Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Comprehension

  • good comprehension
  • language comprehension
  • listening comprehension
  • reading comprehension
  • sentence comprehension
  • speech comprehension
  • text comprehension
  • verbal comprehension

  • Terms modified by Comprehension

  • comprehension question
  • comprehension score
  • comprehension skill
  • comprehension test

  • Selected Abstracts

    Grade-Level Invariance of a Theoretical Causal Structure Predicting Reading Comprehension With Vocabulary and Oral Reading Fluency

    Paul Yovanoff
    This research investigates the relative importance of vocabulary and oral reading fluency as measurement dimensions of reading comprehension as the student passes from elementary to high school. Invariance of this model over grades 4 through 8 is tested using two independent student samples reading grade-level appropriate passages. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that the model is not invariant across grade levels. Vocabulary knowledge is a significant and constant predictor of overall reading comprehension irrespective of grade level. While significant, fluency effects diminish over grades, especially in the later grades. Lack of grade level invariance was obtained with both samples. Results are discussed in light of vertically linked reading assessments, adequate yearly progress, and instruction. [source]

    Epilepsy and Language Development: The Continuous Spike-Waves during Slow Sleep Syndrome

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2007
    Séverine Debiais
    Summary:,Background: Continuous spike-waves during slow sleep syndrome (CSWSS) is a rare epileptic syndrome occurring in children, which is characterized by the association of epilepsy, neuropsychological disorders, and abnormal paroxysmal electroencephalographic (EEG) discharges activated by sleep. Language can be affected but, to date, language disorders and their long-term outcome have been documented only rarely. Purposes: Description of language impairment in patients with the CSWSS. Methods: We performed a detailed language testing in 10 right-handed children and adolescents with the CSWSS. Their pragmatic performance was compared to that of a control population of 36 children aged 6,10 years. Results: Patients with CSWSS had lower scores in tests measuring their lexical, morphosyntactic, and pragmatic skills compared to controls. Comprehension remains unaffected. In addition, language impairment was found to be just as severe in patients in remission as those still in an active phase. Conclusions: We found severe language impairments in lexical and syntactic skills. The language profile is different from that observed in the Landau,Kleffner syndrome. Moreover patients in remission and those in an active phase of the CSWSS have the same language impairment profiles. This confirms the poor long-term neuropsychological prognosis. Our results raise points about the relationship between epileptic activity and language development. This pilot study underscores the need to assess language, and especially pragmatic skills, and to study long-term outcome in such childhood epileptic syndromes. [source]

    Effect of Using Photos from Authentic Video as Advance Organizers on Listening Comprehension in an FLES Chinese Class

    Lee Wilberschied
    The first type of advance organizer consisted of written words and sentences in Chinese, which summarized major scenes in the video the students were to watch. The second advance organizer involved the same written words and sentences as the first, with accompanying pictures taken from the video itself. Statistical significance of the listening comprehension scores from the exercises could not be established. However, the exercises seemed to be helpful, particularly for younger and less language-proficient students. Interview results indicated that students perceived the pictures as more helpful than text alone. [source]

    Computer-Assisted Reading: The Effect of Glossing Format on Comprehension and Vocabulary Retention

    Serafima Gettys
    Two glossing methods are compared. The first method provides readers with sentence-level translation equivalents of the second-language (L2) words. The second method connects the words with their meanings through basic dictionary forms. The main purpose of the study was to determine which of the two glossing formats is more beneficial for text comprehension and vocabulary retention. The results of the study show that retention of lexical items is better aided by reading the text with dictionary-form equivalents of the L2 words, because it involves a deeper level of cognitive processing. The situation is less clear-cut regarding the effect of the two glossing formats on global comprehension. The pedagogical implications of the data obtained are discussed. [source]

    Bilateral medial temporal lobe damage does not affect lexical or grammatical processing: Evidence from amnesic patient H.M.

