Community Organizations (community + organization)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Community organization and species richness of ants (Hymenoptera/Formicidae) in Mongolia along an ecological gradient from steppe to Gobi desert

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 12 2003
Martin Pfeiffer
Abstract Aim, Ants (Hymenoptera/Formicidae) have strong influences on ecosystems especially in arid regions. However, little is known about ants of the vast steppe and desert regions of Central Asia. Here we provide the first comprehensive study of ant communities in Mongolia, conducted along a north-to-south gradient in climate. We examined ants' distribution patterns, assessed the impact of climatic parameters on community structure and species diversity and investigated the influence of the corresponding communities of plants. Location, Mongolia (Central Asia). Methods, We observed 31,956 ants at seed baits at 11 study sites along a transect from steppe to Gobi desert for which we attained meteorological data (mean yearly precipitation: 197 to 84 mm). Extra sampling was conducted at sugar and protein baits and by the inspection of different microhabitats. Vegetation patterns of each plot were recorded. Statistical evaluation comprised ordination and correlation. Results, We observed 15 species of ants at seed baits. Three faunal complexes of ants could be distinguished by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA): (1) in steppe baits were dominated by Formica - and Myrmica -species, (2) in semi desert we found mostly species of Tetramorium, Myrmica, Proformica, Plagiolepis, and Leptothorax, and (3) in desert Cataglyphis aenescens and Messor aciculatus dominated, and Lasius was exclusively found there. Another 11 rare ant species were sampled by hand and at sugar baits. Altogether five ant species were new to the Mongolian fauna: Cardiocondyla koshewnikovi, Myrmica koreana, Myrmica pisarskii, Polyergus nigerrimus, and Proformica kaszabi. Assignment of taxa to functional groups showed that in steppe cold climate specialists dominated, in semi desert we found mainly opportunists, and in desert hot climate specialists. Several functional groups know from arid zones in other parts of the world were missing. In desert certain species were highly dominant. First DCA scores of ant- and plant-communities were highly correlated with each other and with climatic parameters. While plant species diversity was positively correlated with increasing northern latitude, ant diversity and ant species richness were not correlated with latitude and responded neither to precipitation, nor to any other climatic parameter. Semi desert was a transition zone between steppe and desert, with high species richness. Ant genus composition of the ecotone overlapped with both other regions. However, beta diversity between pairs of plots within this zone was low, indicating a small-scale mosaic pattern. Main conclusions, The ant communities in the Mongolian steppe and desert zones were strongly influenced by low temperatures and differed in many aspects from the ant fauna in other arid ecosystems, especially in terms of species richness, diversity of feeding guilds, and richness of functional groups. [source]


Conservation Alliances with Indigenous Peoples of the Amazon

CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
STEPHAN SCHWARTZMAN
The future of Amazonian indigenous reserves is of strategic importance for the fate of biodiversity in the region. We examined the legislation governing resource use on indigenous lands and summarize the history of the Kayapo people's consolidation of their >100,000 km2 territory. Like many Amazonian indigenous peoples, the Kayapo have halted the expansion of the agricultural frontier on their lands but allow selective logging and gold mining. Prospects for long-term conservation and sustainability in these lands depend on indigenous peoples' understandings of their resource base and on available economic alternatives. Although forest conservation is not guaranteed by either tenure security or indigenous knowledge, indigenous societies' relatively egalitarian common-property resource management regimes,along with adequate incentives and long-term partnerships with conservation organizations,can achieve this result. Successful initiatives include Conservation International's long-term project with the A'ukre Kayapo village and incipient large-scale territorial monitoring and control in the Kayapo territory, and the Instituto SocioAmbiental (ISA) 15-year partnership with the peoples of the Xingu Indigenous Park, with projects centered on territorial monitoring and control, education, community organization, and economic alternatives. The recent agreement on ecological restoration of the Xingu River headwaters between ranchers and private companies, indigenous peoples, and environmentalists, brokered by ISA, marks the emergence of an indigenous and conservation alliance of sufficient cohesiveness and legitimacy to negotiate effectively at a regional scale. Resumen:,Las alianzas actuales entre indígenas y organizaciones de conservación en el Amazonas Brasileño han ayudado a obtener el reconocimiento oficial de ,1 millón de km2 en áreas indígenas. El futuro del as reservas indígenas amazónicas es de importancia estratégica para el futuro de la biodiversidad en la región. Examinamos la legislación que rige a la utilización de recursos en zonas indígenas y sintetizamos la historia de la consolidación del territorio > 100,000 km2 de la etnia Kayapo. Como muchos grupos Amazónicos, los Kayapo han detenido la expansión de la frontera agrícola en sus tierras pero permiten actividades madereras y mineras selectivas. Las perspectivas de conservación y sustentabilidad a largo plazo en estas tierras dependen del entendimiento de su base de recursos y de las alternativas económicas disponibles por parte de los grupos indígenas. A pesar de que ni la seguridad en la posesión ni el conocimiento indígena garantizan la conservación de los bosques, los regímenes indígenas de gestión de recursos de propiedad común relativamente igualitarios en conjunto con incentivos adecuados y asociaciones con organizaciones de conservación pueden obtener este resultado. Iniciativas exitosas incluyen el proyecto a largo plazo de Conservation International con el pueblo A'ukre Kayapo y el incipiente monitoreo y control territorial a gran escala en el territorio Kayapo y la asociación durante 15 años del Instituto Socioambiental (ISA) con habitantes del Parque Indígena Xingu, con proyectos enfocados al monitoreo y control territorial, a la educación, a la organización comunitaria y a alternativas económicas. El reciente acuerdo, negociado por ISA, entre rancheros y compañías privadas, grupos indígenas y ambientalistas para la restauración ecológica del Río Xingu marca el surgimiento de una alianza indígena y de conservación con la cohesión y legitimidad suficientes para negociar efectivamente a escala regional. [source]


