Colonic Cancer (colonic + cancer)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Colonic Cancer

  • c colonic cancer

  • Selected Abstracts

    Reversal of expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 to cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with development of colonic cancer

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    M Yuri
    Aims:, Two different pathways of linoleic acid (LA) metabolism have opposite effects on the development of colonic cancer: a protumoral prostaglandin cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and an antitumoral peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-, ligands metabolized by 15-lipooxygenase (LOX)-1. The aim was to examine the switching of the two LA metabolic pathways in colonic adenomas and carcinomas. Materials and methods:, The expression of 15LOX-1 mRNA and COX-2 protein was examined in 54 adenomas, 21 pTis carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions and 36 pT3/p Stage II carcinomas of the colon by in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results:, 15LOX-1 expression was found in 89% (48 of 54) of adenomas, 43% (nine of 21) of adenomas and 10% (two of 21) of carcinomas in carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions, but not in pT3 carcinomas (P < 0.0001). In contrast, COX-2 production was found in 11% (six of 54) of adenomas, 52% (11 of 21) of adenomas and 71% (15 of 21) of carcinomas in carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions, and 92% (33 of 36) of pT3 carcinomas (P < 0.0001). Concurrence of 15LOX-1 down-regulation and COX-2 up-regulation was found in 6% (three of 54) of adenomas, 33% (seven of 21) of adenomas and 71% (15 of 21) of carcinomas in carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions, and 92% (33 of 36) of pT3 carcinomas (P < 0.0001). Conclusions:, These results suggest that switching of LA metabolism by reversal of the expression of 15LOX-1 and COX-2 is associated with acquisition of malignant potential in colonic neoplasia. [source]

    Incidence and odds ratio of appendicitis as first manifestation of colon cancer: A retrospective analysis of 1873 patients

    Hung-Wen Lai
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Obstruction of the lumen of the appendix is the major cause of appendicitis. Tumors could obstruct this lumen and cause appendicitis in the elderly. The association between appendicitis and colon cancer has not been sufficiently investigated, and this study was designed to clarify this association. Methods:, This was a retrospective study. Patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis from January 1998 to December 2003 at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital were surveyed. Patients found to have colon cancers immediately or subsequently after appendectomy were included and analyzed. Results:, A total of 1873 patients were diagnosed as having appendicitis of whom 16 were found to have colon cancer. The incidence of appendicitis associated with colon cancer was 0.85%. The time from appendectomy to the recognition of colonic cancer was at a median delay of 5.8 months. From the Taiwan Cancer Research Annual Report, the incidence of colon cancer was 31.91/100 000 in the year 2000. The odds ratio of colon cancer incidence had a 38.5-fold increase among patients older than 40 with acute appendicitis. Conclusions:, In patients over 40 years who present with symptoms of acute appendicitis the possibility of a coexistent colonic neoplasm should always be kept in mind. These patients should undergo colonoscopy 6 weeks after surgery to exclude the possibility of a coexistent colorectal cancer. [source]

    Novel colon-specific microspheres with highly dispersed hydroxycamptothecin cores: Their preparation, release behavior, and therapeutic efficiency against colonic cancer

    Bin Lu
    Abstract To increase therapeutic efficiency of hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) against colonic cancer and decrease its side-effects, highly dispersed HCPT was first incorporated in fast release microspheres. HCPT in the microspheres showed a solubility two times larger, and its cumulative release rate for 24 h in simulated colonic juice 140 times higher than that of free HCPT. The microspheres were then coated with a layer of Eudragit S100 by air suspension spray-drying method with a selfdesigned device to obtain colon-specific microspheres (HCPT,CSMS). The mean particle size of the microspheres was 200 µm before coating and 230 µm after coating. The in vitro cumulative release results for HCPT,CSMS in simulated gastric juice for 2 h, in simulated enteric juice for 4 h, and in simulated colonic juice for 18 h showed that over 60% of total HCPT released in simulated colonic juice in the initial 5 h. Animal tests with per os (po) administration showed that free HCPT was mainly absorbed in stomach and small intestine, while the HCPT in HCPT,CSMS was mainly delivered and absorbed in colon. po administration of HCPT,CSMS to nude mice with colonic cancer showed a cancer inhibition rate of 61.4% compared to 39.8% for free HCPT. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 95:2619,2630, 2006 [source]

