Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Terms modified by Colonial

  • colonial authority
  • colonial bird
  • colonial discourse
  • colonial economy
  • colonial encounter
  • colonial era
  • colonial government
  • colonial history
  • colonial india
  • colonial korea
  • colonial legacy
  • colonial past
  • colonial period
  • colonial power
  • colonial practice
  • colonial project
  • colonial rule
  • colonial world

  • Selected Abstracts

    Native American Life-History Narratives: Colonial and Postcolonial Navajo Ethnography by Susan Berry Brill de Ramirez

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Portrait of a Chief between Past and Present: Memory at Work in Colonial and Postcolonial Gambia

    Alice Bellagamba
    First page of article [source]

    Rethinking Indigenous Place: Igorot Identity and Locality in the Philippines

    Deirdre McKay
    Spanish and American colonisers ascribed the identity ,Igorot' to the peoples of the northern Philippine mountains, positioning them in the ,tribal slot', somewhere between ordinary peasants and ,backward' primitives. From this marginal position, contemporary Igorot communities have been comparatively successful in formalising their entitlements to land and resources in their dealings with the Philippine State. This success depends on a discourse tying indigenous or ,tribal' culture to particular places. Colonial and, now, local anthropology has been recruited to this process through the mapping of community boundaries. This has allowed groups to secure official status as ,cultural communities' and gain legal recognition of their ancestral domains. Ironically, even as ancestral domains are recognised, the municipalities that hold such domains have ceased to be bounded containers for Igorot localities, if they ever were. Participation in global indigenous networks, circular migration, and ongoing relations with emigrants overseas blur the spatial, temporal, and social boundaries of Igorot communities. Transnational flows of people, information, and value are recruited to support the essentialised versions of indigenous identity necessary for negotiations with the state. Here, I show how the specific history of the Igorot ,tribal slot' enables communities to perform essentialised indigeneity and simultaneously enact highly translocal modes of cultural reproduction. [source]

    Colonial and post-colonial aspects of Australian identity1

    Bruce Tranter
    Abstract Since the 1988 Bicentennial and the 2001 centenary of federation celebrations colonial images have flourished in Australia, highlighting the roles of convicts and free settlers during early colonization. Old sites, such as Port Arthur have been re-invigorated, and in 2004 Tasmanians celebrated the bicentenary of ,white' settlement. However, social scientists have given little attention to the role of colonial and post-colonial figures and myths as aspects of Australian national identity. We seek to address this issue by examining how convicts, free settlers, bushrangers and ANZACs are associated with contemporary identity in Australia.2 We examine evidence from the 2003 Australian Survey of Social Attitudes and find that historical figures such as the ANZACs and post-World War II immigrants comprise important aspects of national identity. A substantial majority of Australians judged ANZACs to be important, countering recent claims of the ,demise of the digger'. Sporting heroes are also at the core of Australian identity. Colonial figures appear to be far less important, although views on national identity vary according to social location. In particular, left-wing, university educated, younger, postmaterialist Australians view convicts and bushrangers as relatively important, indicating the salience of the larrikin in Australian identity. [source]

    Expectations of Love in Troubled Mexican Marriages During the Late Colonial and Early National Periods

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 3 2003
    Lee M. Penyak
    First page of article [source]

    Jean-Charles Langlois's Panorama of Algiers (1833) and the Prospective Colonial Landscape

    ART HISTORY, Issue 5 2003
    John Zarobell
    This article considers one of the first representations of colonial Algeria, Jean-Charles Langlois's Panorama of Algiers of 1833. It examines studies and sketches made by Langlois in Algiers, resulting from his participation in the conquest in 1830 and a later visit in 1832 in preparation for the now-destroyed panorama. Consideration of the responses of contemporary French writers illuminates their distinctions between paintings and panoramas. In arguing that the specific perceptual mechanism of the panorama assisted fantasies of domination that helped to shape France's colonial mission, this article argues that the relationship between viewer and spectacle posited by the Panorama of Algiers serves as a prototype for the representation of colonial landscape in nineteenth-century France. [source]

    Local Culture in Global Media: Excavating Colonial and Material Discourses in National Geographic

