Community

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Community

  • aboriginal community
  • academic community
  • affected community
  • african american community
  • african community
  • african development community
  • agricultural community
  • algal community
  • american community
  • american indian community
  • anaerobic microbial community
  • animal community
  • annual plant community
  • ant community
  • archaeal community
  • arthropod community
  • asian community
  • australian community
  • autonomous community
  • avian community
  • bacterial community
  • bacterioplankton community
  • bat community
  • bee community
  • beetle community
  • benthic community
  • benthic macroinvertebrate community
  • biological community
  • biotic community
  • bird community
  • black community
  • broader community
  • building community
  • business community
  • campus community
  • care community
  • care retirement community
  • carnivore community
  • catholic community
  • chemistry community
  • christian community
  • clinical community
  • coastal community
  • collaborative community
  • complex community
  • complex microbial community
  • component community
  • conservation community
  • continuing care retirement community
  • coral community
  • coral reef community
  • corporate community
  • cyanobacterial community
  • deprived community
  • development community
  • diaspora community
  • diasporic community
  • diatom community
  • different community
  • distinct community
  • diverse community
  • diverse microbial community
  • diverse plant community
  • donor community
  • dune community
  • dung beetle community
  • earthworm community
  • east african community
  • ecological community
  • economic community
  • ectoparasite community
  • education community
  • educational community
  • entire community
  • environmental community
  • epistemic community
  • ethnic community
  • ethnic minority community
  • european community
  • faith community
  • farming community
  • faunal community
  • fen community
  • financial community
  • first nation community
  • fish community
  • fishing community
  • forest community
  • freshwater community
  • frugivore community
  • fungal community
  • gated community
  • general community
  • global community
  • grassland community
  • grassland plant community
  • health community
  • healthy community
  • herbaceous community
  • herbaceous plant community
  • herbivore community
  • hispanic community
  • home community
  • host community
  • human community
  • humanitarian community
  • imagined community
  • immigrant community
  • indian community
  • indigenous community
  • inner-city community
  • insect community
  • intelligence community
  • international community
  • intertidal community
  • invertebrate community
  • investment community
  • island community
  • isolated community
  • japanese community
  • jewish community
  • knowledge community
  • lake community
  • language community
  • large community
  • larger community
  • latino community
  • learning community
  • liana community
  • lichen community
  • local community
  • low-income community
  • macroinvertebrate community
  • macrophyte community
  • mammal community
  • many community
  • marine community
  • medical community
  • mental health community
  • methanogenic community
  • methanotrophic community
  • microbial community
  • migrant community
  • minority community
  • mixed community
  • model community
  • moral community
  • muslim community
  • mycorrhizal community
  • nation community
  • national community
  • native community
  • native fish community
  • native plant community
  • natural community
  • natural microbial community
  • natural plant community
  • nearby community
  • nematode community
  • new community
  • nitrate-reducing community
  • one community
  • online community
  • other community
  • parasite community
  • particular community
  • periphyton community
  • phytoplankton community
  • plankton community
  • planktonic community
  • plant community
  • policy community
  • political community
  • poor community
  • predator community
  • professional community
  • prokaryotic community
  • public health community
  • rainforest community
  • raptor community
  • recipient community
  • reef community
  • refugee community
  • regional community
  • relate community
  • religious community
  • remote aboriginal community
  • remote community
  • remote indigenous community
  • research community
  • resident community
  • residential community
  • retirement community
  • rhizosphere community
  • riparian plant community
  • rodent community
  • rural community
  • same community
  • school community
  • science community
  • scientific community
  • shrub community
  • similar community
  • small community
  • small mammal community
  • small rural community
  • smaller community
  • snail community
  • soil bacterial community
  • soil community
  • soil microbial community
  • speaking community
  • species community
  • species-poor community
  • species-rich community
  • species-rich plant community
  • specific community
  • speech community
  • spider community
  • sponge community
  • stream community
  • stream macroinvertebrate community
  • suburban community
  • surrounding community
  • target community
  • terrestrial community
  • terrestrial plant community
  • therapeutic community
  • total bacterial community
  • transnational community
  • transplant community
  • tree community
  • tundra community
  • turkish community
  • u.s. community
  • urban community
  • urological community
  • user community
  • vegetation community
  • vegetative community
  • virtual community
  • web community
  • weed community
  • wetland community
  • wetland plant community
  • whole community
  • wider community
  • woodland community
  • zooplankton community