Co-occurrence of ectoparasites of marine fishes: a null model analysis

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 1 2002
Nicholas J. Gotelli
We used null model analysis to test for nonrandomness in the structure of metazoan ectoparasite communities of 45 species of marine fish. Host species consistently supported fewer parasite species combinations than expected by chance, even in analyses that incorporated empty sites. However, for most analyses, the null hypothesis was not rejected, and co-occurrence patterns could not be distinguished from those that might arise by random colonization and extinction. We compared our results to analyses of presence,absence matrices for vertebrate taxa, and found support for the hypothesis that there is an ecological continuum of community organization. Presence,absence matrices for small-bodied taxa with low vagility and/or small populations (marine ectoparasites, herps) were mostly random, whereas presence,absence matrices for large-bodied taxa with high vagility and/or large populations (birds, mammals) were highly structured. Metazoan ectoparasites of marine fishes fall near the low end of this continuum, with little evidence for nonrandom species co-occurrence patterns. [source]


Small fish, big fish, red fish, blue fish: size-biased extinction risk of the world's freshwater and marine fishes

GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
Julian D. Olden
ABSTRACT Aim, In light of the current biodiversity crisis, there is a need to identify and protect species at greatest risk of extinction. Ecological theory and global-scale analyses of bird and mammal faunas suggest that small-bodied species are less vulnerable to extinction, yet this hypothesis remains untested for the largest group of vertebrates, fish. Here, we compare body-size distributions of freshwater and marine fishes under different levels of global extinction risk (i.e. listed as vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) from different major sources of threat (habitat loss/degradation, human harvesting, invasive species and pollution). Location, Global, freshwater and marine. Methods, We collated maximum body length data for 22,800 freshwater and marine fishes and compared body-size frequency distributions after controlling for phylogeny. Results, We found that large-bodied marine fishes are under greater threat of global extinction, whereas both small- and large-bodied freshwater species are more likely to be at risk. Our results support the notion that commercial fishing activities disproportionately threaten large-bodied marine and freshwater species, whereas habitat degradation and loss threaten smaller-bodied marine fishes. Main conclusions, Our study provides compelling evidence that global fish extinction risk does not universally scale with body size. Given the central role of body size for trophic position and the functioning of food webs, human activities may have strikingly different effects on community organization and food web structure in freshwater and marine systems. [source]


Not everything is everywhere: the distance decay of similarity in a marine host,parasite system