    The effect of unfiltered coffee on potential biomarkers for colonic cancer risk in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that coffee use might protect against colorectal cancer. Inconsistencies as to the effect of coffee use and colorectal cancer between epidemiologic studies might be related to the type of coffee brew. Objective: We studied the effect of unfiltered coffee consumption on putative biomarkers for colonic cancer risk. Design: A total of 64 healthy volunteers (31 men and 33 women), with a mean age of 43 ± 11 years were randomly assigned to two groups in a crossover design, with two intervention periods of 2 weeks separated by a washout period of 8 weeks. Treatments were 1 L of cafetičre (French press) coffee daily or no coffee. At the end of each intervention period, fasting blood samples, colorectal biopsies and 48 h faeces were collected. Results: No effect of coffee on colorectal cell proliferation, assayed by estimating the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen labelling index, was seen. Additionally, no effects were seen on the concentrations of faecal soluble bile acids and colorectal mucosal glutathione S-transferase activity. However, unfiltered coffee significantly increased the glutathione content in the colorectal mucosa by 8% and in plasma by 15%. Other aminothiols in plasma also increased on coffee. Conclusion: Unfiltered coffee does not influence the colorectal mucosal proliferation rate, but might increase the detoxification capacity and anti-mutagenic properties in the colorectal mucosa through an increase in glutathione concentration. Whether this effect indeed contributes to a lower colon cancer risk remains to be established. [source]

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage C colonic cancer in a multidisciplinary setting

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 10 2009
    Pierre H. Chapuis
    Abstract Background:, In this study of patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for clinicopathological stage C colonic cancer after optimal surgery, the aims were: to describe their immediate experience of chemotherapy, to assess disease-free survival, to compare overall survival with that of a matched untreated historical control group, and to evaluate the associations between previously identified adverse risk factors and survival. Methods:, Data were drawn from a comprehensive, prospective hospital registry of resections for colorectal cancer between 1971 and 2004, with retrospective data on adjuvant chemotherapy. The main end point was overall survival. Statistical analysis employed the chi-squared test, Kaplan,Meier estimation and proportional hazards regression. Results:, From May 1992 to December 2004, there were 104 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Duration of treatment, withdrawal from treatment, toxicity and other immediate treatment outcomes were similar to those in other equivalent studies. There were no toxicity-associated deaths. Overall survival was significantly longer in the treated patients than in the control group (3-year rates 81% and 66%, respectively, P = 0.009). A significant protective effect of adjuvant therapy was found (hazard ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3,0.8, P = 0.001) after adjustment for histopathology features previously shown to be negatively associated with survival (high grade, venous invasion, apical node metastasis, free serosal surface involvement). Conclusions:, For patients who have had a curative resection for lymph node positive colonic cancer in a specialist colorectal surgical unit and been managed by a multidisciplinary team, post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy is safe and provides the same survival advantage as seen in randomized trials. [source]

    Factors influencing medical oncology referral in Dukes' C colonic cancer

    Cu-Tai LU
    Abstract Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and adjuvant chemotherapy is proven to improve survival in patients with Dukes' C CRC. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors influencing referral to medical oncology in patients with Dukes' C colonic cancer in our institutions. Methods: Patients who underwent resection for Dukes' C colonic cancer were assessed for factors that influence the pattern of postoperative referral to the medical oncology department, including demographic and perioperative data. Results: Overall, 466 patients were identified to have Dukes' C colonic cancer, with 53.9% of these being female. Referral to medical oncology occurred for 58.4% patients. Multivariable logistic regression modeling identified age, elective admission and resection in private hospitals as factors. The likelihood of medical oncology referral in patients who had elective resection was 63% versus 41% in those who had emergency resection and resection in private hospitals was 69% versus 50% in public hospitals. Conclusion: Referral to a postoperative medical oncology clinic for adjuvant chemotherapy in Dukes' C colonic cancer was more likely in younger patients, those who underwent elective resection and those treated in private hospitals. [source]

    Epidemiology and prognosis of ovarian metastases in colorectal cancer,

    J. Segelman
    Background: National guidelines for prophylactic oophorectomy in women with colorectal cancer are lacking. The aim of this population-based cohort study was to report on the prevalence, incidence and prognosis of ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer, providing information relevant to the discussion of prophylactic oophorectomy. Methods: All 4566 women with colorectal cancer in Stockholm County during 1995,2006 were included and followed until 2008. Prospectively collected data regarding clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome were obtained from the Regional Quality Registry. Results: The prevalence of ovarian metastases at the time of diagnosis of colorectal cancer was 1·1 per cent (34 of 3172) among women with colonic cancer and 0·6 per cent (8 of 1394) among those with rectal cancer (P = 0·105). After radical resection of stage I,III colorectal cancer, metachronous ovarian metastases were found during follow-up in 1·1 per cent (22 of 1971) with colonic cancer and 0·1 per cent (1 of 881) with rectal cancer (P = 0·006). Survival in patients with ovarian metastases was poor. Conclusion: Ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer are uncommon. Copyright © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Surgeons and selection of adjuvant therapy for node-negative colonic cancer

    P. G. Horgan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Accuracy of multidetector computed tomography in identifying poor prognostic factors in colonic cancer (Br J Surg 2010; 97: 1407,1415)

    A. Renehan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Therapeutic delay reduces survival of rectal cancer but not of colonic cancer (Br J Surg 2009; 96: 1183,1189)

    T. Fujita
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Authors' reply: Therapeutic delay reduces survival of rectal cancer but not of colonic cancer (Br J Surg 2009; 96: 1183,1189)