  • Terms modified by Community

  • community action
  • community activity
  • community adult
  • community agencies
  • community analysis
  • community approach
  • community assembly
  • community assessment
  • community attitude
  • community attribute
  • community awareness
  • community biomass
  • community boundary
  • community building
  • community capacity
  • community care
  • community center
  • community centre
  • community change
  • community characteristic
  • community clinic
  • community cohesion
  • community cohort
  • community college
  • community composition
  • community concern
  • community conflict
  • community consisting
  • community consultation
  • community context
  • community control
  • community court
  • community data
  • community dentistry
  • community dependent
  • community descriptor
  • community development
  • community diversity
  • community dna
  • community dynamics
  • community ecology
  • community education
  • community effects
  • community effort
  • community empowerment
  • community engagement
  • community event
  • community expectation
  • community experience
  • community factor
  • community forestry
  • community formation
  • community function
  • community garden
  • community governance
  • community groups
  • community health
  • community health center
  • community health centre
  • community health nurse
  • community health services
  • community health setting
  • community health survey
  • community health worker
  • community hospital
  • community hospital setting
  • community household panel
  • community identity
  • community impact
  • community infrastructure
  • community integration
  • community interaction
  • community interest
  • community intervention
  • community involvement
  • community knowledge
  • community law
  • community leader
  • community level
  • community life
  • community management
  • community mapping
  • community member
  • community membership
  • community mental health
  • community mental health centre
  • community mental health nurse
  • community mental health nursing
  • community mental health services
  • community mental health team
  • community metric
  • community models
  • community network
  • community nurse
  • community nursing
  • community nursing practice
  • community nutrition
  • community organisation
  • community organization
  • community organizing
  • community participant
  • community participation
  • community partner
  • community partnership
  • community pattern
  • community perception
  • community periodontal index
  • community perspective
  • community pharmacist
  • community pharmacy
  • community policing
  • community population
  • community practice
  • community practitioner
  • community process
  • community productivity
  • community profile
  • community program
  • community project
  • community property
  • community psychiatric nurse
  • community psychologist
  • community psychology
  • community reinvestment act
  • community relations
  • community residence
  • community resident
  • community residential
  • community resilience
  • community resistance
  • community resource
  • community respiratory health survey
  • community response
  • community richness
  • community safety
  • community sample
  • community scale
  • community school
  • community screening
  • community sector
  • community service
  • community service provider
  • community services
  • community setting
  • community shift
  • community similarity
  • community site
  • community size
  • community species richness
  • community stability
  • community staff
  • community states
  • community structure
  • community studies
  • community study
  • community subject
  • community supervision
  • community support
  • community survey
  • community teaching hospital
  • community team
  • community tie
  • community treatment
  • community type
  • community value
  • community variability
  • community variation
  • community violence
  • community volunteer
  • community work
  • community worldwide

  • Selected Abstracts


    NO COMMUNITY IS AN ISLAND: THE EFFECTS OF RESOURCE DEPRIVATION ON URBAN VIOLENCE IN SPATIALLY AND SOCIALLY PROXIMATE COMMUNITIES,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    DANIEL P. MEARS
    The link between resource deprivation and urban violence has long been explored in criminological research. Studies, however, have largely ignored the potential for resource deprivation in particular communities to affect rates of violence in others. The relative inattention is notable because of the strong theoretical grounds to anticipate influences that extend both to geographically contiguous areas and to those that, though not contiguous, share similar social characteristics. We argue that such influences,what we term spatial and social proximity effects, respectively,constitute a central feature of community dynamics. To support this argument, we develop and test theoretically derived hypotheses about spatial and social proximity effects of resource deprivation on aggregated and disaggregated homicide counts. Our analyses indicate that local area resource deprivation contributes to violence in socially proximate communities, an effect that, in the case of instrumental homicides, is stronger when such communities are spatially proximate. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for theories focused on community-level social processes and violence, and for policies aimed at reducing crime in disadvantaged areas. [source]


