Colonial Era (colonial + era)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


FACTORS INHIBITING DEFLATIONARY BIAS IN CURRENCY BOARD ECONOMIES: EVIDENCE FROM THE COLONIAL ERA

AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW, Issue 2 2006
Article first published online: 16 JUN 200, Malcolm Treadgold
colonial economies; currency board; deflationary bias; economic growth A traditional criticism of currency boards is that they impart a deflationary bias to growing economies. Three factors, however, may inhibit the bias: increases in the velocity of money; increases in the monetary base, which under a currency board occur only through balance-of-payments surpluses; and increases in the money multiplier. This article investigates each of the factors in Fiji, Ghana, Jamaica and Malaya over various periods near the end of the colonial era. Except in Malaya, where the money multiplier declined, all helped prevent deflationary outcomes. In broad terms, growth in the monetary base was the most important. [source]


The Economic Development of Southeast Asia in the Colonial Era: c.1870,1942

HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2008
Anne Booth
The article attempts a survey of economic development in the main colonies of Southeast Asia, and the independent country of Thailand, in the decades from 1870 to 1940. These decades witnessed a rapid growth of exports and in several cases quite fast growth of national income. The article examines the links between expanded export trade, economic growth, the role of government and living standards. The article stresses the very considerable differences which had emerged in a number of economic and social indicators by the late 1930s. [source]


Conservation Geographies in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Politics of National Parks, Community Conservation and Peace Parks

GEOGRAPHY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2010
Brian King
Sub-Saharan Africa has been the location of intense conservation planning since the colonial era. Under the auspices of wilderness protection, colonial authorities established national parks largely for the purpose of hunting and tourism while forcibly evicting indigenous populations. Concerns about the ethical and economic impacts of protected areas have generated interest in community conservation initiatives that attempt to include local participation in natural resource management. In recent years, the anticipated loss of biodiversity, coupled with the integration of ecological concepts into planning processes, has generated interest in larger-scale initiatives that maximize protected habitat. Central to this shift are transboundary conservation areas, or Peace Parks, that involve protected territory that supersedes national political borders. This study provides a review of national parks, community conservation, and Peace Parks, in order to understand the development politics and governance challenges of global conservation. Although these approaches are not mutually exclusive, the study asserts that they represent major trajectories to conservation planning in Sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. In considering the histories of these models in Sub-Saharan Africa, I argue that conservation planners often prioritize economic and ecological factors over the political circumstances that influence the effectiveness of these approaches. The study concludes by suggesting that an analysis of these three models provides a lens to examine ongoing debates regarding the employ of conservation as an economic development strategy and the challenges to environmental governance in the 21st century. [source]


Islam in Northern Mozambique: A Historical Overview

HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 7 2010
Liazzat Bonate
This article is a historical overview of two issues: first, that of the dynamics of Islamic religious transformations from pre-Portuguese era up until the 2000s among Muslims of the contemporary Cabo Delgado, Nampula, and to a certain extent, Niassa provinces. The article argues that historical and geographical proximity of these regions to East African coast, the Comoros and northern Madagascar meant that all these regions shared a common Islamic religious tradition. Accordingly, shifts with regard to religious discourses and practices went in parallel. This situation began changing in the last decade of the colonial era and has continued well into the 2000s, when the so-called Wahhabis, Sunni Muslims educated in the Islamic universities of the Arab world brought religious outlook that differed significantly from the historical local and regional conceptions of Islam. The second question addressed in this article is about relationships between northern Mozambican Muslims and the state. The article argues that after initial confrontations with Muslims in the sixteenth century and up until the last decade of the colonial era, the Portuguese rule pursued no concerted effort in interfering in the internal Muslim religious affairs. Besides, although they occupied and destroyed some of the Swahili settlements, in particular in southern and central Mozambique, other Swahili continued to thrive in northern Mozambique and maintained certain independence from the Portuguese up until the twentieth century. Islam there remained under the control of the ruling Shirazi clans with close political, economic, kinship and religious ties to the Swahili world. By establishing kinship and politico-economic ties with the ruling elites of the mainland in the nineteenth century, these families were also instrumental in expanding Islam into the hinterland. Only at the beginning of the twentieth century, the Portuguese rule took full control of the region as a result of military conquests of the ,effective occupation', and imposed new legal and administrative colonial system, called Indigenato, impacting Muslims of northern Mozambique to a great extent. After the independence in 1975, and especially since 1977, the post-independence Frelimo government adopted militant atheism and socialist Marxism, which was short-lived and was abolished in 1983 owing to popular resistance and especially, because of government's perception that its religious policies were fuelling the opposition groups to take arms and join the civil war. The 1980s and 1990s were marked by an acute rivalry and conflicts between the two emerging national umbrella Islamic organizations, the Islamic Council and the Islamic Congress, each representing largely pro-Sufi and anti-Sufi positions. In the 2000s, these organizations became overshadowed by new and more dynamic organizations, such as Ahl Al-Sunna. [source]


