Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Composites

  • ag composite
  • aluminium matrix composite
  • biodegradable composite
  • black composite
  • carbon black composite
  • carbon composite
  • carbon fiber composite
  • carbon nanotube composite
  • cellulose composite
  • ceramic composite
  • ceramic matrix composite
  • ceramic-matrix composite
  • clay composite
  • cnt composite
  • conductive composite
  • conductive polymer composite
  • dental composite
  • epoxy composite
  • epoxy resin composite
  • ester composite
  • fabric composite
  • fiber composite
  • fiber-reinforced composite
  • fibre composite
  • fibre-reinforced composite
  • final composite
  • flour composite
  • flowable resin composite
  • glass composite
  • glass fiber composite
  • hybrid composite
  • hydrogel composite
  • laminated composite
  • matrix composite
  • metal composite
  • metal matrix composite
  • model composite
  • molecular composite
  • nanoparticle composite
  • nanotube composite
  • natural rubber composite
  • network composite
  • new composite
  • nickel composite
  • novel composite
  • other composite
  • oxide composite
  • packable composite
  • particle composite
  • particulate composite
  • phenolic composite
  • plastic composite
  • polyester composite
  • polyethylene composite
  • polymer composite
  • polymeric composite
  • polypropylene composite
  • polystyrene composite
  • polyurethane composite
  • pp composite
  • ps composite
  • pvc composite
  • resin composite
  • resulting composite
  • rubber composite
  • shell composite
  • sic composite
  • silica composite
  • situ composite
  • starch composite
  • structural composite
  • superabsorbent composite
  • talc composite
  • ternary composite
  • textile composite
  • thermoplastic composite
  • wood composite
  • wood flour composite
  • wood plastic composite

  • Terms modified by Composites

  • composite analysis
  • composite application
  • composite beam
  • composite ceramic
  • composite ceramics
  • composite coating
  • composite containing
  • composite crown
  • composite crystal
  • composite decrease
  • composite decreased
  • composite design
  • composite electrode
  • composite element
  • composite endpoint
  • composite experimental design
  • composite fiber
  • composite film
  • composite foam
  • composite food
  • composite gel
  • composite graft
  • composite hydrogel
  • composite image
  • composite increase
  • composite index
  • composite indicator
  • composite international diagnostic interview
  • composite interval mapping
  • composite latex
  • composite layer
  • composite likelihood
  • composite lymphoma
  • composite material
  • composite measure
  • composite membrane
  • composite microsphere
  • composite microstructure
  • composite model
  • composite nanofiber
  • composite nanoparticle
  • composite nanosphere
  • composite outcome
  • composite panel
  • composite particle
  • composite performance
  • composite plate
  • composite polymer
  • composite powder
  • composite products
  • composite property
  • composite resin
  • composite resin material
  • composite resin restoration
  • composite restoration
  • composite rotatable design
  • composite sample
  • composite scaffold
  • composite scale
  • composite score
  • composite sheet
  • composite shows
  • composite specimen
  • composite sphere
  • composite structure
  • composite substrate
  • composite surface
  • composite system
  • composite tumor
  • composite type
  • composite variable

  • Selected Abstracts

    Fragment-Parallel Composite and Filter

    Anjul Patney
    We present a strategy for parallelizing the composite and filter operations suitable for an order-independent rendering pipeline implemented on a modern graphics processor. Conventionally, this task is parallelized across pixels/subpixels, but serialized along individual depth layers. However, our technique extends the domain of parallelization to individual fragments (samples), avoiding a serial dependence on the number of depth layers, which can be a constraint for scenes with high depth complexity. As a result, our technique scales with the number of fragments and can sustain a consistent and predictable throughput in scenes with both low and high depth complexity, including those with a high variability of depth complexity within a single frame. We demonstrate composite/filter performance in excess of 50M fragments/sec for scenes with more than 1500 semi-transparent layers. [source]

