Accompanying Commentary (accompanying + commentary)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Regulatory T cells and immune computation

Francisco J. Quintana Dr.
Abstract The role of Treg in immune regulation is the topic of this Viewpoint series in the European Journal of Immunology (EJI); the question to be discussed in this section is the effector function of Treg in immune regulation. In this manuscript, we take on the following three postulates outlined by Rolf Zinkernagel on the role of Treg in the control of immunity. First, the immune response is regulated primarily by the antigen and not by Treg. Second, immune non-responsiveness results from the deletion of specific receptor-bearing T cells. Third, there is no definitive proof of the existence of specialized Treg that know what is needed for an equilibrated immune response. Herein, we discuss data demonstrating the existence of specialized Treg and therefore arguing against the validity of the first two postulates. However, based on the reactive nature of the immune system, we agree with Rolf's third postulate in that Treg cannot know ahead of time an ideal set-point for immune homeostasis. See accompanying commentary: [source]

How many mechanisms do regulatory T cells need?

Dario Vignali Dr.
Abstract A plethora of new regulatory T cell (Treg) mechanisms have recently emerged. This raises two important questions. First, how many molecules or mechanisms are required for Treg to work? Second, how should we evaluate the contribution of any given Treg molecule/mechanism and how is this likely to relate (or not) to the phenotype seen in Scurfy/Foxp3-deficient mice? In this discussion piece, I will briefly outline our current understanding of the Treg arsenal and address these important questions. See accompanying commentary: [source]

Osteopontin is produced by mast cells and affects IgE-mediated degranulation and migration of mast cells

Akiko Nagasaka
Abstract Osteopontin (OPN), originally discovered in bone as an extracellular matrix protein, was identified in many cell types in the immune system, presumably being involved in many aspects of pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune diseases. Mast cells are also involved in such pathological aspects by secreting multiple mediators. However, it has not been determined whether mast cells produce OPN and whether it affects their function. To test this, we used murine fetal skin-derived cultured mast cells (FSMC) and bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells. We found that OPN was spontaneously produced by FSMC and inducible by ionomycin and Fc,RI aggregation in bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells. In the presence of mast cell growth factors, FSMC were similarly generated from both OPN-deficient (OPN,/,) and -sufficient (OPN+/+) mice without significant differences in yield, purity, granularity, and viability. Using OPN,/, FSMC, we found that recombinant OPN augmented IgE-mediated degranulation and induced FSMC chemotaxis. Both effects were mediated by OPN receptors (i.e. CD44 and integrin,,v). IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was significantly reduced in OPN,/, mice compared with OPN+/+ mice, indicating physiological relevance of OPN. These results indicate that OPN is a mast cell mediator, enhances mast cell responses to antigen, and thus may influence mast cell-related pathological conditions. See accompanying commentary at [source]

CD303 (BDCA-2) signals in plasmacytoid dendritic cells via a BCR-like signalosome involving Syk, Slp65 and PLC,2

Jürgen Röck
Abstract Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are the main type,I interferon (IFN-I) producers and play a central role in innate and adaptive immunity. CD303 (BDCA-2) is a type,II c-type lectin specifically expressed by human PDC. CD303 signaling induces tyrosine phosphorylation and Src kinase dependent calcium influx. Cross-linking CD303 results in the inhibition of IFN-I production in stimulated PDC. Here, we demonstrate that PDC express a signalosome similar to the BCR signalosome, consisting of Lyn, Syk, Btk, Slp65 (Blnk) and PLC,2. CD303 associates with the signaling adapter FcR ,-chain. Triggering CD303 leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, Slp65, PLC,2 and cytoskeletal proteins. Analogous to BCR signaling, CD303 signaling is likely linked with its internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, CD303 signaling leads to reduced levels of transcripts for IFN-I genes and IFN-I-responsive genes, indicating that the inhibition of IFN-I production by stimulated PDC is at least partially regulated at the transcriptional level. These results support a possible therapeutic value of an anti-CD303 mAb strategy, since the production of IFN-I by PDC is considered to be a major pathophysiological factor in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. See accompanying commentary at [source]

IL-23 and the Th17 pathway promote inflammation and impair antifungal immune resistance