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 4 2001
    Elizabeth A. Kensinger
    Abstract In the most extensive investigation to date of language in global amnesia, we acquired data from experimental measures and examined longitudinal data from standardized tests, to determine whether language function was preserved in the amnesic patient H.M. The experimental measures indicated that H.M. performed normally on tests of lexical memory and grammatical function, relative to age- and education-matched control participants. Longitudinal data from four Wechsler subtests (Information, Comprehension, Similarities, and Vocabulary), that H.M. had taken 20 times between 1953 (preoperatively) and 2000, indicated consistent performance across time, and provided no evidence of a lexical memory decrement. We conclude that medial temporal lobe structures are not critical for retention and use of already acquired lexical information or for grammatical processing. They are, however, required for acquisition of lexical information, as evidenced in previous studies revealing H.M.'s profound impairment at learning new words. Hippocampus 2001;11:347,360. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Beliefs of chronically ill Japanese patients that lead to intentional non-adherence to medication

    N. Iihara BS
    Summary Objective:, To identify factors, associated with personal beliefs, involved in intentional non-adherence to prescribed medication of Japanese patients with chronic diseases. Methods:, A cross-sectional study of Japanese subjects with chronic, primarily liver, gastrointestinal, or nervous system diseases who had been prescribed oral medicines for regular use, was performed. The subjects were admitted to a university hospital and were interviewed face-to-face on admission. Intentional non-adherence was defined as experience of deliberate adjustment of self-managed prescription medicines during the few months prior to hospital admission. Patients' beliefs about taking medicines were assessed from the perspective of what the patient valued in order to take medicines without anxiety; whether the patient valued information about the medication such as its function and side-effects and/or mutual reliance on doctors. Using logistic multivariate regression analyses, factors associated with intentional non-adherence were identified. Results:, Among 154 subjects, 51 showed intentional non-adherence. Intentional non-adherence was associated with the following three factors: (a) the patients' beliefs with respect to taking medicines without anxiety, especially putting no value on mutual reliance on the patient,doctor relationship (P < 0·001) and putting great value on knowing the drug's side-effects (P < 0·001), (b) poor comprehension of general aspects of medication (P for trend <0·001), and (c) being in the prime of life (40,59 years) (P = 0·011). Comprehension of the function of each medicine, experience of side-effects, anxiety about taking medicines, and the number of types of medicines taken, were not associated with non-adherence. Conclusions:, Beliefs on which individual Japanese patients with chronic diseases attach value in order to take medicines without anxiety were potential factors for intentional non-adherence. This emphasizes the necessity of a patient-oriented approach to take account of patients' personal beliefs about medicines to increase adherence rate in Japan. [source]

    A Dynamic Food Science Internship Program: Integration of Problem-Based Learning and Student-Centered Mentoring

    Y.M. Lo
    ABSTRACT: An internship program based upon problem-based learning (PBL) and student-centered mentoring is developed. Food science majors are introduced to the program in their sophomore/junior year and follow a process that involves learning-style assessments, career counseling, and direct contact with industrial mentors to develop a resume. The problems are designed in collaboration with a faculty advisor so the students can apply their knowledge to industrial situations. Assessment of performance is conducted by having students submit weekly journal entries and a final report and participate in a closing interview. The journals and reports are graded on 6 aspects of a pedagogical reasoning model: Comprehension, transformation, implementation, evaluation, reflection, and new comprehension. This trains students to use a range of knowledge within a restrained environment, as well as assisting students to refine the critical food science and interpersonal skills needed for successful careers after graduation. [source]

    Improving Participant Comprehension in the Informed Consent Process

    Elizabeth Cohn
    Purpose: To critically analyze studies published within the past decade about participants' comprehension of informed consent in clinical research and to identify promising intervention strategies. Design:Integrative review of literature. Methods: The Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Inclusion criteria included studies (a) published between January 1, 1996 and January 1, 2007, (b) designed as descriptive or interventional studies of comprehension of informed consent for clinical research, (c) conducted in nonpsychiatric adult populations who were either patients or volunteer participants, (d) written in English, and (e) published in peer-reviewed journals. Findings: Of the 980 studies identified, 319 abstracts were screened, 154 studies were reviewed, and 23 met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies (57%) were descriptive, and 10 (43%) were interventional. Interventions tested included simplified written consent documents, multimedia approaches, and the use of a trained professional (consent educator) to assist in the consent process. Collectively, no single intervention strategy was consistently associated with improved comprehension. Studies also varied in regard to the definition of comprehension and the tools used to measure it. Conclusions: Despite increasing regulatory scrutiny, deficiencies still exist in participant comprehension of the research in which they participate, as well as differences in how comprehension is measured and assessed. No single intervention was identified as consistently successful for improving participant comprehension, and results indicated that any successful consent process should at a minimum include various communication modes and is likely to require one-to-one interaction with someone knowledgeable about the study. [source]