    Developmental assessment of preterm infants at 2 years: validity of parent reports

    Samantha Johnson PhD CPsychol
    Parental questionnaires are inexpensive alternatives to standardized testing for outcome measurement. The Parent Report of Children's Abilities has previously been revised (PARCA-R) and validated for use with very-preterm infants at 2 years of age. This study revalidated the PARCA-R for assessing cognition in a larger and more inclusive sample of preterm infants. One hundred and sixty-four children (82 males, 82 females) of <32 weeks' gestation (median 29wks, interquartile range [IQR] 28-30wks); and median birthweight 1200g (IQR 925-1463g) were evaluated using the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - 2nd edition (BSID-II) at 2 years' corrected age. Parents completed the PARCA-R questionnaire. Significant correlations between PARCA-R Parent Report Composite (PRC) scores and MDI scores (r=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.82, p<0.01) demonstrated concurrent validity. A receiver operating characteristic-determined PRC cut-off of <44 had optimal discriminatory power (area under curve 0.92) for identifying MDI <70, with 85% sensitivity (95% CI 0.58-0.96), 87% specificity (95% CI 0.81-0.92), 98% negative predictive value (95% CI 0.95-1), and 37% positive predictive value (95% CI 0.22-0.54). The PARCA-R has good concurrent validity and diagnostic utility for identifying cognitive delay in very-preterm infants at 2 years of age. It is useful for outcome measurement, developmental screening, and facilitating parental involvement at folow-up. [source]

    A Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Chitosan Composite as a New Sensor for Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Biological Samples

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 15 2010
    Ali Babaei
    Abstract A new chemically modified electrode is constructed based on multiwalled carbon nanotube/chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs-CHT/GCE) for simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACT) and mefenamic acid (MEF) in aqueous buffered media. The measurements were carried out by application of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) methods. Application of DPV method showed that the linear relationship between oxidation peak current and concentration of ACT and MEF were 1,,M to 145,,M, and 4,,M to 200,,M, respectively. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for detection of ACT and MEF in human serum, human urine and a pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results. [source]

    Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Selected Nitro-Compounds on Silver, Solid Silver Composite, and Solid Graphite Composite Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 3-5 2009
    Abstract Three different types of solid electrodes, namely silver electrode, silver composite electrode containing 20% (m/m) of silver powder, 20% (m/m) of graphite powder and 60% (m/m) of methacrylate resin and graphite composite electrode containing 30% (m/m) of graphite powder and 70% (m/m) of epoxy resin were tested for differential pulse voltammetric determination of selected genotoxic nitro-compounds using 2-nitronaphthalene, 6-nitroquinoline, and 5-nitrobenzimidazole as model compounds. It was found that all three electrodes can be used for the determination of micromolar concentrations of tested model substances, the limit of detection and other figures of merits being dependent both on the electrode used and the substance to be determined. [source]

    Multilayer Assembly of Hemoglobin and Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes/Chitosan Composite for Detecting Hydrogen Peroxide

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 19 2008
    Shihong Chen
    Abstract Chitosan (CS) was chosen for dispersing multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to form a stable CS-MWNTs composite, which was first coated on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode to provide a containing amino groups interface for assembling colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNPs), followed by the adsorption of hemoglobin (Hb). Repeating the assembly step of GNPs and Hb resulted in {Hb/GNPs}n multilayers. The assembly of GNPs onto CS-MWNTs composites was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The consecutive growth of {Hb/GNPs}n multilayers was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The resulting system brings a new platform for electrochemical devices by using the synergistic action of the electrocatalytic activity of GNPs and MWNTs. The resulting biosensor displays an excellent electrocatalytic activity and rapid response for hydrogen peroxide. The linear range for the determination of H2O2 was from 5.0×10,7 to 2.0×10,3 M with a detection limit of 2.1×10,7 M at 3, and a Michaelis,Menten constant KMapp value of 0.19,mM. [source]

