibility. In the presence of 5 php of compatibilizer, the higher complex viscosity and storage modulus, as well as a lower loss modulus and loss factor in the range of frequency studied, indicated stronger interfacial adhesion as a result of interaction between maleic anhydride and the PVC-SAN matrix. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 2010. 2010 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Enhanced Stereocomplex Formation of Poly(L -lactic acid) and Poly(D -lactic acid) in the Presence of Stereoblock Poly(lactic acid)

    MACROMOLECULAR BIOSCIENCE, Issue 6 2007
    Kazuki Fukushima
    Abstract Stereoblock poly(lactic acid) (sb-PLA) is incorporated into a 1:1 polymer blend system of poly(L -lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(D -lactic acid) (PDLA) that has a high molecular weight to study its addition effect on the stereocomplex (sc) formation of PLLA and PDLA. The ternary polymer blend films are first prepared by casting polymer solutions of sb-PLA, PLLA, and PDLA with different compositions. Upon increasing the content of sb-PLA in the blend films the sc crystallization is driven to a higher degree, while the formation of homo-chiral (hc) crystals is decreased. Lowering the molecular weight of the incorporated sb-PLA effectively increases the sc formation. Consequently, it is revealed that sb-PLA can work as a compatibilizer to improve the poor sc formation in the polymer blend of PLLA and PDLA. [source]


    Use of PP Grafted with Itaconic Acid as a New Compatibilizer for PP/Clay Nanocomposites

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 15 2006
    Edwin Moncada
    Abstract Summary: Functionalized PP samples with different percentages of grafted IA, i.e., 0.7, 1 or 1.8 wt.-%, with similar molecular weights were used as compatibilizers in PP/clay nanocomposites. PP nanocomposites containing 1 wt.-% of organically modified clays, i.e., montmorillonite, natural hectorite and synthetic hectorite and 3 wt.-% of grafted PP with three different percentages of grafted IA as compatibilizers and two commercial PP samples of different molecular weights were prepared by melt blending. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, TEM and tensile mechanical measurements. It was found that the molecular weight of PP used as matrix as well as the percentage of grafted IA of the compatibilizer affected the degree of intercalation/exfoliation of the clay and consequently the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. Values of 2,137 MPa for the modulus and 51 MPa for the tensile strength were obtained when natural hectorite was used and 2,117 and 40 MPa were obtained when montmorillonite was used. A comparative study was carried out, where PP grafted with maleic anhydride was used as the compatibilizer. Inferior mechanical properties were obtained for nanocomposites prepared by using this compatibilizer, where values of 1,607 MPa for the tensile modulus and 43 MPa for tensile strength were obtained. This result indicated that IA-grafted PP was far more efficient as compatibilizer for the formation of nanocomposites than commercially available maleic anhydride-grafted PP. Model showing interaction of the organically modified clay with grafted PP used as compatibilizer. [source]


    Evaluation of the Effectiveness of New Compatibilizers Based on EBAGMA-LDPE and EBAGMA-PET Masterbatches for LDPE/PET Blends

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 3 2010
    Aida Benhamida
    Abstract The present paper is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of two masterbatches, i.e., EBAGMA/LDPE (MB1) and EBAGMA/PET (MB2) with 50/50 w/w composition, prepared by melt mixing and used as new compatibilizers for blends of LDPE/PET. The morphology, the mechanical and the thermal properties of LDPE/PET/MB1 and LDPE/PET/MB2 ternary blends have been investigated. Morphological investigation by SEM of LDPE/PET/MB1 ternary blends showed a finer dispersion of PET in LDPE matrix with a better interfacial adhesion compared to those of both LDPE/PET/MB2 and binary LDPE/PET blends. The results also indicated a substantial improvement in both elongation at break and impact strength, while the Young's modulus decreased. Moreover, the thermal properties showed a decrease of the crystallization phenomena of PET in LDPE/PET/MB1 blend, thus confirming the good dispersion of PET particles into the continuous phase of LDPE matrix, leading to the conclusion that MB1 could be an efficient compatibilizer for LDPE/PET system. [source]


    Processing and Properties of Biobased Blends from Soy Meal and Natural Rubber

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 10-11 2007
    Qiangxian Wu
    Abstract Vulcanized blends from soy meal and natural rubber were successfully processed through semi-pilot scale extrusion, roll milling and compression-molding. Blends containing about 50 wt.-% of soy meal are elastic and water resistant, compared with the brittle and hydrophilic soy meal. The natural rubber component was well embedded into the soy meal matrix, indicating the existence of an interaction between them. The glass transition temperature of the rubber component in the blends increased due to the existence of this interaction. Calcium sulfate, as a compatibilizer, was a physical cross-linker to the proteins in the soy meal and in the rubber. The morphological analysis of the soy meal and natural rubber blend through scanning electron microscopy revealed a partial compatibility of the blend. The blends containing near 50 wt.-% of inexpensive soy meal have potential for various applications. [source]


