Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Commitment

  • affective commitment
  • affective organizational commitment
  • cell lineage commitment
  • civil commitment
  • continuance commitment
  • credible commitment
  • employee commitment
  • financial commitment
  • full commitment
  • institutional commitment
  • international commitment
  • lineage commitment
  • long-term commitment
  • management commitment
  • marital commitment
  • member commitment
  • moral commitment
  • mutual commitment
  • normative commitment
  • ontological commitment
  • organisational commitment
  • organizational commitment
  • personal commitment
  • policy commitment
  • political commitment
  • prior commitment
  • professional commitment
  • relationship commitment
  • religious commitment
  • resource commitment
  • social commitment
  • strategic commitment
  • time commitment
  • work commitment

  • Terms modified by Commitment

  • commitment level
  • commitment period
  • commitment problem
  • commitment therapy

  • Selected Abstracts


    When fixed, sunk investment costs are high, firms may not have sufficient incentive to enter the market unless future entry is constrained. In this case, the government faces a dilemma between a full commitment and noncommitment of restricted future entry. A way out is to consider a commitment conditional on the realization of the uncertain parameters, such as the trigger-point mechanism (TPM) that sets conditions on current production level, excess capacity, and demand growth under which future entry will be allowed. This article shows that the TPM facilitates the incumbents' collusion but may improve social welfare under certain circumstances. (JEL L13, L43, L50, H10, H54) [source]


    Previous discussion of knowledge work and workers tends to overlook the importance of contextual knowledge in shaping the organizational form of knowledge workers who are employees in large corporations. This paper proposes a model to understand the way knowledge base and organizational form are related to the work commitment, effort and job satisfaction of knowledge workers. The model is derived from (1) a critical examination of the market model of knowledge work organization, and (2) the results of empirical research conducted in two large corporations. We argue that contextual knowledge is important in the relationships between the corporation and knowledge workers. A dualistic model and an enclave organizational form are suggested to examine the relationships between the commitment, work effort and job satisfaction of knowledge workers. We noted from our empirical cases that enclave-like work teams enhanced the expertise and job autonomy of knowledge workers vis-à-vis management. These work teams together with the performance-based pay system, however, led to unmet job expectations including limited employee influence over decision-making and careers, and communication gaps with senior management. Under these circumstances, and in contrast to the impact of occupational commitment, organizational commitment did not contribute to work effort. The study highlights the importance of management's strategy in shaping the organizational form of knowledge work. The paper concludes by noting general implications of our study for the management of expertise and for further research. [source]


    This field experiment investigated the effects of exchange-inducing treatments on pre- and postentry commitment of military recruits. Behavioral (volunteering for combat service and turnover), intentional (willingness to commit to combat service), and attitudinal (commitment, satisfaction, perceived fairness, and perceived choice variety) outcomes are examined. Two exchange-inducing experimental groups, one receiving realistic job preview and another receiving decisionmaking training, were compared to 3 control groups. Results indicated that preentry commitment was significantly higher among participants in the exchange-inducing conditions. However, the effect of decisionmaking training lasted longer than the effect of realistic job preview. [source]


    Berit Brogaard
    With the aid of some results from current linguistic theory, I examine a recent anti-Fregean line with respect to hybrid talk of numbers and ordinary things, such as ,The number of moons of Jupiter is four'. I conclude that the anti-Fregean line with respect to these sentences is indefensible. [source]

    Limited Commitment in Multi-agent Contracting,

    Gerald A. Feltham

    The Efficacy of Third-Party Consultation in Preventing Managerial Escalation of Commitment: The Role of Mental Representations,

    Abstract Avoiding continued investment in poorly performing projects is an important function of management control systems. However, prior research suggests that managers fail to use accounting information indicating that a project is performing poorly to discontinue it; that is, they escalate commitment to the project. We perform two experiments to investigate the efficacy of a potential control mechanism, third-party consultation, in preventing managerial escalation of commitment. We hypothesize that the information-processing objective (that is, purpose) assigned to consultants influences the mental representations they construct to process and store information, which ultimately influences their recommendations regarding the continuation of a poorly performing project. Results suggest that consultants will not construct mental representations amenable to making high-quality project-continuation recommendations unless they are assigned that specific purpose. Results further suggest that applying additional effort likely will not overcome the adverse effects of having inappropriate mental representations when making project-continuation recommendations. An implication of our study is that third-party consultants likely will not prevent managerial escalation of commitment unless consultants have a specific mandate of making a project-continuation recommendation in mind when they encounter relevant accounting information. [source]

    Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    Elko Kleinschmidt
    Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed, functionally, geographically and culturally. To this end, an IT-communication strength is essential, one that is nested in an internal organizational environment that ensures its effective functioning. Using organizational information processing (OIP) theory as a framework, superior global NPD program performance is shown to result from an effective IT/Communication strength and the commitment components of the firm's internal environment, which are hypothesized to moderate this relationship. IT/Communication strength is identified in this study in terms of two components including the IT/Comm Infrastructure and IT/Comm Capability of the firm, whereas the moderating internal environment of the firm incorporates Resource Commitment and Senior Management Involvement. Data from a major empirical study of international NPD programs (382 SBUs) are used to develop and test this model. Based on a hierarchical regression analysis, the results are substantially supportive, with some unexpected findings. These shed light on the complex relationships of the firm's internal environment, OIP competency, and global NPD program performance. [source]

    Community Supported Agriculture, Food Consumption Patterns, and Member Commitment

    Assistant Professor Carol Goland
    First page of article [source]

    Supply Chain Conflict Due to Store Brands: The Value of Wholesale Price Commitment in a Retail Supply Chain,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 2 2010
    Ana Groznik
    ABSTRACT Store brands are of increasing importance in retail supply chains, often causing channel conflict, as the retailer's product directly competes with the manufacturer's national brand. Extant research on the resulting channel interactions either assumes the national brand manufacturer can credibly commit to maintaining a wholesale price or that he lacks such ability. However, these two scenarios imply very different supply chain interactions, as only a national brand manufacturer with commitment ability can strategically adjust a national brand wholesale price to prevent a store brand introduction by the retailer. We specifically analyze the impact of this assumption on the manufacturer, the retailer, and the customers. We determine when long-term contracts that provide the manufacturer with such commitment ability can improve supply chain profitability. [source]

    The Impact of Forecast Errors on Early Order Commitment in a Supply Chain,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 2 2002
    Xiande Zhao
    ABSTRACT Supply chain partnership involves mutual commitments among participating firms. One example is early order commitment, wherein a retailer commits to purchase a fixed-order quantity and delivery time from a supplier before the real need takes place. This paper explores the value of practicing early order commitment in the supply chain. We investigate the complex interactions between early order commitment and forecast errors by simulating a supply chain with one capacitated supplier and multiple retailers under demand uncertainty. We found that practicing early order commitment can generate significant savings in the supply chain, but the benefits are only valid within a range of order commitment periods. Different components of forecast errors have different cost implications to the supplier and the retailers. The presence of trend in the demand increases the total supply chain cost, but makes early order commitment more appealing. The more retailers sharing the same supplier, the more valuable for the supply chain to practice early order commitment. Except in cases where little capacity cushion is available, our findings are relatively consistent in the environments where cost structure, number of retailers, capacity utilization, and capacity policy are varied. [source]

    Commitment and response to inductive signals of primary mesenchyme cells of the sea urchin embryo

    Masato Kiyomoto
    In the sea urchin embryo, primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) are committed to produce the larval skeleton, although their behavior and skeleton production are influenced by signals from the embryonic environment. Results from our recent studies showed that perturbation of skeleton development, by interfering with ectoderm,extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, is linked to a reduction in the gene expression of a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta growth factor, Pl-univin, suggesting a reduction in the blastocoelic amounts of the protein and its putative involvement in signaling events. In the present study, we examined PMC competence to respond to environmental signals in a validated skeleton perturbation model in Paracentrotus lividus. We found that injection of blastocoelic fluid (BcF), obtained from normal embryos, into the blastocoelic cavity of skeleton-defective embryos rescues skeleton development. In addition, PMC from skeleton-defective embryos transplanted into normal or PMC-less blastula embryos are able to position in correct regions of the blastocoel and to engage spicule elongation and patterning. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PMC commitment to direct skeletogenesis is maintained in skeleton perturbed embryos and confirm the role played by inductive signals in regulating skeleton growth and shape. [source]

    Form before Substance: Eisenhower's Commitment to Psychological Warfare and Negotiations with the Enemy

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 3 2000
    Kenneth A. Osgood

    Herding Behaviour and the Size of Customer Base as a Commitment to Quality

    ECONOMICA, Issue 267 2000
    Chong Ju Choi
    This paper refers to herding behaviour as developed in Bikhchandani et al. (1992), Bannerjee (1992) and Choi and Scarpa (1994). We examine the behaviour of a potential customer who does not know how many of her predecessorsdecided not to purchase the product. We show that, ceteris paribus,a smaller (larger) customer base increases the likelihood of a positive(negative) cascade. Hence, a firm can signal its commitment to high quality(Schelling 1960) by choosing to develop a customer base that relies upon thecustomer's ,private' information rather than one that relies on an informational cascade. [source]