,The Great Prohibition': The Expansion of Christianity in Colonial Northern Nigeria

HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 6 2010
Andrew E. Barnes
Historical research on the spread of Christianity in colonial Northern Nigeria has been hampered by a focus on the wrong issues. The population of the colony was predominantly Muslim, but the colonial territory created by the British contained large populations of African traditionalist peoples. During the colonial era the British government prohibited Christian proselytization of Muslims. Historical research had focused on the battle between colonial administrators and missionaries over entry into Muslim areas, a battle missionaries lost. But during the colonial era Christian missions experienced real success in Christianizing traditionalist peoples. The colonial government also sought to impede this development, significantly by using the same rules that prohibited the proselytization of Muslims to prohibit the proselytization of traditionalists. This article makes the case that the government's efforts to halt the spread of Christianity to traditionalists, not Muslims, should become the focus of new research. [source]


Networks of Empire: Linkage and Reciprocity in Nineteenth-Century Irish and Indian History

HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2009
Barry Crosbie
Recent debates surrounding Ireland's historical relationship with the British empire have focused almost exclusively upon its constitutional and political ties with Britain. The question of Ireland's colonial status continues to be heavily debated in Irish historiography and has been a contributing factor in obscuring our wider understanding of the complexity of Ireland's involvement in empire. For over 200 years, Ireland and India were joined together by an intricate series of networks that were borne out of direct Irish involvement in British imperialism overseas. Whether as migrants, soldiers, administrators, doctors, missionaries or educators, the Irish played an important role in administering, governing and populating vast areas of Britain's eastern empire. This article discusses new approaches to the study of Ireland's imperial past that allow us to move beyond the old ,coloniser-colonised' debate, to address the key issue of whether Ireland or the varieties of Irishness of its imperial servants and settlers made a specific difference to the experience of empire. By highlighting the multiplicity of Irish connections within the context of the nineteenth-century British empire in India, this article describes how imperial networks were used by contemporaries (settlers, migrants and indigenous agents) as mechanisms for the exchange of a whole set of ideas, practices and goods between Ireland and India during the colonial era. [source]


Native Americans and National Identity in Early North America

HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2006
Tyler Boulware
Nation as a concept has been applied to a variety of peoples and societies across time and space, and Native Americans during the colonial era are no exception. This essay offers a brief exploration into the uses and meanings of nation and national identity for the indigenous peoples of North America. It suggests that alternate definitions of collective identity might prove more suitable, which should remind us of the need to both clarify our conceptual framework and take into account the tremendous diversity that existed in early America. [source]


Colonial Legacy in African Museology: The Case of the Ghana National Museum

MUSEUM ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Arianna Fogelman
Abstract African museums were largely founded during the colonial era to house artifacts amassed by imperial agents whose contemporaneous understandings of race, evolution and culture led them to believe local populations were "backward" or otherwise "primitive." Today in the hands of independent governments, scholars frequently cite "colonial legacy" to explain these institutions' continued irrelevance to the local communities they purport to serve. Recent efforts to "localize" African museums have proceeded without a critical analysis of the "colonial legacy" concept, which both denies local agency and cultural malleability in the museum concept, as demonstrated with the case of the Ghana National Museum. [source]


Consuming colonial nostalgia: The monumentalisation of historic hotels in urban South-East Asia

ASIA PACIFIC VIEWPOINT, Issue 3 2005
Maurizio PeleggiArticle first published online: 30 NOV 200
Abstract:,This article examines the renovation and commercial re-launch in the 1990s of some of the grand hotels built in South-East Asia during the high colonial era (1880s,1910s) and their social construction as historic monuments. The analysis focuses on architectural enhancement and discursive authentication as the key practices whereby the semblance of historic authenticity is bestowed on these hotels and made available as nostalgia to consumers. The article also considers whether renovated colonial hotels should be regarded as sites of consumption or as emerging ,mnemonic sites', filling in the vacuum caused by the progressive obliteration of ,mnemonic environments' in South-East Asia's urban landscape. [source]


FACTORS INHIBITING DEFLATIONARY BIAS IN CURRENCY BOARD ECONOMIES: EVIDENCE FROM THE COLONIAL ERA

AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW, Issue 2 2006
Article first published online: 16 JUN 200, Malcolm Treadgold
colonial economies; currency board; deflationary bias; economic growth A traditional criticism of currency boards is that they impart a deflationary bias to growing economies. Three factors, however, may inhibit the bias: increases in the velocity of money; increases in the monetary base, which under a currency board occur only through balance-of-payments surpluses; and increases in the money multiplier. This article investigates each of the factors in Fiji, Ghana, Jamaica and Malaya over various periods near the end of the colonial era. Except in Malaya, where the money multiplier declined, all helped prevent deflationary outcomes. In broad terms, growth in the monetary base was the most important. [source]