    A Solvent Free Graft Copolymerization of Maleic Anhydride onto Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Bioplastic by Reactive Extrusion

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2006
    Arief C. Wibowo
    Abstract Summary: Interfacial adhesion between fibers and matrix is a crucial factor for effective stress transfer from matrix to fiber; especially in short fiber reinforced composite systems. The use of a chemical compatibilizer is an efficient means to achieve such adhesion. Maleic anhydride-grafted-cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB-g-MA) is one such compatibilizer which can be used in biocomposite fabrication, and this has been synthesized in our laboratory by utilizing a twin-screw reactive extrusion process in the presence of a free radical initiator (2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di(tert -butylperoxy)hexane). The unique feature of this process is its solvent-free approach for grafting of maleic anhydride onto CAB, without hydroxyl group protection. CAB-g-MA was characterized using FTIR as well as by a non-aqueous titration method. The effects of initiator and monomer concentrations and various processing conditions on the graft content were also investigated. The preliminary results show that by adding approximately 10 wt.-% of CAB-g-MA into a plasticized cellulose acetate butyrate (TEB)-industrial hemp fiber biocomposites system, an improvement in tensile strength (20%) and in tensile modulus (45%) were obtained. These results are promising in that they pave the way for future studies involving the use of CAB-g-MA as a suitable compatibilizer for cellulose ester-natural fiber biocomposites. [source]


    Waste and Virgin LDPE/PET Blends Compatibilized with an Ethylene-Butyl Acrylate-Glycidyl Methacrylate (EBAGMA) Terpolymer, 1

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 10 2005
    Mustapha Kaci
    Abstract Summary: This work is aimed at studying the morphology and the mechanical properties of blends of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) (10, 20, and 30 wt.-% of PET), obtained as both virgin polymers and urban plastic waste, and the effect of a terpolymer of ethylene-butyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (EBAGMA) as a compatibilizer. LDPE and PET are blended in a single screw extruder twice; the first extrusion to homogenize the two components, and the second to improve the compatibilization degree when the EBAGMA terpolymer is applied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows that the fractured surface of both the virgin polymer and the waste binary blends is characterized by a gross phase segregation morphology that leads to the formation of large PET aggregates (10,50 m). Furthermore, a sharp decrease in the elongation at break and impact strength is observed, which denotes the brittleness of the binary blends. The addition of the EBAGMA terpolymer to the binary LDPE/PET blends reduces the size of the PET inclusions to 1,5 m with a finer dispersion, as a result of an improvement of the interfacial adhesion strength between LDPE and PET. Consequently, increases of the tensile properties and impact strength are observed. SEM micrographs of the fracture surface of a waste 70/30 LDPE/PET blend (R30) and of its blend with 15 pph of EBAGMA (R30C). Magnification,,1,000. [source]


    Compatibilization of Polyamide-6/Polyarylate Blends by Means of an Ionomer

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 8 2005
    Aritz Retolaza
    Abstract Summary: Polyamide-6 (PA6)/polyarylate of bisphenol A (PAr) blends rich in PA6 and modified with an additional 15% poly[ethylene- co -(methacrylic acid)] partially neutralized with zinc (PEMA-Zn) as a compatibilizer were obtained by melt mixing. Their phase structure, morphology, and mechanical performance were compared with those of the corresponding binary blends. The ternary blends were composed of a PA6 amorphous matrix and a dispersed PAr-rich phase in which reacted PA6 and PEMA-Zn were present. Additionally, minor amounts of a crystalline PA6 phase, and a PEMA-Zn phase were also present. The chemical reactions observed led to a clear decrease in the dispersed particle size when PEMA-Zn was added, indicating compatibilization. Consequently, the mechanical behavior of the blends with PEMA-Zn improved, leading, mainly in the case of the blend with 10% PAr, to significant increases in both ductility and impact strength with respect to those of the binary blends. These increases were more remarkable than the slight decrease in stiffness as a consequence of the rubbery nature of the compatibilizer. Cryogenically fractured surface of the PA6/PAr-PEMA-Zn 70/30-15 ternary blend. [source]