    Microstructural Characteristics of an AZ91 Matrix-Glassy Carbon Particle Composite,

    Anita Olszówka-Myalska
    This paper presents the results of a microstructural investigation of a new type of ultralight glassy carbon particles (Cp)-AZ91 magnesium alloy matrix composite manufactured by the powder metallurgy method. Glassy Cp with unmodified surfaces and surfaces modified with SiO2 amorphous nanocoating were used in the experiment. The composite microstructure, with an emphasis given on the interface, was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), TEM, and HRTEM microscopy. Uniform distribution of the particles in the matrix and their good bonding with the metal matrix were observed. A continuous very thin MgO oxide layer containing needle-like Al2MgO4 phase was detected at the glassy carbon,AZ91 interface. An increase of aluminum concentration at the interface as a result of Mg and Al diffusion into the SiO2 nanolayer was observed in the case of particles modified with SiO2. Crystalline phases containing carbon were not detected at the interface. [source]

    Dielectric Properties of a Printed Sol,Gel Matrix Composite,

    Tobias Lehnert
    Low temperature processable materials with high dielectric constants are required for application on flexible organic substrates, for example, in printed electronics. To date, mainly organic polymers with embedded functional particles have been investigated for this purpose. For the first time, we present a printable dielectric composite material composed of ferroelectric high permittivity particles (BaTiO3) bonded by a mainly inorganic sol,gel derived network. The exemplary optimization of the properties by varying the sol,gel precursor illustrates the potential of sol,gel chemistry for printable functional materials. An operational gravure printed capacitor including printed silver electrodes is presented. The measured dielectric constants are among the highest reported in literature for low temperature cured films with moderate dissipation factors. Besides these promising dielectric properties, this composite film shows a ferroelectric response. [source]

    Novel TRIP-Steel/Mg-PSZ Composite,Open Cell Foam Structures for Energy Absorption

    Christos G. Aneziris
    Porous materials have received extensive attention for energy absorption in the last years. In terms of this study austenitic TRIP-steel/Mg-PSZ composite,open cell foam structures are formed based on replicas using open-celled polyurethane foam as a skeleton with and without a supporting dense face (jacket) coating. Their compression strength as well as their specific energy absorption SEA has been registered as a function of the compressive strain. The zirconia addition has reinforced the composite material with the face coating up to a compressive strain of 50%. The stress-induced martensitic transformation of partially stabilized zirconia phases has been investigated as a function of the compressive strain by EBSD. The zirconia phase transformation is triggered already at low compressive strains below 2%. [source]

    Effects of additional and extended acid etching on bonding to caries-affected dentine

    César Augusto Galvăo Arrais
    This study evaluated the effects of additional and extended acid etching on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of two adhesive systems to sound (SD) and caries-affected dentine (CAD). Flat surfaces of CAD surrounded by SD of 36 extracted carious third molars were assigned to four treatments (i): self-etching adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond) applied to dentine surfaces following manufacturer's instructions (MI); (ii) after additional etching for 15 s (35% phosphoric acid, PA); (iii) total-etch one-bottle adhesive (Single Bond) applied to dentine surfaces following MI; or (iv), after etching for 45 s with PA. Composite ,blocks' were built on bonded surfaces and restored teeth were vertically sectioned to obtain bonded slices of 0.7 mm thick. Slices were trimmed to create hourglass-shaped specimens (cross-sectional area of 1 mm2), which were tested under tension in a universal testing machine. Additional CAD and SD samples were prepared for scanning electron microscopy observations. Additional and extended etching significantly increased µTBS to CAD; however, µTBS of both adhesives to CAD were significantly lower than to SD. Additional and extended etching can improve bonding to CAD; however, adhesives applied on SD showed the best results for bonding. [source]

    Reconstruction of a Rabbit Ulna Bone Defect Using Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and a PLA/, -TCP Composite by a Novel Sintering Method,