    Plaque progression and regression in atherothrombosis

    Summary., Atherosclerotic disease is a pathological process characterized by the deposition of lipid and other blood-borne material within the arterial wall. The deposition of these materials and the subsequent thickening of the wall may significantly compromise the vessel lumen. Atherosclerosis is a diffuse disease with focal clinical manifestations that are the consequence of thrombotic complications on disrupted atherosclerotic lesions. Until recently, atherosclerosis development was envisaged as an incessant progressing process; however, new evidence has shown that atherosclerotic plaque homeostasis is not necessarily a constantly progressing process. There are many data showing that atherosclerotic plaque formation can be slowed, stopped or even reversed. Comprehension of the underlying mechanisms involved in the homeostasis of atherosclerotic plaque (progression/regression) should allow the development of interventions enhancing the regression pathway. Novel imaging technology has allowed the accurate evaluation of plaque progression, vital in the assessment of the efficacy of interventions. In this review we discuss the processes involved in the formation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions, the triggers for plaque disruption, as well as new therapies. We also deal with the potential pathways of plaque regression, as well as tools for accurate serial atherosclerotic quantification. [source]

    Cognition, Language Contact, and the Development of Pragmatic Comprehension in a Study-Abroad Context

    LANGUAGE LEARNING, Issue 1 2008
    Naoko Taguchi
    This study examined two issues: (a) whether there are gains in accurate and speedy comprehension of second language (L2) pragmatic meaning over time and (b) whether the gains are associated with cognitive processing ability and the amount of language contact in an L2 environment. Forty-four college students in a US institution completed three measures three times over a 4-month period: (a) the pragmatic listening test that measured the ability to comprehend implied speaker intentions, (b) the lexical access test that measured ability to make speedy semantic judgment, and (c) the language contact survey that examined the amount of time learners spent in L2 outside the class. The learners' pragmatic comprehension was analyzed for accuracy (the scores on the pragmatic listening test) and comprehension speed (the average time taken to answer items correctly). Results showed that the learners made significant improvement on comprehension speed but not on accuracy of comprehension. Lexical access speed was significantly correlated with comprehension speed but not with accuracy. The amount of speaking and reading outside class that the students reported on the language contact survey significantly correlated with the gains in comprehension speed but not with accuracy of comprehension. [source]

    The Effect of Frequency of Input-Enhancements on Word Learning and Text Comprehension

    LANGUAGE LEARNING, Issue 2 2007
    Susanne Rott
    Research on second language lexical development during reading has found positive effects for word frequency, the provision of glosses, and elaborative word processing. However, findings have been inconclusive regarding the effect of such intervention tasks on long-term retention. Likewise, few studies have looked at the cumulative effect of interventions on word learning or text comprehension. This investigation sought to assess the effect of increased frequency of target words (TWs) comparing lexical gain of words that occurred once (F1) or four times (F4) in the input passage. The study further investigated the combined effect of frequency (F4) and semantic or visual enhancements. It compared the following reading conditions: (a) TWs were glossed four times in the text (four-gloss: 4G); (b) TWs were first glossed, then retrieved in the first language, and bolded twice (gloss-retrieval: GR); and (c) TWs were first glossed and then bolded three times (gloss-bolding: GB). In addition, the study assessed the effect of these interventions on long-term retention (4,6 weeks) of lexical knowledge and on text comprehension. Findings revealed that the GR and 4G reading conditions resulted in more productive word gain than the GB condition or when readers encountered a TW only once. Repeated visual enhancements seemed to have no effect on strengthening word encoding. The comprehension of main ideas was highest when the TW was glossed four times followed by the gloss-bolding reading condition and the gloss-retrieval task. [source]

    Schema Theory and Knowledge-Based Processes in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Need for Alternative Perspectives