    Anonymity versus Commitment: the dangers of education on the Internet

    Hubert L. Dreyfus
    First page of article [source]

    Four Bases of Family Business Successor Commitment: Antecedents and Consequences

    Pramodita Sharma
    Although successor commitment toward family business has been identified as a key desirable attribute, commitment has been treated as a unidimensional construct in family business research. Drawing on the organizational commitment literature, we propose four bases of successor commitment to family firm,affective (based on perceived desire), normative (based on perceived sense of obligation), calculative (based on perceived opportunity costs involved), and imperative (based on perceived need). A model of antecedents and expected behavioral outcomes of each of these bases of commitment is developed. Related propositions are presented, as are the contributions to the literature, research and practical implications. [source]

    Credible Commitment in Non-Independent Regulatory Agencies: A Comparative Analysis of the European Agencies for Pharmaceuticals and Foodstuffs

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 5 2004
    Sebastian Krapohl
    Usually, these agencies evolve from EU committees and take over most of their structures. Accordingly, like most EU committees and the Commission, regulatory agencies are not independent, but act under the control of the member states. The question is, how far do they indicate a credible commitment of the Member States to long-term policy goals like health and consumer protection. This article compares the institutional structures and decision-making rules of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products and of the newly established European Food Safety Authority, in order to clarify the extent of credible commitment that the Member States show through the setting-up of these agencies. It concludes that the commitment of the Member States in the foodstuff sector is not as deep as in the pharmaceutical sector, and that the creation of the European Food Safety Authority will not lead to a success story similar to that of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. [source]

    Communication, Conflict, and Commitment: Insights on the Foundations of Relationship Success from a National Survey

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2002
    Scott M. Stanley Ph.D.
    The key relationship dynamics of communication, conflict, and commitment were investigated using data from a randomly sampled, nationwide phone survey of adults in married, engaged, and cohabiting relationships. Findings on communication and conflict generally replicated those of studies using more in depth or objective measurement strategies. Negative interaction between partners was negatively associated with numerous measures of relationship quality and positively correlated with divorce potential (thinking or talking about divorce). Withdrawal during conflict by either or both partners, thought quite common, was associated with more negativity and less positive connection in relationships. The most frequently reported issue that couples argue about in first marriages was money, and in re-marriages it was conflict about children. Overall, how couples argue was more related to divorce potential than was what they argue about, although couples who argue most about money tended to have higher levels of negative communication and conflict than other couples. Further, while the male divorce potential was more strongly linked to levels of negative interaction, the female was more strongly linked to lower positive connection in the relationship. Consistent with the commitment literature, higher reported commitment was associated with less alternative monitoring, less feeling trapped in the relationship, and greater relationship satisfaction. [source]

    Women Working in a Greedy Institution: Commitment and Emotional Labour in the Union Movement

    Suzanne Franzway
    This paper seeks to move beyond the restrictions of limited representations of women's participation in the union movement. Through a focus on the union movement as a ,greedy institution', it is argued that women's union involvement requires complex and dynamic negotiations with its gendered discourses and practices. As a greedy institution, the union movement demands considerable depth of commitment and loyalty, as well as high levels of work and emotional labour. Based on a study of a network of women union officials, this paper discusses the ways women interpret three main aspects of trade union work: commitment, workload and emotional labour. I argue that the strategies the women officials employ do not remain static within a limited frame of gender difference from men. Rather, they must engage with the effects of male dominance of the union movement as well as the difficulties associated with union activism, family, service to members, leadership, and care in order to take up the political opportunities available in this greedy institution. [source]

    Art As Religious Commitment: Kafka's Debt to Kierkegaardian Ideas and their Impact on his Late Stories

    Leena Eilttä
    Although Kafka's reception of Kierkegaardian ideas has received much critical attention the critics have so far paid little heed to similarities between Kierke-gaard's religious and Kafka's aesthetic views. My intention in the following is to show that in spite of Kafka's critical remarks on his philosophy, Kierkegaard's definition of a religious person influenced his description of the artist's existence in Erstes Leid (1922), Ein Hungerkünstler (1922) and Josefine, die Sängerin oder das Volk der Mäuse (1924). In these stories Kafka turns Kierkegaard's ideas about spiritual inwardness and passionate attitude towards religious life into artistic inwardness and passionate attitude towards art. He also describes how devotion that these artists feel towards their art leads to their solitude and how their lives reflect suffering, doubt and despair which is similar to Kierkegaard's description of religious suffering. Kafka's critical remarks on Kierkegaard's philosophy should therefore be understood as a clear rejection of Kierkegaard's Protestant theology, although these same ideas gave him inspiration to formulate his views on the artist's existence. [source]