    Youngmee Jung
    We developed PLA/, -TCP composites with a novel sintering method in order to enhance cellular interaction with matrices for bone regeneration. Thereafter, we confirmed the superior bone-forming characteristics of PLA/, -TCP cell-composite constructs resulting from greater surface exposure of the , -TCP particles, which may yield higher osteogenic and osteoconductive properties. [source]

    Physical and Biological Properties of a Novel Hydrogel Composite Based on Oxidized Alginate, Gelatin and Tricalcium Phosphate for Bone Tissue Engineering,

    K. Cai
    A novel hydrogel composite is reported in this study, which was derived from oxidized alginate, gelatin and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). The physical and biological properties of these hydrogel composites prepared with oxidized sodium alginate with different oxidation degrees were investigated. The drug delivery potential of this hydrogel composite as a carrier was evaluated by using Vitamin B2 as a model drug as well. An in vitro investigation with encapsulation of osteoblast revealed that these composites were biocompatible. This hydrogel composite presented here may be utilized for the fabrication of potential injectable systems for tissue engineering, drug delivery and other medical applications. [source]

    Martensite Formation in a Ductile Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 Bulk Metallic Glass Composite,

    S. Pauly
    A Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 alloy was solidified into rods of 2, 3 and 5 mm diameter and the microstructures as well as the elastic and plastic properties were investigated along the length of each rod. It was found that neither the microstructure nor the mechanical properties vary significantly along the length of the specimens, except for the 5 mm diameter rod where the top part was proved to be fully crystalline containing cubic B2 CuZr (austenite) and monoclinic CuZr (martensite) phases. The differently solidified alloys show high strength and a distinct deformability under uniaxial compression and a work hardening-like behavior. [source]

    Biomimetic Formation of Hydroxyapatite/collagen Matrix Composite

    Y. Wang
    A composite of collagen (COL) and hydroxyapatite(HA) was prepared using a biomimetic approach, which performs a direct nucleation of HA on self- assembled collagen matrix. This research may be helpful to understand the possible mechanisms for collagen-mediated mineralization in general and the COL/HCA composite can be considered a new particularly attractive material for human bone tissue implantation. [source]

    Thermal Shock Damage of a 3D-SiC/SiC Composite,

    S. Wu
    Thermal shock of a three-dimensional (3D) SiC/SiC composite prepared by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process was conducted using water quenched method. Thermal shock damage of the composite was assessed by SEM characterization and measurement mechanical properties using three-point flexure after quenching. After quenched from 1200°C to 25°C water for 100 cycles, the composite retained 80% of the original flexural strength in the longitudinal direction while cracked through the width direction. Thermal shock damage of the composite was analyzed by thermal stress analysis based on the braiding structure of the composite as well as the distribution and shape of flaws referred to residual pores in the matrix. The braided structure and the dimension difference resulted in the anisotropy of mechanical properties and the matrix pores configuration of the composite, which led to the thermal shock damage anisotropy of the composite. [source]

    Synthesis and Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of In-situ Al-based Composite Reinforced with Submicron TiB2 and TiC Particulates,

    S.C. Tjong
    Low cycle fatigue behavior of in-situ aluminum based composite reinforced with submicron TiB2 and TiC particulates was investigated. This novel composite was prepared from the TiO2 -Al-B-C system via reactive hot pressing. The incorporation of carbon into such a system induces the formation of TiC particulate at the expense of brittle Al3Ti phase. The influence of submicron particulate formation on the tensile and fatigue properties of the composite is discussed. [source]

    Microstructure and Properties of an HfB2 -SiC Composite for Ultra High Temperature Applications,

    F. Monteverde
    An ultra-high-temperature ceramic (UHTC) based on HfB2 was produced. The microstructure consisted of fine and regular diboride grains (2 ,m average size), with SiC particulate distributed intergranularly, not rarely in clustered formation, and low levels of secondary phases were identified. The resulting thermo-mechanical properties proved interesting results for microhardness and fracture toughness. The microstructural alteration experienced within the explored temperature range renders the material unsuitable for service in extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. [source]

    Nanoporous Composites: A Three-Dimensional Gold-Decorated Nanoporous Copper Core,Shell Composite for Electrocatalysis and Nonenzymatic Biosensing (Adv. Funct.