    L. H. Iversen
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Australasian Laparoscopic Colon Cancer Study shows that elderly patients may benefit from lower postoperative complication rates following laparoscopic versus open resection,

    R. A. Allardyce
    Background: A retrospective analysis of age-related postoperative morbidity in the Australia and New Zealand prospective randomized controlled trial comparing laparoscopic and open resection for right- and left-sided colonic cancer is presented. Methods: A total of 592 eligible patients were entered and studied from 1998 to 2005. Results: Data from 294 patients who underwent laparoscopic and 298 who had open colonic resection were analysed; 266 patients were aged less than 70 years and 326 were 70 years or older (mean(s.d.) 70·3(11·0) years). Forty-three laparoscopic operations (14·6 per cent) were converted to an open procedure. Fewer complications were reported for intention-to-treat laparoscopic resections compared with open procedures (P = 0·002), owing primarily to a lower rate in patients aged 70 years or more (P = 0·002). Fewer patients in the laparoscopic group experienced any complication (P = 0·035), especially patients aged 70 years or above (P = 0·019). Conclusion: Treatment choices for colonic cancer depend principally upon disease-free survival; however, patients aged 70 years or over should have rigorous preoperative investigation to avoid conversion and should be considered for laparoscopic colonic resection. Registration number: NCT00202111 ( Copyright © 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Value and cost of follow-up after adjuvant treatment of patients with Dukes' C colonic cancer (Br J Surg 2001; 88: 101,6)

    V. S. Menon
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Differences between Micellar Doxorubicin (NK911) and Liposomal Doxorubicin (Doxil)

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 10 2002
    Yoshihisa Tsukioka
    The stability and biological behavior of an in vitro system of doxorubicin (DXR) entrapped in NK911, polymer micelles, was examined and compared with those of DXR entrapped in Doxil, polyethylene-glycol-conjugated liposomes. The fluorescence of DXR inside micelles or liposomes in an aqueous solution is known to be strongly quenched by the outer shells of the micellar or liposomal formation. Thus, by measuring the fluorescence intensity of DXR released from NK911 or Doxil, we could determine the stability of the micellar or liposomal DXR formation. Furthermore, NK911 was found to be less stable than Doxil in saline solution. In drug distribution experiments using an in vitro solid tumor model, when spheroids formed from two human colonic cancer lines, HT-29 and WiDr, and a human stomach cancer line, MKN28, were exposed to NK911, DXR was distributed throughout the spheroids, including their center. On the other hand, when the spheroids were exposed to Doxil, DXR was distributed only to the surface of the spheroids. It has been suggested that Doxil can deliver DXR to a solid tumor more efficiently than NK911 via the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect, because Doxil may be more stable in plasma than NK911. On the other hand, DXR packed in NK911 may be distributed by diffusion to cancer cells distant from the tumor vessel, because NK911 can leak out of the tumor vessel and may be able to release free DXR more easily than Doxil. It has been suggested that drug carrier systems such as liposomes and micelles should be selected appropriately bearing in mind the characteristics of the tumor vasculature and the tumor interstitium. [source]

    The impact of spontaneous tumour perforation on outcome following colon cancer surgery

    COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 8 2008
    A. S. Abdelrazeq
    Abstract Objective, The impact of spontaneous tumour perforation on survival following surgery for colon cancer is unclear. This study compares survival outcomes for patients with perforated colonic cancer with stage-matched nonperforated cancer. Method, A prospective histological database was searched for all patients undergoing resection for adenocarcinoma of the colon between 1996 and 2002. Patients with T4 cancer were selected and classified into those with spontaneous perforation at the tumour site and those with nonperforated tumour. Patients with synchronous colonic and rectal cancers, familial polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, iatrogenic or remote colonic perforation were excluded. Histological variables were combined with clinical data obtained by case note review. Data were analysed for differences in demographics, histological variables, operative mortality, disease-free and overall survival. Multivariate analysis of factors predictive of overall survival in both groups was performed. Results, Of 960 patients identified, 52 patients had spontaneous tumour perforation and 82 patients served as the T-stage matched control group. Overall survival at 2 years was 47% and 54% and at 5 years was 28% and 33% for perforated and nonperforated cancers respectively. Patients with perforated cancers were more likely to present with metastatic disease and undergo emergency surgery with a higher 30-day mortality. There was a trend towards reduced overall survival in the perforated group (P = 0.06), but no difference in disease-free survival (P = 0.43). On multivariate testing, ,emergency surgery' and ,age >75 years' were the only independent predictors of mortality in the perforated and nonperforated group respectively. Conclusion, Both perforated and nonperforated T4 colon cancers have a poor prognosis. Spontaneous perforation of the cancer is associated with reduced overall survival, due to higher 30-day mortality, but in itself does not appear to significantly impact on disease-free survival. Rather, it is the advanced oncological stage at which perforated cancers present that determines outcome. [source]