    VOICES FROM THE BARRIO: CHICANO/A GANGS, FAMILIES, AND COMMUNITIES,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    MARJORIE S. ZATZ
    Based on in-depth interviews with 33 youth gang members and 20 adult neighborhood leaders and youth service providers, we explore the complicated relationships among gang members, their families, and other residents of poor Chicano/a and Mexicano/a barrios in Phoenix. Listening to the multiple voices of community members allows for a multifaceted understanding of the complexities and contradictions of gang life, both for the youths and for the larger community. We draw on a community ecology approach to help explain the tensions that develop, especially when community members vary in their desires and abilities to control gang-related activities. In this exploratory study, we point to some of the ways in which gender, age, education, traditionalism, and level of acculturation may help explain variation in the type and strength of private, parochial, and public social control within a community. [source]


    BUILD THE CAPACITY OF COMMUNITIES TO ADDRESS CRIME,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 4 2007
    JOIE ACOSTA
    First page of article [source]


    ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF MASS INCARCERATION ON INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL IN COMMUNITIES

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 2 2004
    JAMES P. LYNCH
    Research Summary: This paper reviews and evaluates the existing (and limited) evidence that increases in incarceration have affected the ability of residential neighborhoods to perform their traditional social control functions. It suggests that, although comparatively weak, the evidence points to the increases in the level and clustering in social and geographic space of incarceration as contributing to changes in the social organization of affected communities by weakening family formation, labor force attachments, and patterns of social interaction among residents. At the same time, however, the paper does find support for the contention that incarceration leads to reductions in crime in affected communities. Policy Implications: To the extent that mass incarceration disrupts patterns of social interaction, weakens community social organization, and decreases the stigma of imprisonment, its longer-run effects may be to reduce its effectiveness. [source]


    CENTRALIZED AND DECENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT OF LOCAL COMMON POOL RESOURCES IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM FISHING COMMUNITIES IN COLOMBIA

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 2 2010
    MARIA ALEJANDRA VELEZ
    This article uses experimental data to test for a complementary relationship between formal regulations imposed on a community to conserve a local natural resource and nonbinding verbal agreements to do the same. Our experiments were conducted in the field in three regions of Colombia. Our results suggest that the hypothesis of a complementary relationship between communication and external regulation is supported for some combinations of regions and regulations but cannot be supported in general. We conclude that the determination of whether formal regulations and informal communication are complementary must be made on a community-by-community basis. (JEL C93, H41, Q20, Q28) [source]


    TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES IN RURAL AND REMOTE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN AUSTRALIA

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 1 2002
    ANNE DALY
    First page of article [source]


    MISSION TOWARDS RECONCILED AND INTER-CONTEXTUAL COMMUNITIES

    INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF MISSION, Issue 363 2002
    Christopher Duraisingh
    [source]


    THE PENTECOSTAL MOVEMENT AND BASIC ECCLESIAL COMMUNITIES IN LATIN AMERICA: SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES AND THEOLOGICAL DEBATES,

    INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF MISSION, Issue 361 2002
    MICHAEL BERGUNDER
    First page of article [source]