    M. W. Chen and co-workers present a novel gold-decorated nanoporous copper (Au@NPC) core,shell composite on page 2279. Thin gold shells with controllable thickness are homogeneously deposited onto the internal surfaces of 3D NPC via a spontaneous displacement reaction while NPC is utilized as a reduction agent as well as template and substrate. The inexpensive core shell nanostructure exhibits significant electrocatalytic activity for oxidation methanol and high nonenzymatic sensitivity in detecting glucose. [source]

    A Three-Dimensional Gold-Decorated Nanoporous Copper Core,Shell Composite for Electrocatalysis and Nonenzymatic Biosensing

    L.Y. Chen
    Abstract Bimetallic core,shell nanostructures have attracted increasing attention due to their low material costs along with enhanced chemico-physical properties in comparison with their monometallic counterparts. Here, a novel gold-decorated nanoporous copper (Au@NPC) core,shell composite fabricated by a facile in situ hydrometallurgy approach is reported. Thin gold shells with a controllable thickness are homogeneously deposited onto the internal surfaces of 3D nanoporous copper via a spontaneous displacement reaction while nanoporous copper is utilized as a reduction agent as well as 3D template and substrate. The resulting inexpensive core,shell nanostructure exhibits significant electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol and high non-enzymatic sensitivity in detecting glucose. [source]

    In Situ Growth of Mesoporous SnO2 on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: A Novel Composite with Porous-Tube Structure as Anode for Lithium Batteries,

    Z. Wen
    Abstract A novel mesoporous-nanotube hybrid composite, namely mesoporous tin dioxide (SnO2) overlaying on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), was prepared by a simple method that included in situ growth of mesoporous SnO2 on the surface of MWCNTs through hydrothermal method utilizing Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as structure-directing agents. Nitrogen adsorption,desorption, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis techniques were used to characterize the samples. It was observed that a thin layer tetragonal SnO2 with a disordered porous was embedded on the surface of MWCNTs, which resulted in the formation of a novel mesoporous-nanotube hybrid composite. On the base of TEM analysis of products from controlled experiment, a possible mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the mesoporous-nanotube structure. The electrochemical properties of the samples as anode materials for lithium batteries were studied by cyclic voltammograms and Galvanostatic method. Results showed that the mesoporous-tube hybrid composites displayed higher capacity and better cycle performance in comparison with the mesoporous tin dioxide. It was concluded that such a large improvement of electrochemical performance within the hybrid composites may in general be related to mesoporous-tube structure that possess properties such as one-dimensional hollow structure, high-strength with flexibility, excellent electric conductivity and large surface area. [source]

    A Tin-Based Amorphous Oxide Composite with a Porous, Spherical, Multideck-Cage Morphology as a Highly Reversible Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 35 2009
    Yan Yu
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Micropatterned Carbon Nanotube,Gel Composite as Photothermal Material

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 27 2009
    Eijiro Miyako
    Micropatterned carbon nanotube (CNT),gel composites are prepared using a new and simple method. A micropatterned CNT,gel composite is capable of fast thermal control in microspaces of this composite by an NIR laser. [source]

    Fabrication of Crack-Free C12A7 Nano-Ceramics Composite from Eutectic Glass in the C12A7,CaYAlO4 System