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2009
Ana Pérez-del-Olmo
Abstract Aim, We test the similarity,distance decay hypothesis on a marine host,parasite system, inferring the relationships from abundance data gathered at the lowest scale of parasite community organization (i.e. that of the individual host). Location, Twenty-two seasonal samples of the bogue Boops boops (Teleostei: Sparidae) were collected at seven localities along a coastal positional gradient from the northern North-East Atlantic to the northern Mediterranean coast of Spain. Methods, We used our own, taxonomically consistent, data on parasite communities. The variations in parasite composition and structure with geographical and regional distance were examined at two spatial scales, namely local parasite faunas and component communities, using both presence,absence (neighbour joining distance) and abundance (Mahalanobis distance) data. The influence of geographical and regional distance on faunal/community divergence was assessed through the permutation of distance matrices. Results, Our results revealed that: (1) geographical and regional distances do not affect the species composition in the system under study at the higher scales; (2) geographical distance between localities contributes significantly to the decay of similarity estimated from parasite abundance at the lowest scale (i.e. the individual host); (3) the structured spatial patterns are consistent in time but not across seasons; and (4) a restricted clade of species (the ,core' species of the bogue parasite fauna) contributes substantially to the observed patterns of both community homogenization and differentiation owing to the strong relationship between local abundance and regional distribution of species. Main conclusions, The main factors that tend to homogenize the composition of parasite communities of bogue at higher regional scales are related to the dispersal of parasite colonizers across host populations, which we denote as horizontal neighbourhood colonization. In contrast, the spatial structure detectable in quantitative comparisons only, is related to a vertical neighbourhood colonization associated with larval dispersal on a local level. The stronger decline with distance in the spatial synchrony of the assemblages of the ,core' species indicates a close-echoing environmental synchrony that declines with distance. Our results emphasize the importance of the parasite supracommunity (i.e. parasites that exploit all hosts in the ecosystem) to the decay of similarity with distance. [source]


Fire disturbance disrupts co-occurrence patterns of terrestrial vertebrates in Mediterranean woodlands

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2006
Maurizio Sarà
Abstract Aim, This paper uses null model analysis to explore the pattern of species co-occurrence of terrestrial vertebrate fauna in fire-prone, mixed evergreen oak woodlands. Location, The Erico,Quercion ilicis of the Mediterranean belt (50,800 m a.s.l.) in the Madonie mountain range, a regional park in northern Sicily (37°50, N, 14°05, E), Italy. Methods, The stratified sampling of vertebrates in a secondary succession of recent burned areas (BA, 1,2 years old), intermediate burned areas (INT, 4,10 years old) and ancient burned areas (CNB, > 50 years old), plus forest fragments left within burned areas (FF, 1,2 years old) permitted the comparison of patterns of species co-occurrence using a set of separate presence/absence matrices. First, the breeding avifauna derived from standardized point counts was analysed using Stone & Roberts'C -score, and by a null model algorithm (fixed/equiprobable). Secondly, the analysis was repeated using all vertebrate species recorded in the succession. Results, Sixty-five species were recorded in the 2-year study period in the four sample treatments. Birds were found to make up the largest component (63%) of the recorded assemblage. The BA treatment had the lowest species richness, followed in order by the small, medium and large FFs, and then by the CNBs. For both analyses (birds and total vertebrates), the C -scores were quite small and not significantly different from those that could be expected by chance in the BA and INT burned areas; this indicates a random co-occurrence among vertebrates of those assemblages. Contrariwise, for both analyses in the CNBs, the C -scores were large and significantly different from the simulated indices, thereby indicating a non-random co-occurrence pattern (segregation) of vertebrates in the undisturbed woodlands. In addition, C -score values for the surviving FFs show a significant aggregation of species. Main conclusions, The null model analyses highlighted a new aspect of fire disturbance in Mediterranean woodland ecosystems: the disruption in patterns of co-occurrence in the terrestrial vertebrate community. Wildfire alters community organization, inducing, for at least 10 years, a random aggregate of species. Communities re-assemble themselves, showing the occurrence of species segregation at least 50 years after fire. [source]


Philosophical dialogues as paths to a more ,positive psychology'

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Sofia Triliva
Abstract Although family support programmes have been in place for several decades in Greece very little attention has been paid to evaluating the effectiveness of such endeavours, the techniques that influence their outcomes and the receptiveness to their messages. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of research findings collected during the first qualitative research phase of a community mental health promotion project. The research was conducted in order to delineate programme outcomes and the characteristics that had an impact on the participants' lives. The 3-month family support programme intended to introduce ,philosophical dialogues' as means to developing personal and communal understandings of what makes life worth living. The programme was developed and implemented on Crete under the auspices of a non-profit community organization appropriately named ,The Lyceum for Women'. The features of the programme that contributed and enhanced the participants' tendencies to become not passive targets but active partners and stakeholders in the process will be clarified, as will the conceptualization and approach. Of the 45 evaluation protocols that were analysed the following themes were most important for the participants: ,Group as-a-whole process',the sense of sharing and development understandings in a ,parea' (in-group); ,relational outcomes',feeling of belonging, ,reciprocated kindness', and giving of self to others; personal and emotional outcomes-self-efficacy and empowerment; knowledge outcomes-learning about positive emotions and enjoying the simple things in life; and group facilitator outcomes-sharing stories, ,gives of self to the community'. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Positive Interactions: Crucial Organizers in a Plant Community

JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
Dong-Liang Cheng
Abstract For more than a century, ecologists have concentrated on competition as a crucial process for community organization. However, more recent experimental investigations have uncovered the striking influence of positive interactions on the organization of plant communities. Complex combinations of competition and positive interactions operating simultaneously among plant species seem to be widespread in nature. In the present paper, we reviewed the mechanism and ecological importance of positive interactions in plant communities, emphasizing the certainties and uncertainties that have made it an attractive area of research. Positive interactions, or facilitation, occur when one species enhances the survival, growth, or richness of another. The importance of facilitation in plant organization increases with abiotic stress and the relative importance of competition decreases. Only by combining plant interactions and the many fields of biology can we fully understand how and when the positive interactions occur. (Managing editor: Ya-Qin Han) [source]


Emerging patterns in the comparative analysis of phylogenetic community structure

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
S. M. VAMOSI
Abstract The analysis of the phylogenetic structure of communities can help reveal contemporary ecological interactions, as well as link community ecology with biogeography and the study of character evolution. The number of studies employing this broad approach has increased to the point where comparison of their results can now be used to highlight successes and deficiencies in the approach, and to detect emerging patterns in community organization. We review studies of the phylogenetic structure of communities of different major taxa and trophic levels, across different spatial and phylogenetic scales, and using different metrics and null models. Twenty-three of 39 studies (59%) find evidence for phylogenetic clustering in contemporary communities, but terrestrial and/or plant systems are heavily over-represented among published studies. Experimental investigations, although uncommon at present, hold promise for unravelling mechanisms underlying the phylogenetic community structure patterns observed in community surveys. We discuss the relationship between metrics of phylogenetic clustering and tree balance and explore the various emerging biases in taxonomy and pitfalls of scale. Finally, we look beyond one-dimensional metrics of phylogenetic structure towards multivariate descriptors that better capture the variety of ecological behaviours likely to be exhibited in communities of species with hundreds of millions of years of independent evolution. [source]


Linking collegiate service-learning to future volunteerism: Implications for nonprofit organizations

NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP, Issue 1 2008
Chuck Tomkovick
One of the biggest challenges facing nonprofits is attracting and retaining volunteers to help deliver their programs. One way that colleges and universities are attempting to educate students on the importance of community issues and to graduate "good citizens" is through service-learning (S-L) programs. Although many scholars argue that collegiate S-L programs will increase the extent to which students volunteer following graduation (for example, Astin, Sax, and Avalos, 1999; Misa, Anderson, and Yamamura, 2005), more empirical research has been called for to examine this relationship. This article proposes three predictors of future volunteerism for alumni of a collegiate S-L experience: the amount of personal development experienced during the S-L project, the perceived value of the S-L project to the community organization, and the level of volunteerism prior to participation in an S-L project. Results showed significant effects of all the proposed predictors on postgraduation volunteering. Our findings have implications for nonprofit managers charged with maintaining a sufficient level of volunteers to provide their community services as well as individuals who are responsible for organizing S-L programs. These managerial implications and directions for future S-L research are discussed. [source]


Density compensation in New World bat communities

OIKOS, Issue 2 2000
Richard D. Stevens
Understanding the role of competitive interactions in shaping the structure of communities has been one the most unrelenting challenges to ecology. Traditionally, competitive interactions were assumed to be the most important agent of deterministic structure, with overdispersed morphological patterns based on body size and trophic status as their hallmark. However, models of community organization based solely on morphology have yielded only equivocal results for many taxa. Fortunately, morphological patterns may not be the only indications of competitively induced deterministic structure. Herein, we explore the degree to which the structure of five feeding guilds (aerial insectivores, frugivores, gleaning animalivores, molossid insectivores, and nectarivores) from 15 New World bat communities reflects density compensation. Nonrandom associations between abundance and morphological distance were detected in five communities, in three feeding guilds, and with respect to four competitive scenarios. Nonetheless, patterns consistent with the hypothesis of density compensation were neither pervasive nor consistent in New World bat communities. Competitively induced community structure may exist under only narrow temporal and environmental conditions, and may not be characteristic of organization in most situations. [source]


