Colonic Adenocarcinoma (colonic + adenocarcinoma)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Exfoliative sputum cytology of cancers metastatic to the lung,

Tehmina Z. Ali M.D.
Abstract Although largely replaced by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and bronchoscopy, cytological examination of sputum for exfoliated malignant cells still is considered a valuable initial diagnostic test in patients presenting with a lung mass. Thirty-five cases of secondary/metastatic tumors involving the lung and diagnosed on sputum were retrospectively reviewed from our cytopathology files for a period of 22 yr (1980,2001). Clinical history and the relevant histopathological material were examined and correlated with the cytological findings. In all cases, a history of malignancy was known. Cytological diagnoses included colonic adenocarcinoma (7 cases); non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; 5 cases); malignant melanoma (MM; 5 cases); breast carcinoma (5 cases); Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL; 3 cases); pancreatic adenocarcinoma (2 cases); prostatic adenocarcinoma (2 cases); and 1 case each of urothelial carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatic small-cell carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma (cervix), and leiomyosarcoma (LMS). Cellular preservation was optimal in all cases. The smear background was relatively clean in 25 (71%) cases and predominantly inflamed and/or necrotic in 10 (29%) cases. In non-lymphoid tumors (27 cases), isolated single malignant cells were seen in 7 (26%) cases (all cases of MM and prostatic adenocarcinoma), whereas 20 (74%) cases displayed fragments with intact tumor architecture. Overall, only 10/35 (29%) cases showed noticeable tumor-cell necrosis. In one case (LMS), cell block sections were used for immunoperoxidase (IPOX) studies with positive staining for desmin and actin. Exfoliation of cancer cells in sputum from secondary tumors in the lung is a rare phenomenon in current-day practice, with metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma seen most commonly. Intact tumor architecture was observed in exfoliated cells in 75% of the cases. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2005;33:147,151. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Clear cell change in metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma

No abstract is available for this article. [source]

A specific inducible nitric oxide inhibitor, ONO-1714 attenuates inflammation-related large bowel carcinogenesis in male ApcMin/+ mice

Hiroyuki Kohno
Abstract It is generally assumed that inflammation influences carcinogenesis. We previously reported that dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) strongly enhances colon carcinogenesis in the ApcMin/+ mice and the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contributes to this enhancement. In the current study, we investigated the effect of a selective iNOS inhibitor, ONO-1714 on colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse treated with DSS. Male C57BL/6J ApcMin/+ and Apc+/+ mice were exposed to 1% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. ONO-1714 was given to the mice at a dose level of 50 or 100 ppm in diet for 5 weeks (during the administration of DSS). The tumor inhibitory effects by ONO-1714 were assessed at week 5 by counting the incidence and multiplicity of colonic neoplasms. Additionally, we assessed serum lipid levels and colonic mRNA expression for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, iNOS, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and interleukin (IL)-1,. Feeding with ONO-1714 significantly inhibited the occurrence of colonic adenocarcinoma in a dose-dependent manner in the ApcMin/+ mice. In addition, the treatment with ONO-1714 significantly lowered the serum triglyceride levels and mRNA expression levels of COX-2, TNF, and IL-1, of colonic mucosa in the DSS-treated ApcMin/+ mice. Neither ONO-1714 nor DSS affected the colonic pathology in the Apc+/+ mice. Our findings may suggest that ONO-1714 could therefore serve as an effective agent for suppression of colitis-related colon cancer development in the ApcMin/+ mice. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Dietary seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid from bitter melon inhibits azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis through elevation of colonic PPAR, expression and alteration of lipid composition

Hiroyuki Kohno
Abstract Our previous short-term experiment demonstrated that seed oil from bitter melon (Momordica charantia) (BMO), which is rich in cis(c)9, trans(t)11, t13 -conjugated linolenic acid (CLN), inhibited the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). In our study, the possible inhibitory effect of dietary administration of BMO on the development of colonic neoplasms was investigated using an animal colon carcinogenesis model initiated with a colon carcinogen AOM. Male F344 rats were given subcutaneous injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 2 weeks to induce colon neoplasms. They also received diets containing 0.01%, 0.1% or 1% BMO for 32 weeks, starting 1 week before the first dosing of AOM. At the termination of the study (32 weeks), AOM induced 83% incidence (15/18 rats) of colonic adenocarcinoma. Dietary supplementation with 0.01% and 0.1% BMO caused significant reduction in the incidence (47% inhibition by 0.01% BMO, p<0.02; 40% inhibition by 0.1% BMO, p<0.05; and 17% inhibition by 1% BMO) and the multiplicity (64% inhibition by 0.01% BMO, p<0.005; 58% inhibition by 0.1% BMO, p<0.02; and 48% inhibition by 1% BMO, p<0.05) of colonic adenocarcinoma, though a clear dose response was not observed. Such inhibition was associated with the increased content of CLA (c9,t11-18:2) in the lipid composition in colonic mucosa and liver. Also, BMO administration in diet enhanced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) , protein in the nonlesional colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that BMO rich in CLN can suppress AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis and the inhibition might be caused, in part, by modification of lipid composition in the colon and liver and/or increased expression of PPAR, protein level in the colon mucosa. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

SALL4 is a novel sensitive and specific marker for metastatic germ cell tumors, with particular utility in detection of metastatic yolk sac tumors

CANCER, Issue 12 2009
Dengfeng Cao MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: The correct diagnosis of metastatic germ cell tumors is critical, because these tumors can be effectively treated and are even cured with modern therapy. Their histopathologic diagnosis can be challenging without immunohistochemical markers, which currently have limitations. SALL4 is a novel stem cell marker essential to maintain pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. In the current study, the authors investigated the utility of SALL4 as a potential diagnostic marker for metastatic germ cell tumors. METHODS: Ninety metastatic germ cell tumors from testis, ovary, and extragonadal sites were stained with a monoclonal SALL4 antibody. In addition, 170 metastatic nongerm cell malignancies, including 158 carcinomas (6 head and neck, 8 thyroid, 12 lung, 8 breast, 7 hepatocellular, 3 cholangiocarcinomas, 2 ampullary, 10 pancreatic, 18 gastric, 15 esophageal, 10 renal cell, 10 urothelial, 12 prostatic, 18 ovarian, 6 uterine, and 13 colonic) and 12 melanomas, were also stained to test SALL4 specificity. RESULTS: All 22 seminomas, 7 dysgerminomas, 22 embryonal carcinomas, and 14 of 15 yolk sac tumors displayed strong and diffuse SALL positivity in >90% of tumor cells (80% of tumor cells were strongly positive in the remaining yolk sac tumor). Five of 7 choriocarcinomas and 9 of 18 teratomas were also variably positive for SALL4. In contrast, only 10 (esophageal, gastric, and colonic adenocarcinomas) of 170 metastatic somatic tumors demonstrated focally weak SALL4 reactivity (<25% tumor cells). CONCLUSIONS: SALL4 is a novel sensitive and highly specific marker for metastatic germ cell tumors, and is particularly useful for detecting metastatic yolk sac tumors. Cancer 2009. 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]