    Hossein Nassaji
    How is knowledge represented and organized in the mind? What role does it play in discourse comprehension and interpretation? What are the exact mechanisms whereby knowledge-based processes are utilised in comprehension? These are questions that have puzzled psycholinguists and cognitive psychologists for years. Despite major developments in the field of second language (L2) reading over the last two decades, many attempts at explaining the role of knowledge in L2 comprehension have been made almost exclusively in the context of schema theory, a perspective that provides an expectation-driven conception of the role of knowledge and considers that preexisting knowledge provides the main guiding context through which information is processed and interpreted. In this article, I first review and critically analyze the major assumptions underlying schema theory and the processes that it postulates underlie knowledge representation and comprehension. Then I consider an alternative perspective, a construction-integration model of discourse comprehension, and discuss how this perspective, when applied to L2 reading comprehension, offers a fundamentally different and more detailed account of the role of knowledge and knowledge-based processes that L2 researchers had previously tried to explain within schema-theoretic principles. [source]

    The Influence of the Social Use and the History of Acquisition of Euskera on Comprehension and Recall of Scientific Texts in Euskera and Castilian

    LANGUAGE LEARNING, Issue 3 2002
    Arantxa Gorostiaga
    This study examined the influence of the social use and the history of acquisition of Euskera (the Basque language) on comprehension and recall of two versions (Euskera ,Castilian) of a scientific text read by bilingual high school and college students. Comprehension was measured by performance on an inferential task and recall by efficiency on a test that assessed recognition of essential and supplementary information in the text. Results suggested that both extensive social use and an active history of acquisition of a language improve the level of comprehension of a text written in that language. However, neither factor facilitated the recognition of essential information in the text. The possible implications of these results for education are discussed. [source]

    Reading Comprehension in Adolescents with LD: What We Know; What We Need to Learn

    Michael N. Faggella-Luby
    The changing job market requires a sophisticated array of literacy skills that adolescents with learning disabilities reading below grade level have not yet acquired. This summary of the research on reading comprehension highlights emerging findings and related instructional conditions necessary to achieve optimal student outcomes with limited instructional time. Limitations in the existing evidence base are addressed via four factors for future research and development agendas: (a) use theory to inform research and practice, (b) study the role that dosage plays as an independent variable, (c) study tiered models of instruction that are applicable for use in middle and high school settings, and (d) study factors that can enhance scaling of reading comprehension interventions. [source]

    Syntactic Priming Effects in Comprehension: A Critical Review

    Kristen M. Tooley
    Syntactic priming occurs when processing of a target sentence is facilitated following processing of a prime sentence that has the same syntactic structure (Bock, 1986 Cognitive Psychology, 18. 355,387). Syntactic priming has been widely investigated in production (Bock, 1986 Cognitive Psychology, 18. 355,387; Bock and Griffin, 2000 General. 129(2). 177,192; Cleland and Pickering, 2003. Journal of Memory and Language, 49. 214,230; Cleland and Pickering 2006. Journal of Memory and Language, 54. 185,198; Pickering and Branigan, 1998. Journal of Memory and Language, 39. 633,651; and others), but only relatively recently in comprehension (Arai et al. 2007. Cognitive Psychology, 54(3). 218,250; Ledoux et al., 2007. Psychological Science. 18(2). 135,143; and others). This article reviews the current literature on syntactic priming in comprehension and contrasts these findings to those in production. Critically, syntactic priming effects in comprehension are observed more often when prime and target sentences share a content word, whereas in production, these effects are often observed when there are no shared content words between the primes and targets. Possible explanations for the differing degrees of lexical dependency between syntactic priming effects in production and in comprehension are posed and include differences in task paradigms and stimuli, differences in time course and syntactic processing between the two modalities, and mechanistic differences. Implications from the reviewed literature are then considered in attempts at determining the most likely mechanistic explanation for syntactic priming effects in both comprehension and production. A residual activation account (Pickering and Branigan, 1998. Journal of Memory and Language, 39. 633,651), an implicit learning account (Bock and Griffin, 2000 General. 129(2). 177,192; Chang et al. 2006. Psychological Review, 113(2). 234,272), and a dual mechanism account (Tooley, 2009. Is Syntactic Priming in Sentence Comprehension Really Just Implicit Learning? Paper presented to the 22nd Annual CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing, Davis, March 26,28) are outlined. The dual mechanism account may prove more consistent with a wider range of the reviewed research findings. [source]