Biodiversity conservation in Mediterranean and Black Sea lagoons: a trait-oriented approach to benthic invertebrate guilds

AQUATIC CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, Issue S1 2008
A. Basset
Abstract 1. The extent to which conservation of biodiversity enforces the protection of ecosystem functioning, goods and services is a key issue in conservation ecology. 2. In order to address this conservation issue, this work focused on community organization, linking community structure, as described both in taxonomic and functional terms, to community functioning and ecosystem processes. 3. Body size is an individual functional trait that is deterministically related to components of ecosystem functioning such as population dynamics and energy flow, and which determines components of community structure. Since body size is an individual trait that reflects numerous factors, it is also exposed to trait selection and the niche filtering underlying the community. 4. An analysis of the relevance of body size to community organization in transitional water ecosystems in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea regions is presented, based on field research conducted on a sample of 15 transitional water ecosystems. 5. 250 taxa were identified, clumped in five orders of magnitude of body size. All body size patterns showed triangular distributions with an optimal size range of 0.13 mg to 1.0 mg individual body mass. 6. Deterministic components of size structure were emphasized and a hierarchical organization with dominance of large sizes was demonstrated by the slopes of the body size-abundance distributions, consistently larger than the EER threshold (b=,0.75), and by the direct relationship of energy use to body size for most of the body size range. 7. Consistent variations of body size-related descriptors were observed on three main gradients of environmental stress: eutrophication, confinement and metal pollution. 8. The results support the relevance of constraints imposed by individual body size on community organization in transitional water ecosystems and the adequacy of size patterns as an indicator for ecological conservation of these fragile ecosystems. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Using Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) to Target Health Disparities in Families

FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2009
Jerica M. Berge
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health researchers have been using CBPR for over a decade. This paper introduces CBPR methods, illustrates the usefulness of CBPR methods in families and health research, describes two CBPR projects related to diabetes, and concludes with lessons learned and strengths and weaknesses of CBPR. [source]


Innovative Governance and Development in the New Ireland: Social Partnership and the Integrated Approach

GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2004
J. D. House
Since the mid-1980s, the economy of the Republic of Ireland has displayed a remarkable turnaround. Its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has grown at a faster rate than any developed country in the world. The government's deficit has been cut severely and the debt-to-GDP ration sharply reduced. Average incomes have risen significantly, and the unemployment rate reduced dramatically. This article documents these changes. Its main purpose, however, is to provide a plausible explanation for the "Irish miracle." While many factors have been important,support for the Economic Union's regional development programs, a favorable tax structure, locational and language advantages for attracting multinational corporations, strong education and training programs,these factors in themselves do not explain the emergence of the "Celtic tiger." They were in place before the mid-1980s when Ireland was suffering from a fiscal, economic, and political crisis. Instead, the article argues, it was the creative and innovative response of Irish leaders in government, industry, and labor movement and community organizations to the crisis, and the subsequent institutionalization of this response in a new form of governance, that has been the catalyst for the Irish success story. Based on the thorough background research of the Economic and Social Research Council, a farsighted group of leaders developed a strategic plan in 1987 that provided a blueprint for constructive economic and social change. This was then formally instituted for wage restraint on the part of labor in return for income tax and social supposed provisions by government. Irish social Partnership is modeled to some extent on Northern European corporatism. The article reviews corporatism as an early form of innovative governance, using classical corporatism in Sweden and competitive corporatism in the Netherlands to illustrate how this approach has evolved over the years. Dutch economic success in recent years is due in part to its new form of corporatism that has helped it become globally competitive. It is argued, however, that Irish social partnership goes beyond continental corporatism in several important ways. It is more inclusive, covering a large array of social interests; it is more strategic, with a well-articulated integrated approach to social and economic development that is self-corrective and articulated in a new national agreement every three years; and it is more firmly institutionalized in both government and nongovernment agencies in the country. Social partnership and the integrated approach have become part of the culture of the new Ireland. This innovative form of governance underlies the Irish turnaround and augurs well for the future. It can also serve as a model, with appropriate modification tailor-made to each case, for other jurisdictions hoping to emulate Ireland's success. [source]