Teresa Zelante
Abstract Although inflammation is an essential component of the protective response to fungi, its dysregulation may significantly worsen fungal diseases. We found here that the IL-23/IL-17 developmental pathway acted as a negative regulator of the Th1-mediated immune resistance to fungi and played an inflammatory role previously attributed to uncontrolled Th1 cell responses. Both inflammation and infection were exacerbated by a heightened Th17 response against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, two major human fungal pathogens. IL-23 acted as a molecular connection between uncontrolled fungal growth and inflammation, being produced by dendritic cells in response to a high fungal burden and counter-regulating IL-12p70 production. Both IL-23 and IL-17 subverted the inflammatory program of neutrophils, which resulted in severe tissue inflammatory pathology associated with infection. Our data are the first demonstrating that the IL-23/IL-17 pathway promotes inflammation and susceptibility in an infectious disease model. As IL-23-driven inflammation promotes infection and impairs antifungal resistance, modulation of the inflammatory response represents a potential strategy to stimulate protective immune responses to fungi. See accompanying commentary: [source]

Redefining epithelial progenitor potential in the developing thymus

Abstract Cortical and medullary epithelium represent specialised cell types that play key roles in thymocyte development, including positive and negative selection of the T cell repertoire. While recent evidence shows that these epithelial lineages share a common embryonic origin, the phenotype and possible persistence of such progenitor cells in the thymus at later stages of development remain controversial. Through use of a panel of reagents including the putative progenitor marker Mts24, we set out to redefine the stages in the development of thymic epithelium. In the early embryonic day (E)12 thymus anlagen we find that almost all epithelial cells are uniformly positive for Mts24 expression. In addition, while the thymus at later stages of development was found to contain distinct Mts24+ and Mts24, epithelial subsets, thymus grafting experiments show that both Mts24+ and Mts24, epithelial subsets share the ability to form organised cortical and medullary thymic microenvironments that support T cell development, a function shown previously to be lost in the Mts24, cells by E15 when lower cell doses were used. Our data help to clarify stages in thymic epithelial development and provide important information in relation to currently used markers of epithelial progenitors. See accompanying commentary: [source]

Germ-line and rearranged Tcrd transcription distinguish bona fide NK cells and NK-like ,,,T cells

Abstract NK cells and ,,,T cells are distinct subsets of lymphocytes that contextually share multiple phenotypic and functional characteristics. However, the acquisition and the extent of these similarities remain poorly understood. Here, using T cell receptor ,,locus-histone,2B-enhanced GFP (Tcrd-H2BEGFP) reporter mice, we show that germ-line transcription of Tcrd occurs in all maturing NK cells. We also describe a population of mouse NK-like cells that are indistinguishable from "bona fide" NK cells using standard protocols. Requirements for V(D)J recombination and a functional thymus, along with very low-level expression of surface TCR,, but high intracellular CD3, define these cells as ,,,T cells. "NK-like ,,,T cells" are CD127+, have a memory-activated phenotype, express multiple NK cell receptors and readily produce interferon-, in response to IL-12/IL-18 stimulation. The close phenotypic resemblance between NK cells and NK-like ,,,T cells is a source of experimental ambiguity in studies bridging NK and T cell biology, such as those on thymic NK cell development. Instead, it ascribes chronic TCR,, engagement as a means of acquiring NK-like function. See accompanying commentary: at [source]

Vaccinia virus impairs directional migration and chemokine receptor switch of human dendritic cells


Abstract A crucial event for the induction of an anti-viral immune response is the coordinated, phenotype-dependent migration of dendritic cells (DC) to sites of infection and secondary lymphoid organs. Here we show that the vaccinia virus (VV) strains Western Reserve (WR) and modified virus Ankara (MVA) inhibit directional migration of mature DC toward the lymphoid chemokines CCL19 and CXCL12 without affecting surface expression of the respective chemokine receptors or impairing undirected cellular locomotion. Instead, infection with VV results in a deficiency of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and a disturbance of intracellular calcium mobilization, indicating a viral interference with signaling events downstream of the surface chemokine receptors. In immature DC, apart from inhibiting chemokine-induced migration of infected DC, infection with both VV strains increases expression of the inflammatory chemokine receptors CCR1 and CXCR1 on non-infected bystander DC, which depends on the activity of IFN-,. Although functional, these chemokine receptors are resistant to lipopolysaccharide-induced down-regulation. In addition, VV-infected and non-infected bystander DC fail to up-regulate the lymphoid chemokine receptor CCR7 upon activation, together pointing to a disability to undergo the chemokine receptor switch. This study shows that VV targets directional migration of professional antigen-presenting cells at multiple functional levels, revealing a potent viral strategy of immune escape. See accompanying commentary: [source]

DNA vaccine encoding endosome-targeted human papillomavirus type,16 E7,protein generates CD4+ T cell-dependent protection