    Naonori Sakamoto
    Crack formation in the C12A7 nano-composite during crystallization was successfully avoided by using the eutectic glass in the C12A7,CaYAlO4 system. The crystal phases from the eutectic glass were identified to be C12A7 (major phase) and CaYAlO4 (minor phase) by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. It was indicated that origin of cracks upon crystallization of C12A7 glass was the volume expansion caused by crystallization of C12A7 in the glass and the cracking could be avoided by the volume shrinkage by crystallization of CaYAlO4. By using a conventional molding technique, we have also succeeded to fabricate a bulk C12A7 composite with arbitrary shapes. [source]

    Sea Urchin Tooth Design: An "All-Calcite" Polycrystalline Reinforced Fiber Composite for Grinding Rocks,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 8 2008
    Yurong Ma
    A convenient tooth. Here we investigate how the different kinds of calcite crystals in a sea urchin tooth (left) work together as an effective grinding tool. The polycrystalline matrix has a higher elastic modulus and hardness than the single crystals, yet both work together to produce a flat grinding surface (right). [source]

    A Tin-Based Amorphous Oxide Composite with a Porous, Spherical, Multideck-Cage Morphology as a Highly Reversible Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 7 2007
    Y. Yu
    Thin-film anodes for Li-ion batteries prepared by using electrostatic spray deposition are reported. They consist of a tin-based amorphous oxide composite with a porous, spherical, multideck-cage morphology (see figure). The electrochemical properties of the thin-film electrodes are shown to be improved significantly by introducing Li2O and CuO, the ternary Li2O,CuO,SnO2 electrode being demonstrated to exhibit the best performance. [source]

    A Novel Percolative Ferromagnetic,Ferroelectric Composite with Significant Dielectric and Magnetic Properties,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 3 2007
    Q. Huang
    A series of BaTiO3,Ni0.55Zn0.45Fe2.03O4composites are synthesized. The composites exhibit excellent dielectric and magnetic properties in the neighborhood of the percolation threshold,a high dielectric constant that is nearly temperature and frequency independent (see figure),and considerable initial permeability with excellent frequency stability, and may be useful as a high-performance multifunction ceramic composite. [source]

    Modeling and synthesis of the interdigital/stub composite right/left-handed artificial transmission line

    R. Siragusa
    Abstract An efficient design procedure, including both analysis and synthesis, is proposed for Composite Right/Left Handed (CRLH) interdigital/stub structures. Improved models are developed for both the interdigital capacitor and the shorted stub inductor including its ground via hole. Subsequent optimal formulas are recommended to model these components with their parasitic effects. The models and formulas are verified by both full-wave and experimental results. A CAD program with a friendly GUI, available online, is provided and its operation is described in details. This program allows a very fast design of the CRLH structure, and its synthesis parameters are proven very accurate without any full-wave optimization. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE, 2009. [source]

    Composite right/left handed artificial transmission line structures in CMOS for controlled insertion phase at 30 GHz

    Symon K. Podilchak
    Abstract Two CMOS integrated circuits are presented that utilize metamaterial composite right/left handed (CRLH) transmission lines (TLs) for zero insertion phase at 30 GHz. Specifically, 2 and 3 unit cell structures are presented with controlled insertion phase that is achieved by cascading lumped element capacitors and spiral inductors in an LC network configuration defining the TL unit cells. Furthermore, the fixed TL structures suggest the possibility of zero, advanced or delayed insertion phases by element variation, or by the use of simple active components. Simulation and measured results are in good agreement with CRLH TL theory, and display a linear insertion phase and flat group delay values that are dependent on the number of unit cells with an insertion loss of ,0.8 dB per cell. These findings suggest that such high speed CRLH TLs structures can be implemented for linear array feeding networks and compact antenna designs in CMOS at millimeter wave frequencies. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE, 2009. [source]

    Synthesis of Rhodium Colloidal Nano-Coating Grafted Mesoporous Silica Composite and its Application as Efficient Environmentally Benign Catalyst for Heck-Type Reaction of Arylboronic Acids