    The Role of Prominence Information in the Real-Time Comprehension of Transitive Constructions: A Cross-Linguistic Approach

    Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
    Approaches to language processing have traditionally been formulated with reference to general cognitive concepts (e.g. working memory limitations) or have based their representational assumptions on concepts from generative linguistic theory (e.g. structure determines interpretation). Thus, many well-established generalisations about language that have emerged from cross-linguistic/typological research have not as yet had a major influence in shaping ideas about online processing. Here, we examine the viability of using typologically motivated concepts to account for phenomena in online language comprehension. In particular, we focus on the comprehension of simple transitive sentences (i.e. sentences involving two arguments/event participants) and cross-linguistic similarities and differences in how they are processed. We argue that incremental argument interpretation in these structures is best explained with reference to a range of cross-linguistically motivated, hierarchically ordered information types termed ,prominence scales' (e.g. animacy, definiteness/specificity, case marking and linear order). We show that the assumption of prominence-based argument processing can capture a wide range of recent neurocognitive findings, as well as deriving well-known behavioural results. [source]

    Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Syntactic Processing in Sentence Comprehension: A Critical Selective Review

    David Caplan
    This article critically reviews recent papers that use functional neuroimaging to localize syntactic representations, Universal Grammar, parsing operations, and the working memory system that supports parsing. It is concluded that greater control over experimental conditions is needed for studies to provide convincing evidence about the neural basis for these cognitive functions. [source]

    Idioms,Description, Comprehension, Acquisition, and Pedagogy by LIU, DILIN

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Improving Comprehension Through Discourse Processing

    Arthur C. Graesser
    Deep coherent explanations organize shallow knowledge and fortify learners for generating inferences, solving problems, reasoning, and applying their knowledge to practical situations. [source]

    Cross-talk of human gut with bifidobacteria

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 2 2009
    Ilja Trebichavsky
    The gut constitutes a prominent part of the immune system. Its commensal microflora plays an important role in defense and in tolerance to diet allergens. Disturbances in immune regulations may lead to food allergy. Among commensal bacteria, bifidobacteria are able to induce mechanisms of immune tolerance. Comprehension of their mutual cross-talk with the host is necessary for understanding their role in the diet and in food supplements. [source]

    Hemispheric Differences and Language Comprehension

    Article first published online: 14 AUG 200
    Chairs: Kara D. Federmeier & Seana Coulson Participants: Mark Jung Beeman, Kara D. Federmeier, Seana Coulson, Tamara Swaab [source]

    Patterns of bushmeat hunting and perceptions of disease risk among central African communities

    M. LeBreton
    Abstract There is a great need to determine the factors that influence the hunting, butchering and eating of bushmeat to better manage the important social, public health and conservation consequences of these activities. In particular, the hunting and butchering of wild animals can lead to the transmission of diseases that have potentially serious consequences for exposed people and their communities. Comprehension of these risks may lead to decreased levels of these activities. To investigate these issues, 3971 questionnaires were completed to examine the determinants of the hunting, butchering and eating of wild animals and perceptions of disease risk in 17 rural central African villages. A high proportion of individuals reported perceiving a risk of disease infection with bushmeat contact. Individuals who perceived risk were significantly less likely to butcher wild animals than those who perceived no risk. However, perception of risk was not associated with hunting and eating bushmeat (activities that, compared with butchering, involve less contact with raw blood and body fluids). This suggests that some individuals may act on perceived risk to avoid higher risk activity. These findings reinforce the notion that conservation programs in rural villages in central Africa should include health-risk education. This has the potential to reduce the levels of use of wild animals, particularly of certain endangered species (e.g. many non-human primates) that pose a particular risk to human health. However, as the use of wild game is likely to continue, people should be encouraged to undertake hunting and butchering more safely for their own and their community's health. [source]

    Misunderstanding standardized language in research interviews

    Michael F. Schober
    Leaving the interpretation of words up to participants in standardized survey interviews, aptitude tests, and experiment instructions can lead to unintended interpretation; more collaborative interviewing methods can promote uniform understanding. In two laboratory studies (a factorial experiment and a more naturalistic investigation), respondents interpreted ordinary survey concepts like ,household furniture' and ,living in a house' quite differently than intended in strictly standardized interviews, when the interpretation was left entirely up to them. Comprehension was more accurate when interviewers responded to requests for clarification with non-standardized paraphrased definitions, and most accurate when interviewers also provided clarification whenever they suspected respondents needed it. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comprehending Canadian police cautions: are the rights to silence and legal counsel understandable?