    Radhika Parameswaran
    This case study of National Geographic's August 1999 "millennium" issue interrogates the representational politics of the magazine's narratives on globalization. The essay's textual analysis, which is based in the insights of semiotic, feminist, and Marxist critiques of consumer culture, accounts for multiple media texts and historical contexts that filter the magazine's imagery. Drawing from postcolonial theories of gender, Orientalism, and nationalism, the analysis explores the disturbing ambivalence that permeates the Geographic's stories on global culture. Critiquing discourses of gender, the author shows that the magazine's interpretation of global culture is suffused with representations of femininity, masculinity, and race that subtly echo the Othering modalities of Euroamerican colonial discourses. This article undermines the Geographic's articulation of global culture, which addresses Asians only as modern consumers of global commodities, by questioning the invisibility of colonial history, labor, and global production in its narrative. The conclusion argues that the insights of postcolonial theories enable critics of globalization to challenge the subtle hegemony of modern neocolonial discursive regimes. [source]

    DISLOCATING SOUNDS: The Deterritorialization of Indonesian Indie Pop

    ABSTRACT Anthropologists often read the localization or hybridization of cultural forms as a kind of default mode of resistance against the forces of global capitalism, a means through which marginalized ethnic groups maintain regional distinctiveness in the face of an emergent transnational order. But then what are we to make of musical acts like Mocca and The Upstairs, Indonesian "indie" groups who consciously delocalize their music, who go out of their way, in fact, to avoid any references to who they are or where they come from? In this essay, I argue that Indonesian "indie pop," a self-consciously antimainstream genre drawing from a diverse range of international influences, constitutes a set of strategic practices of aesthetic deterritorialization for middle-class Indonesian youth. Such bands, I demonstrate, assemble sounds from a variety of international genres, creating linkages with international youth cultures in other places and times, while distancing themselves from those expressions associated with colonial and nationalist conceptions of ethnicity, working-class and rural sensibilities, and the hegemonic categorical schema of the international music industry. They are part of a new wave of Indonesian musicians stepping onto the global stage "on their own terms" and insisting on being taken seriously as international, not just Indonesian, artists, and in the process, they have made indie music into a powerful tool of reflexive place making, a means of redefining the very meaning of locality vis-à-vis the international youth cultural movements they witness from afar. [source]

    Objects of Love and Decay: Colonial Photographs in a Postcolonial Archive

    Liam Buckley
    The poor condition of a collection of colonial photographs currently housed in the National Archives of The Gambia is the subject of a variety of competing discourses and practices concerning the preservation of colonial visual culture. At issue is the question of who has the right to look after the artifacts of material culture as they inevitably expire. I suggest that the discourse surrounding decaying colonial photographs is a lover's discourse. The decay causes controversy because it reminds us of our feelings for, and intimacy with, colonial culture and asks that we imagine ways of finally letting go. [source]

    Rubber Erasures, Rubber Producing Rights: Making Racialized Territories in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Nancy Lee Peluso
    ABSTRACT This article makes connections between often-disparate literatures on property, violence and identity, using the politics of rubber growing in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, as an example. It shows how rubber production gave rise to territorialities associated with and productive of ethnic identities, depending on both the political economies and cultural politics at play in different moments. What it meant to be Chinese and Dayak in colonial and post-colonial Indonesia, as well as how categories of subjects and citizens were configured in the two respective periods, differentially affected both the formal property rights and the means of access to rubber and land in different parts of West Kalimantan. However, incremental changes in shifting rubber production practices were not the only means of producing territory and ethnicity. The author argues that violence ultimately played a more significant role in erasing prior identity-based claims and establishing the controls of new actors over trees and land and their claims to legitimate access or ,rightfulness'. Changing rubber production practices and reconfigurations of racialized territories and identity-based property rights are all implicated in hiding the violence. [source]

    Nation to Nation: Defining New Structures of Development in Northern Quebec

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2004
    Caroline Desbiens
    Abstract: In February 2002, the Crees of Quebec and the Quebec government signed a new agreement that was designed to implement new structures of economic development in northern Quebec. The document, known as "La Paix des Braves" (Peace of the Braves), was characterized as a "nation-to-nation" agreement and promises greater participation by the Crees in the management and exploitation of natural resources on the territory. Starting from the premise that the Crees and the Québécois do not simply compete for the resources of James Bay but can be said to define and firm up the boundaries of their respective nation in and through the use of these resources, this article explores the close intertwining of colonialism, culture, and the economy in James Bay, as well as its potential impact on the new agreement. First, it analyzes how the Crees and the Québécois have articulated nationhood in relation to land and resources, particularly over the past three decades. Second, it examines how these discourses are informed by a third national scale, that of Canada. The intersection among nature, nation, and economic development in northern Quebec is a key example of how resources are embedded in complex national geographies that are shaped across a broad historical span. Although sustainability is often defined in terms of the needs of future generations, this article calls for greater attention to past colonial and political relations in defining structures of development that ensure the renewal of resources. [source]