Why rape survivors participate in the criminal justice system,

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Debra Patterson
After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead survivors to participate in the CJS, and how other community services provided by forensic nurses or victim advocates may also help encourage survivor engagement. In the current study, 20 survivors who reported their victimizations to police within a large Midwest county were interviewed about the factors that influenced their involvement in the CJS. Further, we examined the role that the police, forensic nurses, and victim advocates played in their participation. Using qualitative analyses, our findings suggest that informal supports hold a strong role in the reporting process and formal supports are influential in survivors' engagement in the investigational process. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Building strong communities: an evaluation of a neighborhood leadership program in a diverse urban area

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
Cecilia Ayón
The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate an intervention used to train neighborhood leaders about community organizing and to enhance leadership skills. A mixed-method design was used which included (a) a pre- and posttest assessment of 83 participants, and (b) qualitative descriptive interviews of 33 participants. Over half of the participants in the study were from ethnic minority groups (Latino or Cambodian). At posttest assessment, the participants improved in leadership skills (p=.001) and experience (p=.001) subscales. The qualitative interviews revealed that participants continued to be active in their communities by implementing neighborhood programs or starting community organizations. It is recommended that community practitioners and activists support neighborhood leadership programs to foster growth and enrichment in communities, and researchers/practitioners evaluate these projects with multiple methods to broaden scholarship in this important arena. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Measuring perceived community support: Factorial structure, longitudinal invariance, and predictive validity of the PCSQ (perceived community support questionnaire)

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
Juan Herrero
Social support from intimate and confiding relationships has received a great deal of attention; however, the study of the community as a relevant source of support has been comparatively lacking. In this article, we present a multidimensional measure of community support (Perceived Community Support Questionnaire, PCSQ). Through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on data from three samples of adult population (two-wave panel: sample 1, N = 1009 and sample 2, N = 780; and an independent sample 3, N = 440), results show that community integration, community participation, and use of community organizations are reliable indicators of the underlying construct of perceived community support. Also, community support is associated with a reduction of depressive symptoms after 6 months, once autoregression is controlled for. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


A Culturally Appropriate School Wellness Initiative: Results of a 2-Year Pilot Intervention in 2 Jewish Schools

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, Issue 8 2010
Maureen R. Benjamins PhD
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of school-based interventions designed to reduce childhood obesity or otherwise promote health, no models or materials were found for Jewish schools. The current study describes an effort within a Jewish school system in Chicago to create, implement, and evaluate a school-based intervention tailored to the unique characteristics of Jewish religion, culture, and school structures. METHODS: Two schools (with approximately 600 students) were selected for the 2-year pilot study. The schools were required to form a wellness council, write a wellness policy, and implement policy changes or activities in 5 target areas (health education, physical education, school environment, family involvement, and staff wellness). Objectives were measured using pre- and postintervention surveys for students, as well as the School Health Index and other tools. RESULTS: Findings showed several significant increases in student knowledge, as well as an increase in the percentage of older students regularly meeting physical activity guidelines. Few changes in attitudes, other behaviors, or environmental factors were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Due to a strong partnership between researchers, schools, and community organizations, meaningful changes were made within the pilot schools. These changes were reflected in a limited number of improvements in student knowledge and activity levels. Future work is needed to determine how to bring about behavioral changes, how to increase the sustainability of all of the changes, and how to disseminate the model and products of this intervention to other day schools. [source]


Indigeneity across borders: Hemispheric migrations and cosmopolitan encounters

AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST, Issue 1 2010
ROBIN MARIA DELUGAN
ABSTRACT The increasing migration of indigenous people from Latin America to the United States signals a new horizon for the study of indigeneity,complexly understood as subjectivities, knowledge, and practices of the earliest human inhabitants of a particular place and including legal and racial identities that refer to these people. Focusing on indigenous migration to San Francisco, California, I explore how government, service providers, and community organizations respond to the arrival of new ethnic groups while also contributing to an expanding Urban Indian collective identity. In addition to reviewing such governmental practices as the creation of new census categories and related responses to indigenous ethnic diversity, I illustrate how some members of a diverse Urban Indian population unite through participation in rituals such as the Maya Waqxaqi' B'atz' (Day of Human Perfection), transplanted to San Francisco from Guatemala. The rituals recall homelands near and far in a broader social imagination about being and belonging in the world. The social imagination, borne in part through migration and diaspora, acknowledges the local and the particular in a framework of shared values about what it means to be human. I analyze this meaning making as cosmopolitanism in practice. By merging indigeneity and cosmopolitanism, I join other scholars who strive to decenter classical notions of cosmopolitan "worldliness," drawing attention to alternative sources of beneficent sociality and for cultivating humanity. [source]