    Employed Family Physician Satisfaction and Commitment to Their Practice, Work Group, and Health Care Organization

    Ben-Tzion Karsh
    Objective. Test a model of family physician job satisfaction and commitment. Data Sources/Study Setting. Data were collected from 1,482 family physicians in a Midwest state during 2000,2001. The sampling frame came from the membership listing of the state's family physician association, and the analyzed dataset included family physicians employed by large multispecialty group practices. Study Design and Data Collection. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data about physician working conditions, job satisfaction, commitment, and demographic variables. Principal Findings. The response rate was 47 percent. Different variables predicted the different measures of satisfaction and commitment. Satisfaction with one's health care organization (HCO) was most strongly predicted by the degree to which physicians perceived that management valued and recognized them and by the extent to which physicians perceived the organization's goals to be compatible with their own. Satisfaction with one's workgroup was most strongly predicted by the social relationship with members of the workgroup; satisfaction with one's practice was most strongly predicted by relationships with patients. Commitment to one's workgroup was predicted by relationships with one's workgroup. Commitment to one's HCO was predicted by relationships with management of the HCO. Conclusions. Social relationships are stronger predictors of employed family physician satisfaction and commitment than staff support, job control, income, or time pressure. [source]

    Optimal Thermal Unit Commitment Integrated with Renewable Energy Sources Using Advanced Particle Swarm Optimization

    Shantanu Chakraborty Student member
    Abstract This paper presents a methodology for solving generation planning problem for thermal units integrated with wind and solar energy systems. The renewable energy sources are included in this model due to their low electricity cost and positive effect on environment. The generation planning problem also known by unit commitment problem is solved by a genetic algorithm operated improved binary particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Unlike trivial PSO, this algorithm runs the refinement process through the solutions within multiple populations. Some genetic algorithm operators such as crossover, elitism, and mutation are stochastically applied within the higher potential solutions to generate new solutions for next population. The PSO includes a new variable for updating velocity in accordance with population best along with conventional particle best and global best. The algorithm performs effectively in various sized thermal power system with equivalent solar and wind energy system and is able to produce high quality (minimized production cost) solutions. The solution model is also beneficial for reconstructed deregulated power system. The simulation results show the effectiveness of this algorithm by comparing the outcome with several established methods. Copyright © 2009 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Instructive cytokine signals in dendritic cell lineage commitment

    Michael A. Schmid
    Summary:, Clarifying the signals that lead to dendritic cell (DC) development and identifying cellular intermediates on their way to DC differentiation are essential steps to understand the dynamic regulation of number, localization, and functionality of these cells. In the past decade, much knowledge on cytokines, transcription factors, and successive progenitors involved in steady-state and demand-adapted DC development was gained. From the stage of multipotent progenitors, DCs are generated from Flt3+ intermediates, irrespective of lymphoid or myeloid commitment, making fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand one of the major regulators for DC development. Additional key cytokines involved are granulocyte,macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and M-CSF, with each being essential for particular DC subsets and leading to specific activation of downstream transcription factors. In this review, we seek to draw an integrative view on how instructive cytokine signals acting on intermediate progenitors might lead to the generation of specific DC subsets in steady-state and during inflammation. We hypothesize that the lineage potential of a progenitor might be determined by the set of cytokine receptors expressed that make it responsive to further receive lineage instructive signals. Commitment to a certain lineage might consequently occur when lineage-relevant cytokine receptors are further upregulated and others for alternative lineages are lost. Along this line, we emphasize the role that diverse microenvironments have in influencing the generation of DC subsets with specific functions throughout the body. [source]

    If You Can Use Them: Flexibility Policies, Organizational Commitment, and Perceived Performance

    Article first published online: 25 MAR 200, Susan C. Eaton
    This study links workplace flexibility policies,formal, informal, and perceived usable,to organizational commitment and self-reported productivity. Professional and technical employees of biotechnology firms were surveyed. Where employees could freely use policies, a positive association with outcomes is found. The article contributes a new measure to capture employees' organizational experience, relevant to work and family research. [source]