    Effects of sequential depositional basins on lake response to urban and agricultural pollution: a palaeoecological analysis of the Qu'Appelle Valley, Saskatchewan, Canada

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Aruna S. Dixit
    1. Palaeolimnological analyses of fossil diatoms and pigments were conducted in four lakes of the Qu'Appelle Valley, Saskatchewan, Canada, to quantify the effect of upstream depositional basins on lake response to urban and agricultural human activities. Pasqua, Echo, Mission and Katepwa lakes exhibit similar modern limnological characteristics, lie sequentially downstream from urban point sources of growth-limiting nitrogen (N), yet drain similarly large areas of farmland (38,40 × 103 km2). 2. Analyses indicated that all lakes were naturally productive, contained eutrophic diatoms (i.e. Stephanodiscus niagarae, S. hantzchii, S. parvus and Aulacoseira granulata), and supported blooms of colonial (as myxoxanthophyll) and potentially toxic N-fixing cyanobacteria (aphanizophyll), even prior to the onset of European settlement (ca. 1890) and urban development (ca. 1930). 3. The onset of agricultural practices ca. 1890 had only modest effects on algal communities in the Qu'Appelle lakes, with subtle increases in eutrophic diatom species (Pasqua, Mission and Katepwa lakes) and 25,50% increases in pigment-inferred algal abundance (Echo, Mission and Katepwa lakes). 4. Despite naturally high production, total algal abundance (,-carotene) in upstream Pasqua Lake increased by more than 350% after intense urbanization beginning ca. 1930, while eutrophic diatoms became more common and cyanobacteria populations increased ten-fold. Principal components analysis (PCA) explained 64% of diatom variance, and identified three eras corresponding to baseline, pre-agricultural communities (1776,1890), an era of high production (ca. 1925,1960) and recent variable community composition following tertiary treatment of urban sewage (ca. 1977,1990). 5. Analyses of three downstream lakes demonstrated that urban impacts following 1930 remained evident in fossil profiles of ,-carotene and myxoxanthophyll, but that large blooms of N-fixing cyanobacteria were restricted to the past 25 years at downstream Mission and Katepwa lakes. Similarly, PCA showed that fossil diatom assemblages exhibited little directional variation until the 1970s. 6. Together, these analyses support the hypothesis that upstream lakes were effective at reducing the impacts of point-source urban nutrients on downstream lakes. In contrast, diffuse agricultural activities had only limited impacts on water quality and these were less well ameliorated by upstream basins. [source]

    Late Chiribaya agriculture and risk management along the arid Andean coast of southern Perú, A.D. 1200,1400

    Gregory Zaro
    Recent investigations at the coastal spring site of Wawakiki in southern Perú have identified an intensive, late pre-Hispanic agricultural production strategy along a sea cliff some 30 km north of the Ilo River. Excavations identified buried stone-faced agricultural terraces underlying Spanish colonial and post-colonial furrows, and long irrigation canals that transported water along steep hill slopes from inland springs. Depositional patterns, cultural debris, and calibrated radiocarbon age ranges suggest the site was farmed most intensively between A.D. 1200 and 1400, a period characterized by prolonged highland drought and recurrent El Niño,induced floods in southern Perú. Farmers transformed this arid coastal promontory into a productive agricultural landscape by exploiting multiple spring sources, steep canals, and stone-faced terraces in an area where water is a very limited commodity and steep barren hills are highly prone to erosion. Furthermore, high-relief terrain left much of the agricultural infrastructure well protected from periodic floods. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Colonial Networks, Australian Humanitarianism and the History Wars

    Abstract The ,History Wars' have brought contests among Britons over the colonisation of Aboriginal land and people to the forefront of public consciousness in Australia. These contests, however, were the result of trajectories that criss-crossed British imperial spaces, connecting Australia with other settler colonies and the British metropole. A number of historians and historical geographers have recently employed the notion of the network to highlight the interconnected geographies of the British Empire. This paper begins by examining the utility of such a re-conceptualisation. It then fleshes out empirically the networked nature of early nineteenth century humanitarianism in colonial New South Wales. Both the relatively progressive potential of this humanitarian network, and its complicity in an ethnocentric politics of assimilationism are analysed. Settler networks, developed as a counter to humanitarian influence in the colony, are also examined more briefly. This account of contested networks demonstrates that they were never simply about communication, but always, fundamentally, about the organisation and contestation of dispossessive trajectories that linked diverse colonial and metropolitan sites. The paper concludes by noting some of the implications of such a networked analysis of dispossession and assimilation for Australia's ,History Wars'. [source]