    Joseph Eastwood Ms.C.
    Comprehension of a Canadian police right to silence caution and a right to legal counsel caution was examined. Each caution was first presented verbally in its entirety, followed by its sentence-by-sentence presentation in written format. Participants (N,=,56) were asked to indicate, after each presentation, their understanding of the caution. When delivered in verbal format, 4 and 7% of participants fully understood the right to silence and legal counsel cautions, respectively. However, 48 and 32% of participants fully understood the right to silence and legal counsel cautions, respectively, when delivered in written format. Comprehension of the cautions was not influenced by gender, experience with the caution, or whether the caution was interpreted by a police recruit or regular student. The implications of the results for statement admissibility and protection of suspects' rights are discussed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Contextualizing Counterintuitiveness: How Context Affects Comprehension and Memorability of Counterintuitive Concepts

    M. Afzal Upala
    Abstract A number of anthropologists have argued that religious concepts are minimally counterintuitive and that this gives them mnemic advantages. This paper addresses the question of why people have the memory architecture that results in such concepts being more memorable than other types of concepts by pointing out the benefits of a memory structure that leads to better recall for minimally counterintuitive concepts and by showing how such benefits emerge in the real-time processing of comprehending narratives such as folk tales. This model suggests that memorability is not an inherent property of a concept; rather it is a property of the concept, the context in which the concept is presented, and the background knowledge that the comprehendor possesses about the concept. The model predicts how memorability of a concept should change if the context containing the concept were changed. The paper also presents the results of experiments carried out to test these predictions. [source]

    Emergency Medicine Practitioner Knowledge and Use of Decision Rules for the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Embolism: Variations by Practice Setting and Training Level

    Michael S. Runyon MD
    Abstract Background Several clinical decision rules (CDRs) have been validated for pretest probability assessment of pulmonary embolism (PE), but the authors are unaware of any data quantifying and characterizing their use in emergency departments. Objectives To characterize clinicians' knowledge of and attitudes toward two commonly used CDRs for PE. Methods By using a modified Delphi approach, the authors developed a two-page paper survey including 15 multiple-choice questions. The questions were designed to determine the respondents' familiarity, frequency of use, and comprehension of the Canadian and Charlotte rules. The survey also queried the frequency of use of unstructured (gestalt) pretest probability assessment and reasons why physicians choose not to use decision rules. The surveys were sent to physicians, physician assistants, and medical students at 32 academic and community hospitals in the United States and the United Kingdom. Results Respondents included 555 clinicians; 443 (80%) work in academic practice, and 112 (20%) are community based. Significantly more academic practitioners (73%) than community practitioners (49%) indicated familiarity with at least one of the two decision rules. Among all respondents familiar with a rule, 50% reported using it in more than half of applicable cases. A significant number of these respondents could not correctly identify a key component of the rule (23% for the Charlotte rule and 43% for the Canadian rule). Fifty-seven percent of all respondents indicated use of gestalt rather than a decision rule in more than half of cases. Conclusions Academic clinicians were more likely to report familiarity with either of these two specific decision rules. Only one half of all clinicians reporting familiarity with the rules use them in more than 50% of applicable cases. Spontaneous recall of the specific elements of the rules was low to moderate. Future work should consider clinical gestalt in the evaluation of patients with possible PE. [source]

    A framework for fusion methods and rendering techniques of multimodal volume data