    Liang Li
    Abstract The synthesis and characterization of rhodium colloidal layer grafted mesoporous SBA-15 material, designated as SBA-Rh, are presented. In the preparation of this new catalyst, SBA-15 mesoporous material was used as support without any pretreatment. The SiH functional groups were introduced onto the surface which resulted in highly dispersed metal colloid layer both on the outer and inner surface of the supporting material. The material was investigated for Heck-type coupling reactions of alkenes with ayboronic in organic/water solvent. The ultrahigh specific area, large pore opening, and highly dispersed catalyst species in SBA-Rh material created one of the most active heterogeneous catalysts for such reactions. Rhodium element was not detected in the final mixture by ICP after reaction. The catalyst species showed very high stability against leaching from the matrix and can be recycled for repeated use. [source]

    Measuring Physical and Social Environments in Nursing Homes for People with Middle- to Late-Stage Dementia

    MSc(A), Susan Slaughter RN
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate measures of dementia care environments by comparing a special care facility (SCF) with traditional institutional facilities (TIFs). DESIGN: A cross-sectional comparative study of nursing home environments conducted as part of a longitudinal study on quality of life for residents with dementia. SETTING: Twenty-four traditional nursing homes and one special care facility. PARTICIPANTS: One SCF with six distinct environments, 24 TIFs with 45 distinct environments, and 88 family members. MEASUREMENTS: Therapeutic Environment Screening Scale,2+ (TESS-2+); Special Care Unit Environmental Quality Scale (SCUEQS), a subset of the TESS-2+ items; Composite Above Average Quality Score (CAAQS), a composite score of all items on the TESS-2+; and Models of Care Instrument (MOCI). RESULTS: The SCUEQS did not detect a significant difference between the SCF and the TIFs (30.0 vs 27.2, P=.28). The CAAQS detected a significant difference between the SCF and the TIFs, whereby the SCF environments were rated as having above-average quality in 71.4% of the domains, compared with 57.3% for the TIF environments (95% confidence interval (CI) for difference=2.6,25.6%, P=.02). Using the MOCI, SCF families were 1.8 times as likely to rate the SCF as a home or resort versus a hospital as TIF families rating TIFs (95% CI for odds ratio=1.5,2.1, P<.001). CONCLUSION: The TESS-2+ CAAQS differentiated between physical environments better than the more established SCUQES. The MOCI distinguished between environments using a more holistic approach to measurement. The availability of environmental measures that are able to discriminate between specialized and traditional long-term care settings will facilitate future outcome-based research. [source]

    Healing process induced by three composite prostheses in the repair of abdominal wall defects

    Juan M. Bellón
    Abstract The present study compared the performance of three composite prostheses used to repair abdominal wall defects in rabbits. Two of them [Parietex Composite® (PC) and Composix® (CS)] are commonly used in clinical practice and one was designed by the present team (PL-PU99). At 14 and 90 days postimplant, specimens were obtained for morphological, macrophage response (RAM-11) and morphometric and biomechanical analysis. The prosthetic area covered by adhesions was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the CS group (6.83 ± 2.31 cm2) than in PC (0.11 ± 0.02 cm2) or PL-PU99 (0.10 ± 0.07 cm2). At 14 days, it was observed a homogeneous, organized, well-vascularized neoperitoneum that was significantly thicker (p < 0.05) in PL-PU99. Except in the CS implants, this layer was covered by a continuous mesothelium. All three composites achieved good recipient tissue integration. Highest macrophage levels were recorded at 14 days with significantly higher values in the PL-PU99 prosthesis. Biomechanical strength was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in CS at two weeks postimplant, but it was similar at 90 days. These findings suggest that the three composites show ideal integration with host tissue, along with similar biomechanical strength at 90 days, and significantly higher adhesion formation is induced by the CS prosthesis, possibly due to incomplete mesothelialization of the lower prosthetic surface. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 63: 182,190, 2002; DOI 10.002/jbm.10123 [source]