University-school-community partnerships for youth development and democratic renewal

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR YOUTH DEVELOPMENT, Issue 122 2009
Ira Harkavy
Democratic partnerships of universities, schools, and an array of neighborhood and community organizations are the most promising means of improving the lives of our nation's young people. Over the past two decades, many colleges and universities have been experiencing a renaissance in engagement activities. Universities, once ivory towers, have increasingly come to recognize that their destinies are inextricably linked with their communities. Authentic democratic partnerships have three characteristics: they are devised to achieve democratic purposes, the collective work is advanced through inclusive and democratic processes, and the product these partnerships produce benefits all participants and results in a strengthening of the democratic practices within the community. [source]


The ecology of games between public policy and private action: Nonprofit community organizations as bridging and mediating institutions

NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP, Issue 3 2003
Stuart C. Mendel
The conception of nonprofit organizations as institutional bridges that mediate within an environment of interrelationships is a useful device for informing strategic thinking by nonprofit professionals and volunteers. The bridge metaphor neatly explains not only the rise in number of nonprofit community organizations, but also the process by which leaders of the private and public sectors have formed partnerships to project the wealth and assets of communities. [source]


Finding aid as interface?

PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2003
Enhancing K-12 access to digitized cultural heritage resources through adaptive systems technology: An exploratory study
To what extent must diverse users adapt themselves to singular one-interface systems, and in what ways does this impede access and use? In a perfect world of adaptive systems, backend architecture structuring digital information would be accessible through multiple user interfaces that support the literacy levels, technological capabilities and other characteristics of different user groups. Collaborating with the California Digital Library, usability testing was conducted with 4th and 12th graders to compare the effectiveness of an existing finding aid-based interface with a newly developed prototype interfaco in retrieving cultural heritage information. Findings inform the growing number of efforts by cultural heritage communities,including libraries, archives, museums, and community organizations,to create broader access to their rich resources through digitization. [source]


Community-based Participatory Research: Development of an Emergency Department,based Youth Violence Intervention Using Concept Mapping

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 8 2010
Carolyn E. Snider MD, FRCPC
ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:1,9 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, Emergency departments (EDs) see a high number of youths injured by violence. In Ontario, the most common cause of injury for youths visiting EDs is assault. Secondary prevention strategies using the teachable moment (i.e., events that can lead individuals to make positive changes in their lives) are ideal for use by clinicians. An opportunity exists to take advantage of the teachable moment in the ED in an effort to prevent future occurrences of injury in at-risk youths. However, little is known about perceptions of youths, parents, and community organizations about such interventions in EDs. The aims of this study were to engage youths, parents, and frontline community workers in conceptualizing a hospital-based violence prevention intervention and to identify outcomes relevant to the community. Methods:, Concept mapping is an innovative, mixed-method research approach. It combines structured qualitative processes such as brainstorming and group sorting, with various statistical analyses such as multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering, to develop a conceptual framework, and allows for an objective presentation of qualitative data. Concept mapping involves multiple structured steps: 1) brainstorming, 2) sorting, 3) rating, and 4) interpretation. For this study, the first three steps occurred online, and the fourth step occurred during a community meeting. Results:, Over 90 participants were involved, including youths, parents, and community youth workers. A two-dimensional point map was created and clusters formed to create a visual display of participant ideas on an ED-based youth violence prevention intervention. Issues related to youth violence prevention that were rated of highest importance and most realistic for hospital involvement included mentorship, the development of youth support groups in the hospital, training doctors and nurses to ask questions about the violent event, and treating youth with respect. Small-group discussions on the various clusters developed job descriptions, a list of essential services, and suggestions on ways to create a more youth-friendly environment in the hospital. A large-group discussion revealed outcomes that participants felt should be measured to determine the success of an intervention program. Conclusions:, This study has been the springboard for the development of an ED-based youth violence intervention that is supported by the community and affected youth. Using information generated by youth that is grounded in their experience through participatory research methods is feasible for the development of successful and meaningful youth violence prevention interventions. [source]