    Maria Ferre
    Abstract Many different direct volume rendering methods have been developed to visualize 3D scalar fields on uniform rectilinear grids. However, little work has been done on rendering simultaneously various properties of the same 3D region measured with different registration devices or at different instants of time. The demand for this type of visualization is rapidly increasing in scientific applications such as medicine in which the visual integration of multiple modalities allows a better comprehension of the anatomy and a perception of its relationships with activity. This paper presents different strategies of direct multimodal volume rendering (DMVR). It is restricted to voxel models with a known 3D rigid alignment transformation. The paper evaluates at which steps of the rendering pipeline the data fusion must be realized in order to accomplish the desired visual integration and to provide fast re-renders when some fusion parameters are modified. In addition, it analyses how existing monomodal visualization algorithms can be extended to multiple datasets and it compares their efficiency and their computational cost. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sanfilippo B in an elderly female psychiatric patient: a rare but relevant diagnosis in presenile dementia

    W. M. A. Verhoeven
    Verhoeven WMA, Csepán R, Marcelis CLM, Lefeber DJ, Egger JIM, Tuinier S. Sanfilippo B in an elderly female psychiatric patient: a rare but relevant diagnosis in presenile dementia. Objective:, Sanfilippo B is a rare autosomal recessive mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS IIIB) caused by a deficiency of N -acetyl-,-D-glucosaminidase (NAGLU). Method:, A mild mentally retarded elderly female patient is described with a slowly progressive dementia who had given birth to a daughter who developed normally. Results:, Metabolic screening revealed an enhanced concentration of heparan sulfate in urine. Enzymatic assay demonstrated deficiency of N -acetyl-,-D-glucosaminidase. Mutations in the NAGLU gene were found. One mentally retarded and hospitalized elder brother was also found to have MPS IIIB, whereas a second brother, who had died earlier, is suspected to have had the same metabolic disorder. Prior to the development of dementia, both the patient and her brother showed autistic like features, signs of ideomotor apraxia and weakness in verbal comprehension. Conclusion:, Screening for metabolic disorders, in particular MPSes, should always be considered in patients with a history of mental deficit and dementia or progressive functional decline. [source]

    The impact of developmental speech and language impairments on the acquisition of literacy skills

    C. Melanie Schuele
    Abstract Children with developmental speech/language impairments are at higher risk for reading disability than typical peers with no history of speech/language impairment. This article reviews the literacy outcomes of children with speech/language impairments, clarifying the differential risk for three groups of children: speech production impairments alone, oral language impairments alone, and speech production and oral language impairments. Children at greatest risk for reading and writing disabilities are children with language impairments alone and children with comorbid speech impairments and language impairments. For children with speech impairments alone, there is limited risk for literacy difficulties. However, even when reading skills are within the average range, children with speech impairments may have difficulties in spelling. Children with language impairments are likely to display reading deficits in word decoding and reading comprehension. It is not clear what role early literacy interventions play in the amelioration of reading difficulties in these populations. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2004;10:176,183. [source]

    Do healthy preterm children need neuropsychological follow-up?

    Preschool outcomes compared with term peers
    Aim, The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method, A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33 weeks' gestational age and who were free from major neurosensory disability (16 males, 19 females; mean gestational age 29.4wk, SD 2.2wk; mean birthweight 1257g, SD 327g) and 50 term-born comparison children (25 males, 25 females; mean birthweight 3459g, SD 585g) were assessed at 4 years of age. Cognition was measured using the Griffiths Mental Development scales while neuropsychological abilities (language, short-term memory, visual,motor and constructive spatial abilities, and visual processing) were assessed using standardized tests. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore the effects of preterm birth and sociodemographic factors on cognition, and to adjust neuropsychological scores for cognitive level and maternal education. Results, The mean total Griffiths score was significantly lower in preterm than in term children (97.4 vs 103.4; p<0.001). Factors associated with higher Griffiths score were maternal university education (,=6.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7,11.7) and having older siblings or a twin (,=4.0; 95% CI 0.5,7.6). At neuropsychological assessment, preterm children scored significantly lower than term comparison children in all tests except lexical production (Boston Naming Test) and visual-processing accuracy. After adjustment for cognitive level and maternal education, differences remained statistically significant for verbal fluency (p<0.05) and comprehension, short-term memory, and spatial abilities (p<0.01). Interpretation, Neuropsychological follow-up is also recommended for healthy very preterm children to identify strengths and challenges before school entry, and to plan interventions aimed at maximizing academic success. [source]