    BENTHIC AND PLANKTONIC ALGAL COMMUNITIES IN A HIGH ARCTIC LAKE: PIGMENT STRUCTURE AND CONTRASTING RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
    Sylvia Bonilla
    We investigated the fine pigment structure and composition of phytoplankton and benthic cyanobacterial mats in Ward Hunt Lake at the northern limit of High Arctic Canada and the responses of these two communities to in situ nutrient enrichment. The HPLC analyses showed that more than 98% of the total pigment stocks occurred in the benthos. The phytoplankton contained Chrysophyceae, low concentrations of other protists and Cyanobacteria (notably picocyanobacteria), and the accessory pigments chl c2, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, and zeaxanthin. The benthic community contained the accessory pigments chl b, chl c2, and a set of carotenoids dominated by glycosidic xanthophylls, characteristic of filamentous cyanobacteria. The black surface layer of the mats was rich in the UV-screening compounds scytonemin, red scytonemin-like, and mycosporine-like amino acids, and the blue-green basal stratum contained high concentrations of light-harvesting pigments. In a first bioassay of the benthic mats, there was no significant photosynthetic or growth response to inorganic carbon or full nutrient enrichment over 15 days. This bioassay was repeated with increased replication and HPLC analysis in a subsequent season, and the results confirmed the lack of significant response to added nutrients. In contrast, the phytoplankton in samples from the overlying water column responded strongly to enrichment, and chl a biomass increased by a factor of 19.2 over 2 weeks. These results underscore the divergent ecophysiology of benthic versus planktonic communities in extreme latitudes and show that cold lake ecosystems can be dominated by benthic phototrophs that are nutrient sufficient despite their ultraoligotrophic overlying waters. [source]


    EFFECT OF COPPER ON ALGAL COMMUNITIES FROM OLIGOTROPHIC CALCAREOUS STREAMS1

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    Helena Guasch
    Two sets of experiments were done to quantify the effects of chronic copper exposure on natural peri- phyton in a nonpolluted calcareous river. The results of short-term (up to 6 h exposure) experiments corroborated the significance of pH on copper toxicity. Copper toxicity increased when pH was reduced from 8.6 to 7.7, and this was related to the effect of pH on copper speciation (free copper concentration increased from 0.2% to 2.3% of total copper). Longer term experiments demonstrated that periphyton communities exposed to copper under pH variation (8.2,8.6) were already affected at 10 ,g·L,1 (20,80 ng·L,1 Cu2+) after 12 days of exposure. Copper exposure caused stronger effects on structural (algal biomass and community structure) than on functional (photosynthetic efficiency) parameters of peri- phyton. Changes in community composition included the enhancement of some taxa (Gomphonema gracile), the inhibition of others (Fragilaria capucina and Phormidium sp.), and the appearance of filament malformations (Mougeotia sp.). The results of our study demonstrated that several weeks of exposure to copper (10,20 ,g·L,1) were sufficient to cause chronic changes in the periphyton of oligotrophic calcareous rivers. This degree of copper pollution can be commonly found in the Mediterranean region as a result of agricultural practices and farming activities. [source]


    CONTRIBUTIONS TO UNDERSTANDING SEAWEEDS IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2001
    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Dawes, C. J. Department of Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 The goal of my presentation is to review several studies that have enhanced our understanding of the effects of abiotic factors on coastal and estuarine seaweed populations. Accordingly, I will introduce a few key papers dealing with five major abiotic factors-i.e. salinity, temperature, desiccation, water motion, and illumination. Foremost, the salinity tolerance studies of Russell and Bolton (1975) have broad applicability to estuarine seaweeds, while the osmoregulatory studies of Bisson and Kirst (1979) are also significant. Biebl's (1972) review of his earlier studies on temperature tolerances in diverse seaweeds were pivotal. Johnston and Raven's (1986) studied the effects of desiccation on the fucoid brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, while similar studies on the saccate brown seaweed Colpomenia peregrina were conducted by Oates (1985). Lewis (1968) conducted early synoptic evaluations of the effects of water movement on rocky shore communities, while Kitching and Ebling (1967) gave detailed assessments of seaweed populations within estuarine tidal rapids in Ireland. Basically estuarine tidal rapids represent areas of enhanced nutrients, oxygen and light availability, plus reduced sedimentation (Mathieson et al. (1983). The physiological effects of light have probably been evaluated more than any single abiotic factor and two areas of importance are cited here. The critical papers by Levring (1947) on submarine illumination and those of Ramus (1978) and Littler and Littler (1980) on algal form and light response. Several areas of future studies are also suggested, which may further enhance our understanding of seaweed adaptations. In summary, five major abiotic factors affecting coastal and estuarine seaweed populations will be discussed, their importance to seaweeds noted, and "key" findings for several significant papers summarized. [source]


    SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES OF AN EPHEMERAL POND SYSTEM IN SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2000
    M.R. Kokolis
    The Grafton Ponds Natural Area is a 151 hectare preserve in York County, Virginia, approximately 56km north of the City of Norfolk. The preserve contains over 40 ephemeral ponds. These ponds which are filled seasonally by precipitation and groundwater discharge, are typically wet from late fall through late spring or early summer. Pond size varies from 0.1 to 2 ha, and depths range from 4 cm to 3 meters. The first phase of this study was to examine the physical and chemical characteristics of five of these ponds, including pond size and depth, inundation period, water temperature, pH, and phosphate and ammonium concentrations. The second phase, which is currently underway, is to examine the phytoplankton assemblages, relating differences in the phytoplankton populations to the varying physical and chemical characteristics of the ponds. To date, analysis indicates Chlorophytes and Cyanobacteria as dominant groups in the winter and spring with diatoms becoming more abundant in the late summer and fall. Periodic Dinoflagellate blooms also occur. Analysis also indicates rapid turnover of species from month to month. [source]


    EFFECTS OF DAM IMPOUNDMENT ON THE FLOOD REGIME OF NATURAL FLOODPLAIN COMMUNITIES IN THE UPPER CONNECTICUT RIVER,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 6 2002
    Keith H. Nislow
    ABSTRACT: Understanding the effects of dams on the inundation regime of natural floodplain communities is critical for effective decision making on dam management or dam removal. To test the implications of hydrologic alteration by dams for floodplain natural communities, we conducted a combined field and modeling study along two reaches in the Connecticut River Rapids Macrosite (CRRM), one of the last remaining flowing water sections of the Upper Connecticut River. We surveyed multiple channel cross sections at both locations and concurrently identified and surveyed the elevations of important natural communities, native species of concern, and nonnative invasive species. Using a hydrologic model, HEC-RAS, we routed estimated pre-and post-impoundment discharges of different design recurrence intervals (two year through 100 year floods) through each reach to establish corresponding reductions in elevation and effective wetted perimeter following post-dam discharge reductions. By comparing (1) the frequency and duration of flooding of these surfaces before and after impoundment and (2) the total area flooded at different recurrence intervals, our goal was to derive a spatially explicit assessment of hydrologic alteration, directly relevant to natural floodplain communities. Post-impoundment hydrologic alteration profoundly affected the subsequent inundation regime, and this impact was particularly true of higher floodplain terraces. These riparian communities, which were flooded, on average, every 20 to 100 years pre-impoundment, were predicted to flood at 100 , 100 year intervals, essentially isolating them completely from riverine influence. At the pre-dam five to ten year floodplain elevations, we observed smaller differences in predicted flood frequency but substantial differences in the total area flooded and in the average flood duration. For floodplain forests in the Upper Connecticut River, this alteration by impoundment suggests that even if other stresses facing these communities (human development, invasive exotics) were alleviated, this may not be sufficient to restore intact natural communities. More generally, our approach provides a way to combine site specific variables with long term gage records in assessing the restorative potential of dam removal. [source]


    WHY DO COMMUNITIES MOBILIZE AGAINST GROWTH: GROWTH PRESSURES, COMMUNITY STATUS, METROPOLITAN HIERARCHY, OR STRATEGIC INTERACTION?

    JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2009
    MAI THI NGUYEN
    ABSTRACT:,Findings from this study challenge the conventional wisdom about the motivations for local growth control. Using data of California ballot box growth controls merged with city level demographic and housing data from the U.S. Census Bureau, logit models are estimated to test four hypotheses for why communities mobilize against growth. Of the four hypotheses, growth pressures, community status, metropolitan hierarchy, and strategic interaction, the only hypothesis that was strongly supported by the logistic regression analyses was strategic interaction. Support for the strategic interaction hypothesis reveals that jurisdictions located in regions where growth control policies are more abundant have a higher probability of mobilizing against growth. In other words, jurisdictions' growth control policies influence the growth decisions made by neighboring jurisdictions within the same region. One of the most surprising findings in the logistic regression analyses is that low-income suburbs are significantly more likely to mobilize against growth than high-income suburbs. These results refute the commonly held belief that growth control is strictly a concern of elite communities and suggest that residents of low-income suburbs may be turning to the ballot box to control growth because their communities are the locations of choice for noxious land uses. [source]


    GATED COMMUNITIES AND SPATIAL INEQUALITY

    JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2007
    ELENA VESSELINOV
    ABSTRACT:,In this article we analyze gated communities as a nexus of social and spatial relations within the context of urban inequality. We apply Tickamyer's (2000) sociological framework for incorporating space into the study of inequality, which allows us to substantiate the arguments that the process of gating increases urban inequality. The contributions of this article are three: (1) We generate a new systematic theoretical approach toward the study of gated communities, which we consider as middle range theory; (2) We argue that gated communities reproduce the existing levels of social stratification and that they also define a new, permanent differentiation order in the spatial organization of cities in the United States (in this respect we also arrive at six hypotheses, which can be tested in future research); (3) We introduce the term "gating machine," where the combination of the interests and actions of local governments, real estate developers, the media, and consumers suggest that prevailing structural conditions assure the future proliferation of gated communities. [source]


    RENEWING PEOPLE AND PLACES: INSTITUTIONAL INVESTMENT POLICIES THAT ENHANCE SOCIAL CAPITAL AND IMPROVE THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT OF DISTRESSED COMMUNITIES

    JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 5 2006
    REX L. LAMORE
    ABSTRACT:,The challenges confronting distressed communities in the United States are complex and multifaceted. Communities large and small have been significantly affected by a myriad of social, environmental, and economic forces, including a continuing decline in manufacturing employment, uncontrolled sprawl, and the transition to a global economy. The traditional choice between a "place-based" theory of redevelopment strategy versus a "people-focused" theory no longer seems feasible or appropriate. This article outlines sustainable development as an alternative strategy that combines a place-based development strategy, a human development focus, and an environmentally mindful approach. It posits that there exists a direct positive relationship between the creation of social capital, the redevelopment of the built environment utilizing sustainable development practices, and community-based organizations in distressed communities. Furthermore, the authors suggest that through community investment,a socially responsible investment strategy,institutions of higher education can facilitate the rebuilding of communities by providing financial capital while gaining a moderate yet secure financial return as well as a substantial social return. [source]


    A NEW WAY OF REVITALIZING DISTRESSED URBAN COMMUNITIES?

    JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 5 2006
    ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE FEDERAL EMPOWERMENT ZONE PROGRAM
    ABSTRACT:,The Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community Initiative of 1993 offered targeted funding and tax incentives to distressed urban and rural communities. This initiative required a community-involvement component, setting it apart from more traditional economic development initiatives of the Reagan and Bush administrations. Using reports required by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and census data, this study examines the programmatic emphases of four of the original six urban zones and evaluates the overall impact of zone programs on socioeconomic trends. These trends are evaluated by matching zone-designated census tracts to nonzone tracts through a propensity-score matching model using 1990 census data. Trends in poverty and other socioeconomic outcomes are measured by 1990,2000 change at the census tract level for individual zones, as well as across all zones using a series of fixed-effect models. Findings indicate that community building and involvement initiatives received the least amount of funding. Traditional economic development programs received the most emphasis but this did not translate into positive socioeconomic outcomes. With the exception of a few isolated incidences where individual zones fared better than comparison areas, zone initiatives had little impact. [source]