    ,The Sun Always Shines in Perth': a Post-Colonial Geography of Identity, Memory and Place

    A. Taylor
    In this paper I explore some of the textual possibilities of post-colonial geography. Using the conceptual tool of place as a palimpsest, I trace some geographies of memory across selected colonial and post-colonial texts. By focusing on the relationship between representations of ,sunny Perth' and ,Nyungah Perth', I tease out some of the more general theoretical issues which pertain to a politics of place and space within this (post)colonial Australian context. The nexus of memory, place and cultural identity is central to my analysis. I give particular attention to the ways in which cultural memories are inscribed in some very specific and very ordinary places, and how these places become site-markers of the remembering process and of identity itself. [source]

    Authority, accountability and representation: the United Provinces police and the dilemmas of the colonial policeman in British India, 1902,39*

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 192 2003
    David A. Campion
    This article examines police administration and the experience of colonial policing in the villages and towns of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, one of the largest and most important regions of British India in the early twentieth century. During this time it was the inefficiency and weakness of the British in their policing methods, rather than the brutally effective use of the Indian Police Service, that fuelled resentment among the population of colonial India and led to widespread discontent among European and Indian officers and constables. Yet throughout this period, the police remained the most important link between Europeans and Indians, and were a frequent conduit for social exchange as well as a point of bitter conflict. [source]


    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 1 2009
    ABSTRACT The name of "Peru" and the entities and beings it names first appeared "in an abyss of history" on "the edge of the world" in the early 1500s. In this essay I ask what hermeneutical truths or meanings the strange event that made the name of Peru both famous and historical holds for,and withholds from,any understanding of the meaning of colonial history. By way of a reading of Inca garcilaso de la Vega's rendering, in Los Comentarios Reales de los Incas (1609) of "the origin and principle of the name of Peru," I suggest that Peru's name is itself an inaugural event that marks the founding void or abyss of colonial and postcolonial history, which is to say, of modern global history. This événemential void is not unoccupied, however. It is inhabited by another founding, mythopoetic figure of history: "the barbarian" whose speech is registered in the historian's text. [source]

    Shades of Orientalism: Paradoxes and Problems in Indian Historiography

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 2 2003
    Peter Heehs
    In Orientalism, Edward Said attempts to show that all European discourse about the Orient is the same, and all European scholars of the Orient complicit in the aims of European imperialism. There may be "manifest" differences in discourse, but the underlying "latent" orientalism is "more or less constant." This does not do justice to the marked differences in approach, attitude, presentation, and conclusions found in the works of various orientalists. I distinguish six different styles of colonial and postcolonial discourse about India (heuristic categories, not essential types), and note the existence of numerous precolonial discourses. I then examine the multiple ways exponents of these styles interact with one another by focusing on the early-twentieth-century nationalist orientalist, Sri Aurobindo. Aurobindo's thought took form in a colonial framework and has been used in various ways by postcolonial writers. An anti-British nationalist, he was by no means complicit in British imperialism. Neither can it be said, as some Saidians do, that the nationalist style of orientalism was just an imitative indigenous reversal of European discourse, using terms like "Hinduism" that had been invented by Europeans. Five problems that Aurobindo dealt with are still of interest to historians: the significance of the Vedas, the date of the vedic texts, the Aryan invasion theory, the Aryan-Dravidian distinction, and the idea that spirituality is the essence of India. His views on these topics have been criticized by Leftist and Saidian orientalists, and appropriated by reactionary "Hindutva" writers. Such critics concentrate on that portion of Aurobindo's work which stands in opposition to or supports their own views. A more balanced approach to the nationalist orientalism of Aurobindo and others would take account of their religious and political assumptions, but view their project as an attempt to create an alternative language of discourse. Although in need of criticism in the light of modern scholarship, their work offers a way to recognize cultural particularity while keeping the channels of intercultural dialogue open. [source]

    Assessing Women, Gender, and Empire in Britain's Nineteenth-Century Protestant Missionary Movement