Jean-Marc Brulet
Abstract Human papillomavirus type,16 is commonly implicated in cervical cancers. The viral genome encodes potential targets like the oncoprotein,E7, expressed in transformed cells but thought to represent a poorly immunogenic antigen. We describe in this work a DNA-based vaccination protocol aimed at inducing an efficient anti-E7 immune response in vivo. Plasmids allowing the expression of the E7,protein in distinct cellular compartments were generated and assayed in an in vivo model of tumor growth. Our data demonstrate that mice vaccinated with a plasmid encoding for an E7,protein fused to a domain of the MHC class,II-associated invariant chain (IiE7) were protected against tumor challenge. Mice immunized against an ubiquitinated form of E7 (Ub(Ala)E7) failed to control tumor growth. Protection induced by IiE7 was correlated with the development of CD8+ CTL and required the presence of CD4+ cells. In vitro studies confirmed that the IiE7 fusion protein was expressed at high levels in the endosomal compartment of transfected cells, while the natural and the ubiquitin-modified form of E7 were mainly nuclear. The present study suggests that an efficient anti-tumor response can be induced in vivo by DNA constructs encoding for E7,protein forms localizing at the endosomal compartment. See accompanying commentary: [source]

Involvement of leptin signaling in the survival and maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells

Kwan Lam, Queenie
Abstract Previous studies demonstrated that lymphocyte development is impaired in leptin receptor (Ob - R)-deficient db/db mice. However, it remains unclear whether or not leptin signaling plays a physiological role in dendritic cell (DC) development and function. In this study, we first detected Ob-R expression in murine DC. Using db/db mice at a pre-diabetic stage, we demonstrate that the total number of DC generated from bone marrow (BM) cultures is significantly lower than in WT controls. Similarly, selective blockade of leptin with a soluble mouse Ob-R chimera (Ob-R:Fc) inhibited DC generation in wild-type BM cultures. The reduced DC yield in db/db BM culture was attributed to significantly increased apoptosis, which was associated with dysregulated expression of Bcl-2 family genes. Moreover, db/db DC displayed markedly reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and a Th2-type cytokine profile, with a poor capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation. Consistent with their impaired DC phenotype and function, db/db DC showed significantly down-regulated activities of the PI3K/Akt pathway as well as STAT-3 and I,B-,. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the involvement of leptin signaling in DC survival and maturation. See accompanying commentary: [source]

Neutralization of IL-17 by active vaccination inhibits IL-23-dependent autoimmune myocarditis

Ivo Sonderegger
Abstract The most common reason for heart failure in young adults is dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting from myocarditis. Clinical studies and animal models provide evidence that an autoimmune response against heart myosin is the underlying reason for the disease. IL-12 has been suggested to play a key role in development of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), as IL-12p40 and IL-12R,1 knockouts are protected from disease. In this study, we have compared IL-12p40,/, mice, IL-12p35,/, mice and mice treated with a neutralizing IL-23 antibody in EAM and found that in fact IL-23, not IL-12, is responsible for inflammatory heart disease. However, these cytokines appear to have redundant activity for priming and expansion of autoreactive CD4 T cells, as specific T cell proliferation was only defective in the absence of both cytokines. IL-23 has been suggested to promote a pathogenic IL-17-producing T cell population. We targeted IL-17 by capitalizing on an active vaccination approach that effectively breaks B cell tolerance. Neutralization of IL-17 reduced myocarditis and heart autoantibody responses, suggesting that IL-17 is the critical effector cytokine responsible for EAM. Thus, targeting of IL-23 and IL-17 by passive and active vaccination strategies holds promise as a therapeutic approach to treat patients at risk for development of dilated cardiomyopathy. See accompanying commentary: [source]

Interaction between the CCR5 chemokine receptors and microbial HSP70

Trevor Whittall
Abstract Evidence is presented that the microbial 70-kD heat shock protein (HSP70) binds to CCR5 chemokine receptors in CCR5-transfected cell lines and in primary human cells. Significant CCR5-mediated calcium mobilization was stimulated by HSP70 and inhibited with TAK,779, which is a specific CCR5 antagonist. HSP70-mediated activation of the p38 MAPK phosphorylation signaling pathway was also demonstrated in CCR5-transfected HEK 293 cells. Direct binding of three extracellular peptides of CCR5 to HSP70 was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. Functional evidence of an interaction between HSP70, CCR5 and CD40 was shown by enhanced production of CCL5 by HEK 293 cells transfected with both CD40 and CCR5. Primary monocyte-derived immature DC stimulated with HSP70 produced IL-12 p40, which showed dose-dependent inhibition of >90% on treatment with both TAK 779 and anti-CD40 mAb. Stimulation of IL-12 p40 or TNF-, by HSP70 was related to the differential cell surface expression of CCR5 in primary human immature and mature DC, and those with the homozygous ,,32 CCR5 mutation. These findings may be of significance in the interaction between HSP70 and immune responses of CCR5+ T cells in HIV-1 infection, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease. See accompanying commentary: [source]