    STRUCTURING GLOBAL DEMOCRACY: POLITICAL COMMUNITIES, UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS, AND TRANSNATIONAL REPRESENTATION

    METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 1 2009
    CAROL C. GOULD
    Abstract: The emergence of cross-border communities and transnational associations requires new ways of thinking about the norms involved in democracy in a globalized world. Given the significance of human rights fulfillment, including social and economic rights, I argue here for giving weight to the claims of political communities while also recognizing the need for input by distant others into the decisions of global governance institutions that affect them. I develop two criteria for addressing the scope of democratization in transnational contexts,common activities and impact on basic human rights,and argue for their compatibility. I then consider some practical implications for institutional transformation and design, including new forms of transnational representation. [source]


    BIOEROSIVE STRUCTURES OF SCLEROZOAN FORAMINIFERA FROM THE LOWER PLIOCENE OF SOUTHERN SPAIN: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PALAEOECOLOGY OF MARINE HARD SUBSTRATE COMMUNITIES

    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    A. SANTOS
    Abstract:, A palaeoecological study of sclerozoan foraminifera of the families Saccamminidae (aff. Sagenina), Lituolidae (Placopsilina), Cibicididae (Cibicides, Dyocibicides, Cibicidella) and Planorbulinidae (Planorbulina and Planorbulinella) that colonized epifaunal bivalves (ostreids and pectinids) during the early Pliocene in southern Spain has led to the recognition of two new boring ichnogenera: Camarichnus ichnogen. nov., with two ichnospecies, C. subrectangularis ichnosp. nov. and C. arcuatus ichnosp. nov., and Canalichnus ichnogen. nov., with one ichnospecies, C. tenuis ichnosp. nov. The first two ichnospecies were produced by adnate lituolids and cibicidids, the last by saccamminids. Their recognition is very important when quantifying populations of these organisms. Colonisation took place after death of the host bivalves, when they acted as very stable substrates whose topography probably controlled the initial settlement pattern of the foraminifera. The colonisation sequence started with the foraminifera (lituolids-saccamminids-cibicidids-planorbulinids) and was followed by vermetid gastropods, serpulids, spirorbids, cheilostome bryozoans and/or ostreids. Preferred orientations and overgrowth relationships between cheilostome bryozoans and serpulids have been detected in this material. [source]


    THE BLUR: BALANCING APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY, ACTIVISM, AND SELF VIS-À-VIS IMMIGRANT COMMUNITIES

    ANNALS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2009
    Alayne Unterberger
    Anthropologists who work with immigrant communities engage in culture change while balancing challenges, competing priorities, and politics. This Bulletin provides a rare view into the personal and professional when working as both an advocate and an academic simultaneously. I provide a basic overview of the history of anthropologists engaging immigrant communities, which overlaps with the movement of anthropology and education, Americanization projects, and refugee anthropology. Next, I present an overview of three themes that emerge from the articles in this Bulletin. I end with a series of discussion points that could be utilized for classes or as a framework for anthropologists engaged with vulnerable immigrant groups in social change. I appreciate the amazing efforts of all the contributors in this Bulletin and the unwavering support provided to us by David Himmelgreen and Satish Kedia, coeditors of the NAPA Bulletin series, without which this Bulletin would not have happened at all. [source]


    Juramentos AND Mandas: TRADITIONAL CATHOLIC PRACTICES AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN MEXICAN COMMUNITIES OF SOUTHEASTERN PENNSYLVANIA

    ANNALS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2009
    Víctor García
    This article describes the use of traditional Catholic beliefs and practices by Mexican sojourners in southeastern Pennsylvania to deal with and overcome substance abuse. Two practices in particular are the focus: juramentos and mandas. Juramentos are ritual promises to a saint, made by a drinker or drug user, to abstain from drinking or using drugs; whereas mandas are requests or pleas for divine intervention in protecting a loved one from dangers, including from substance abuse, made by the wives and mothers of the substance users. These religious practices were observed and studied while conducting alcohol and drug abuse research in southeastern Pennsylvania and teaching an ethnographic field school in Mexican sending communities to this region of the United States. [source]