Technology for independence: a community-based resource center,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 1 2003
Peter Blanck Ph.D.
Despite the prominence of the disability civil rights model,with its values of inclusion and empowerment,the majority of social and policy research conducted to date has not sufficiently included the perspective of persons with disabilities in the research process and as uniquely qualified researchers themselves. This article describes a new project, "Technology for Independence: A Community-Based Resource Center" (CBRC). Over a five-year period, the CBRC will attempt to enhance community and consumer-directed disability organizations to design, implement, and disseminate research that promotes access to and use of assistive technology (AT). The CBRC will use strategies such as leadership training, participatory action research, technical assistance, web- assisted training, and annual symposia. A primary goal of the CBRC is to increase the capacity of community organizations to conduct research on AT that is scientifically rigorous and relevant to disability services, policy, and law. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Les relations de collaboration entre le secteur public et les organismes communautaires du secteur jeunesse-enfance-famille : Entre la sous-traitance et la coconstruction

CANADIAN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION/ADMINISTRATION PUBLIQUE DU CANADA, Issue 4 2008
Sébastien Savard
Sommaire: L'État incite les établissements publics et les organismes communautaires à développer et à augmenter la fréquence de leurs relations interorganisationnelles. L'État veut ainsi favoriser une intégration des services permettant une meilleure réponse aux besoins sociaux de la population. Cette étude propose une typologie permettant d'analyser les modèles de relation qui se mettent en place entre ces deux groupes d'acteurs. La recherche s'est intéressée aux interfaces dans le secteur des services sociaux à l'enfance, à la jeunesse et aux familles québécoises. Au total, 111 gestionnaires ont répondu à un questionnaire leur permettant d'évaluer leurs rapports en fonction de quatre dimensions proposées par Coston pour situer les relations entre l'État et les organismes du tiers secteur. Le modèle de relation rapporté par les répondants est celui de la coexistence. Quoique le modèle de relation rapporté par les organismes communautaires et par les établissements publics soit le même, une analyse plus nuancée des résultats permet de constater que les organismes communautaires se perçoivent appartenir à un système plus socio-étatique (dominé par les établissements de réseau) que les répondants des établissements publics. Abstract: The government encourages public institutions and community organizations to develop and increase the frequency of their inter-organizational relationships. In doing so, the government seeks the integration of their services in order to meet the social needs of the population more effectively. This study aims to develop a typology for analysing patterns in the relationships being established between these two groups of stakeholders. The research focused on the interfaces in the social service sector for children, youth and families in Quebec. In total, 111 managers responded to a survey that enabled them to assess their relationships on the basis of four dimensions proposed by Coston for analysing relationships between the government and third-sector organizations. The respondents identified "coexistence" as the most common type of relationships. Although the community organizations and the public institutions identified the same type of relationships, a more nuanced analysis of the survey results reveals that community organizations see themselves as part of a system that is more "socio-governmental" in nature (i.e., dominated by the institutions in the network) rather than "public." [source]


Increasing access to clinical and educational studies

CANCER, Issue S8 2006
Ronald E. Myers PhD
Abstract In 2001, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) provided funds to support the Increasing Access to Clinical and Educational Studies (ACES) Project of the Thomas Jefferson University, Kimmel Cancer Center in Philadelphia. The ACES Project enabled the Center to engage in the systematic development of approaches for reducing cancer health disparities among African Americans in Philadelphia. This project brought together community partners, clinical partners, cancer prevention and control experts, and staff from an NCI-designated cancer center to develop and implement a community-based outreach education program, a special populations investigator (SPI) training program, and SPI pilot studies in cancer screening and clinical trials participation. At the end of 5 years, the ACES Project had 1) organized a steering committee, expert panel, and a network of community collaborators and clinical partners; 2) implemented a clinical trials education program for community-based nurses, lay health advocates active in community organizations, and health ministries in community churches; 3) mentored 4 SPIs in cancer prevention and control research; 4) completed SPI pilot studies; and 5) leveraged these activities to gain support for cancer health disparities related research. The Project established a successful dialogue between an NCI-designated cancer center and the African American population related to cancer research, and enabled SPIs from the community to adapt evidence-informed interventions for application in cancer prevention and control research. Lessons learned from the Project can guide the implementation of such projects in the future. Cancer 2006. © 2006 American Cancer Society. [source]