Breakpoints in immunoregulation required for Th1 cells to induce diabetes

Margaret Neighbors
Abstract We describe a novel TCR-transgenic mouse line, TCR7, where MHC class,II-restricted, CD4+ T cells are specific for the subdominant H-2b epitope (HEL74,88) of hen egg lysozyme (HEL), and displayed an increased frequency in the thymus and in peripheral lymphoid compartments over that seen in non-transgenic littermate controls. CD4+ T cells responded vigorously to HEL or HEL74,88 epitope presented on APC and could develop into Th1 or Th2 cells under appropriate conditions. Adoptive transfer of TCR7 Ly5.1 T cells into Ly5.2 rat insulin promoter (RIP)-HEL transgenic recipient hosts did not lead to expansion of these cells or result in islet infiltration, although these TCR7 cells could expand upon transfer into mice expressing high levels of HEL in the serum. Islet cell infiltration only occurred when the TCR7 cells had been polarized to either a Th1 or Th2 phenotype prior to transfer, which led to insulitis. Progression from insulitis to autoimmune diabetes only occurred in these recipients when Th1 but not Th2 TCR7 cells were transferred and CTLA-4 signaling was simultaneously blocked. These findings show that regulatory pathways such as CTLA-4 can hold in check already differentiated autoreactive effector Th1 cells, to inhibit the transition from tolerance to autoimmune diabetes. See accompanying commentary at [source]

The chemokine receptor CCX-CKR mediates effective scavenging of CCL19 in vitro

Iain Comerford
Abstract The chemokines CCL19, CCL21 and CCL25, by signalling through the receptors CCR7 or CCR9, play critical roles in leukocyte homing. They also bind another heptahelical surface protein, CCX-CKR. CCX-CKR cannot couple to typical chemokine receptor signalling pathways or mediate chemotaxis, and its function remains unclear. We have proposed that it controls chemokine bioavailability. Here, using transfected HEK293 cells, we have shown that both CCX-CKR and CCR7 mediate rapid CCL19 internalisation upon initial chemokine exposure. However, internalised CCL19 was more efficiently retained and degraded after uptake via CCX-CKR. More importantly, CCR7 rapidly became refractory for CCL19 uptake, but the sequestration activity of CCX-CKR was enhanced. These properties endowed CCX-CKR with an impressive ability to mediate progressive sequestration and degradation of large quantities of CCL19, and conversely, prevented CCR7-expressing cells from extensively altering their chemokine environment. These differences may be linked to the routes of endocytosis used by these receptors. CCX-CKR, unlike CCR7, was not critically dependent on ,-arrestins or clathrin-coated pits. However, over-expression of caveolin-1, which stabilises caveolae, blocked CCL19 uptake by CCX-CKR while having no impact on other chemokine receptors, including CCR7. These data predict that CCX-CKR scavenges extracellular chemokines in vivo to modify responses through CCR7. See accompanying commentary: [source]

Intranasal immunisation with inactivated RSV and bacterial adjuvants induces mucosal protection and abrogates eosinophilia upon challenge

Nathalie Etchart
Abstract We have previously shown that following intranasal exposure to influenza virus, specific plasma cells are generated in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and maintained for the life of the animal. However, we also showed that following infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), specific plasma cells are generated in the NALT but wane quickly and are not maintained even after challenge, even though RSV-specific serum antibody responses remain robust. Only infection with influenza virus generated sterilising immunity, implying a role for these long-lived plasma cells in protection. We show here that the RSV-specific IgA NALT plasma cell population and lung antibody levels can be substantially boosted, both at acute and memory time points, by intranasal immunisation with inactivated RSV (iRSV) in combination with bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV) compared to live RSV alone. Finally, challenge with live RSV showed that immunisation with iRSV and OMV protect against both virus replication in the lung and the eosinophil infiltrate generated by either live RSV or iRSV alone. These data show that immunisation with iRSV and OMV maintains a NALT RSV-specific plasma cell population and generates an efficient protective immune response following RSV infection. See accompanying commentary: [source]

The treatment of 65 women with imperforate hymen by a central incision and application of Foley catheter and accompanying commentary

UI Esen
No abstract is available for this article. [source]