    TESTING ASSUMPTIONS OF NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS: COMMUNITIES, WORKSHOPS AND PASTE PREPARATION IN YUCATAN, MEXICO,

    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 2 2000
    D. E. ARNOLD
    Contemporary pottery and raw materials (N= 170) from three workshops in Ticul, Yucatán, were analysed by neutron activation to test the hypothesis that individual workshops that used their own clay sources could be identified by their pottery. Although the data failed to confirm the hypothesis, the results reinforced previous conclusions about the relationship of local communities of potters to the chemical patterning of pottery made in these communities. [source]


    NO COMMUNITY IS AN ISLAND: THE EFFECTS OF RESOURCE DEPRIVATION ON URBAN VIOLENCE IN SPATIALLY AND SOCIALLY PROXIMATE COMMUNITIES,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    DANIEL P. MEARS
    The link between resource deprivation and urban violence has long been explored in criminological research. Studies, however, have largely ignored the potential for resource deprivation in particular communities to affect rates of violence in others. The relative inattention is notable because of the strong theoretical grounds to anticipate influences that extend both to geographically contiguous areas and to those that, though not contiguous, share similar social characteristics. We argue that such influences,what we term spatial and social proximity effects, respectively,constitute a central feature of community dynamics. To support this argument, we develop and test theoretically derived hypotheses about spatial and social proximity effects of resource deprivation on aggregated and disaggregated homicide counts. Our analyses indicate that local area resource deprivation contributes to violence in socially proximate communities, an effect that, in the case of instrumental homicides, is stronger when such communities are spatially proximate. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for theories focused on community-level social processes and violence, and for policies aimed at reducing crime in disadvantaged areas. [source]


    COMMUNITY, OBLIGATION, AND FOOD: LESSONS FROM THE MORAL GEOGRAPHY OF INUIT

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2010
    Nicole Gombay
    ABSTRACT. Using Inuit as an illustration, this article discusses what it means to live in community, and argues that by taking people's moral geographies into account one may understand more fully the make-up of community. The article maintains that their moral geography creates a feeling among Inuit of obligation for the other. It is this obligation that serves as the basis for community. The article theorizes about the implications of internalized mores based on obligation, and discusses how, in contrast to the concept of rights, such mores contribute to the formation and maintenance of community. The article concludes that developing a situated understanding of people's moral geographies may help to expand our comprehension of community construction and maintenance. [source]


    THEIR SPACE: SECURITY AND SERVICE WORKERS IN A BRAZILIAN GATED COMMUNITY,

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 4 2008
    JACQUELYN CHASE
    ABSTRACT. This study examines the role of service workers in creating a secure landscape in a zone of gated communities near Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Most research on gated communities emphasizes their segregation and formal security apparatuses. In fact, gated communities interact with surrounding rural settlements because they draw their service employees from them. Security emerges from informal relationships of trust that property owners establish with service workers. Gardeners, especially, enable homeowners to project their property investment to others through landscaping. Equally of importance, a manicured garden conveys the message that a home is receiving daily attention,and is secure,even if the owner is not present. The study probes this interdependence from the point of view of gardeners in the context of one gated community in an area south of Belo Horizonte and the attempts by members of its homeowners association to minimize the sense of fear they associate with the Brazilian city. [source]


    EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY (EAC): Regional Food Strategy

    AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 2 2010
    Article first published online: 1 APR 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY: Landmark Step

    AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 11 2010
    Article first published online: 18 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY: Monetary Union Consultations

    AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 8 2009
    Article first published online: 1 OCT 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY: Investment Conference

    AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 7 2009
    Article first published online: 27 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY: Budget 2009/2010

    AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 6 2009
    Article first published online: 30 JUL 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]