    Commitment to Company and Union: Evidence from Hong Kong

    Ed Snape
    This article examines the pattern and antecedents of employee commitment to company and union in the Hong Kong context. Findings are consistent with those from the United States. In general, company and union commitment have different antecedents, although the perceived industrial relations climate is a common predictor. Dual commitment is in evidence. Union membership is a function of union commitment. The findings caution against attempts to explain the pattern of Hong Kong industrial relations purely in terms of culture. [source]

    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management's Commitment to Scientific Discourse

    Dr. Lawrence Barnthouse

    Commitment to the union: a survey of research and the implications for industrial relations and trade unions

    Ed Snape
    This paper presents an overview of the literature on union commitment. The aim is to survey the main approaches, findings and implications of the research. The nature and dimensionality of union commitment are examined, and the antecedents and consequences of union commitment are discussed in detail, including a review of the implications for union participation. There is also a discussion of the possibility of dual commitment to union and employer, and of the ,multiple constituencies' view of commitment. An attempt is made to link the union commitment findings to the wider industrial relations literature on, for example, why people join unions and the ,union renewal' thesis. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the literature for union,management relationships and for unions themselves, and with some suggestions for future research. [source]

    Caregivers' strong commitment to their relationship with older people

    Elisabeth Häggström RNT PhD
    Häggström E, Mamhidir, A-G, Kihlgren A. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2010; 16: 99,105 Caregivers' strong commitment to their relationship with older people The aim of the present study was to describe caregivers' good as well as bad experiences of working with older people. The study was based on five focus group interviews. One theme emerged from a latent content analysis: strong commitment to the relationship. This theme functioned as a thread of underlying meaning throughout the entire interpretative process of 48 caregivers' experiences of work. A delicate relationship existed that could be vulnerable and could reveal itself in feelings of lack of knowledge, guilt and fear. The caregivers' committed relationship to the older adults created independency in the ways in which they protected the older people's needs. Further studies are needed that focus on caregivers' transition from dependency to independency. The findings highlight the importance of clinical supervision to personal development and identity, and to promoting caregivers' self-esteem and maintaining a committed relationship. Commitment is a deep human feeling, and it should be promoted in order to maintain and further develop quality care for older adults. [source]

    The Theory and Practice of Economic Governance in EMU Revisited: What Have we Learnt About Commitment and Credibility?,

    This special issue asks commentators who made seminal contributions to our understanding of economic governance to revisit their analyses. This introductory article discusses the example of a major contribution, namely the ,advantage of tying one's hands' (Giavazzi and Pagano, 1988), relating it to the other contributions along the way. [source]

    Catholic Schooling, Protestant Schooling, and Religious Commitment in Young Adulthood

    Jeremy E. Uecker
    If and how Catholic and Protestant schools influence the religious lives of their students once they have graduated is unclear. Methodological limitations and inconsistencies in previous studies have resulted in confusing and often contradictory findings. Using data from two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N,= 11,212), I compare the religious lives of young adults who attended Catholic, Protestant, and secular schools as adolescents. The results suggest that Protestant schoolers are far more religious as young adults than those who attended a secular school, a difference that is at least partially explained by the schools' religious environment. But young adults who attended Catholic schools report levels of religiosity that are similar to those educated in a secular school, and are actually lower for some outcomes. Studies of religious schoolers that ignore the religious tradition of the school overlook these differing effects and forfeit statistical explanatory power. [source]

    Predictors of mammography uptake in Korean women aged 40 years and over

    Eunjung Ryu
    Abstract Title.,Predictors of mammography uptake in Korean women aged 40 years and over Aim., This paper is a report of a study performed to identify the predictors of mammography uptake for Korean women according to the stage of change, as determined by the transtheoretical model. Background., Although breast cancer is the most common female cancer in South Korea, its early detection rate here is low when compared with other developed countries. The transtheoretical model can be used to facilitate health promotion based on individual health behaviour and to devise stage-tailored interventions. Method., The participants were a convenience sample of 920 women aged ,40 years between December 2005 and February 2006. A cross-sectional design was used in which participants completed a questionnaire that consisted of measures of the transtheoretical model. To provide a standard of measure, the variables were converted from raw scores to standard scores and then to T scores (mean = 50, sd = 10). Logistic regression analysis was then used to estimate predictors of the stage of maintenance of mammography uptake. Findings., The most frequent stage of mammography uptake was ,contemplation'. Predictors of mammography uptake included decisional balance, commitment to regular screening and avoiding contact with the healthcare system. Commitment to regular screening and breast self-examination were strongly related to mammography maintenance. Conclusion., The results of this study can be used for the development of theory-based and empirically supported mammography uptake intervention strategies and programmes directed towards women aged ,40 years. [source]