    Elizabeth Prevost
    Although women constituted the majority of British missionary labor by the turn of the twentieth century, they were largely discounted from the official record of mission work , a silence that until recently has been preserved by women's history, mission history, and imperial history. Over the past two decades, new historical and interpretive frameworks have brought into clearer focus the role of women missionaries and the gendered fabric of the ,civilizing mission' in evangelistic, colonial, and feminist projects. Yet the privileging of race as an analytic category has produced a lopsided historiography, in which Christianity has been marginalized in studies of gender and empire, and in which gender has not been used to full effect in explicating the uneven contours of religion and colonialism. This essay explores how studies of women, gender, and the Protestant missionary movement over the ,long nineteenth century' have responded to and manifested some of the larger tensions of women's and gender history, feminist history, postcolonial studies, the new imperial history, and area studies, and suggests some avenues for addressing lingering questions of recovery and representation, center and periphery. [source]

    Education for All: Reassessing the Historiography of Education in Colonial India

    Catriona Ellis
    This essay won the 2007 History Compass Graduate Essay Prize, Asia Section. Despite the extensive literature on the history of education in colonial India, historians have confined their arguments to very narrow themes linked to colonial epistemological dominance and education as a means of control, resistance and dialogue. These tend to mirror the debates of the colonial period, particularly regarding the Anglicist-Orientalist controversy. This article argues that such an approach is both gendered and hierarchical, and seeks to fundamentally redress the balance. It looks firstly at formal school education , colonial and indigenous , in both philosophical and technological terms. It then turns to education as experienced by the majority of Indian children outwith the classroom, either formally or within the domestic sphere. The article then looks at the neglected recipients of education, and seeks to re-establish children as agents within these adult-driven agendas. By considering educational discourse and practice, and the emerging historiography of Indian childhood and children, we can begin to establish a more rounded and inclusive picture of what education really meant. [source]

    The Medical History of South Africa: An Overview

    Anne Digby
    The article surveys half a century of historical writing on South African medicine, which is defined widely to include discussion of health care professions, public health, hospitals and asylums, and indigenous medicine as well as the cross-overs and hybridisation between biomedicine and indigenous medicine. A rapidly growing historiography has been influenced both by general literature in the history of medicine as well as by the more specific context of South Africa. Here the colonial and post-colonial pasts shape the present to an unusual extent and the legacy both of apartheid and of an ongoing democratic transformation impact on the historian's choice of subject. [source]

    The October Riots in France: A Failed Immigration Policy or the Empire Strikes Back?

    Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad
    ABSTRACT In October 2005, the predominately Arab-immigrant suburbs of Paris, Lyon, Lille and other French cities erupted in riots by socially alienated teenagers, many of them second- or third-generation immigrants. For many French observers, it was a painful reminder that France's immigration policy had, quite bluntly, failed. The grand French ideal of égalité, the equality of all citizens of the Republic, itself a by-product of France's colonial past, demonstrated its incompatibility with twenty-first century reality. The French immigration experience is markedly different than those of other European countries, as France's is tainted by colonial history, republican idealism, a rigidly centralized government structure, and deep-seeded traditions of xenophobia. Indeed, the nineteenth century French policy of the mission civilicatrice (civilizing mission) still influences French policy toward its immigrants today: rather than accept cultural differences, the French government demands that all its citizens adhere to a rigid and exclusive "French" identity. As such, the children of the generation of immigrants that the French government actively brought to France to fuel its post-war expansion now find themselves unemployed and socially marginalized. Government social structures meant to ease the disparity between social classes, such as public housing and education, generally do more to aggravate problems than to solve them; public housing is woefully inadequate and the education structure institutionalizes the poor quality of schools in immigrant communities. Despite this generally poor outlook, the French have recently made some progress toward better integration of their immigrant communities, though these efforts are generally met with wide-spread demagogic and populist opposition. LES ÉMEUTES D'OCTOBRE EN FRANCE: ÉCHEC DE LA POLITIQUE D'IMMIGRATION OU L'EMPIRE CONTRE-ATTAQUE? En octobre 2005, dans les banlieues de Paris, Lyon, Lille et d'autres villes françaises, oú prédominent les immigrés arabes, des émeutes ont éclaté, menées par des adolescents socialement aliénés, dont beaucoup étaient des immigrés de deuxième ou troisième génération. Pour nombre d'observateurs français, ces événements ont douloureusement confirmé que la politique d'immigration de la France était un échec cuisant. Le magnifique idéal français d'égalité de tous les citoyens de la République, lui-même un sous-produit du passé colonial de la France, se révélait décidément incompatible avec la réalité du 21e siècle. En matière d'immigration, l'expérience de la France est sensiblement différente de celle des autres pays européens, la France étant marquée par une histoire coloniale, un idéalisme républicain, une structure gouvernementale rigidement centralisée et une tradition de xénophobie profondément ancrée. D'ailleurs, l'approche française de la mission civilisatrice, qui avait cours au 19e siècle, continue d'influencer la politique de la France à l'égard de ses immigrés: plutôt que d'accepter les différences culturelles, le Gouvernement français exige que tous les citoyens adhèrent à une identité « française » à la fois rigide et exclusive. Les enfants des immigrés que le Gouvernement français avait fait venir en France pour soutenir son expansion d'après-guerre se retrouvent maintenant au chômage et socialement marginalisés. Les structures sociales gouvernementales destinées à atténuer les disparités entre classes sociales, notamment le logement social et l'enseignement, font souvent plus pour aggraver les problèmes que pour les résoudre. Les logements sociaux sont cruellement insuffisants et le système d'enseignement institutionnalise la mauvaise qualité des établissements scolaires fréquentés par les communautés d'immigrés. Malgré ces perspectives généralement médiocres, les Français ont fait des progrès dans le sens d'une meilleure intégration de ces communautés, bien que ces efforts se heurtent généralement à une importante opposition teintée de démagogie et de populisme. LAS REVUELTAS DE OCTUBRE EN FRANCIA: ¿UNA POLÍTICA DE INMIGRACIÓN ERRÓNEA O EL IMPERIO CONTRAATACA? En octubre de 2005, los barrios donde predomina la inmigración árabe de París, Lyon, Lille y otras ciudades francesas fueron el escenario de revueltas de adolescentes socialmente alienados, muchos de ellos inmigrantes de segunda o tercera generación. Para muchos observadores franceses, fue un doloroso recordatorio de que, con bastante claridad, la política de inmigración de Francia había fracasado. El gran ideal francés de l'égalité, es decir, la igualdad de todos los ciudadanos de la República, consecuencia en sí misma del pasado colonial francés, demostró su incompatibilidad con la realidad del siglo XXI. La experiencia de la inmigración francesa es muy distinta a la de otros países europeos, ya que Francia está marcada por su historia colonial, el idealismo republicano, una estructura gubernamental estrictamente centralizada y unas tradiciones arraigadas de xenofobia. Ciertamente, la política francesa del siglo XIX de la mission civilisatrice (misión civilizadora) influye aún hoy en la política francesa sobre inmigración: más que aceptar las diferencias culturales, el Gobierno francés exige que todos sus ciudadanos se adhieran a una identidad "francesa" rígida y exclusiva. Los hijos de la generación de inmigrantes a los que el Gobierno francés alentó activamente a ir a Francia para impulsar la expansión de la postguerra se encuentran ahora sin trabajo y marginados de la sociedad. Las estructuras sociales del Estado, encaminadas a disminuir la disparidad entre clases sociales, tales como la vivienda y la educación públicas, contribuyen generalmente a agravar los problemas más que a solucionarlos: las viviendas públicas son lamentablemente inadecuadas y la estructura educativa institucionaliza la escasa calidad de las escuelas de las comunidades de inmigrantes. A pesar de este panorama en general poco prometedor, los franceses han logrado recientemente algunos progresos hacia una mejor integración de sus comunidades inmigrantes, aunque estos esfuerzos se encuentran a menudo con una oposición demagógica y populista ampliamente extendida. [source]

    High-resolution synchrotron radiation studies on natural and thermally annealed scleractinian coral biominerals

    J. Stolarski
    The structural phase transition from aragonite to calcite in biogenic samples extracted from the skeletons of selected scleractinian corals has been studied by synchrotron radiation diffraction. Biogenic aragonite samples were extracted en bloc without pulverization from two ecologically different scleractinian taxa: Desmophyllum (deep-water, solitary and azooxanthellate) and Favia (shallow-water, colonial, zooxanthellate). It was found that natural (not pulverized) samples contribute to narrow Bragg peaks with ,d/d values as low as 1 × 10,3, which allows the exploitation of the high resolution of synchrotron radiation diffraction. A precise determination of the lattice parameters of biogenic scleractinian coral aragonite shows the same type of changes of the a, b, c lattice parameter ratios as that reported for aragonite extracted from other invertebrates [Pokroy, Quintana, Caspi, Berner & Zolotoyabko (2004). Nat. Mater.3, 900,902]. It is believed that the crystal structure of biogenic samples is influenced by interactions with organic molecules that are initially present in the biomineralization hydrogel. The calcite phase obtained by annealing the coral samples has a considerably different unit-cell volume and lattice parameter ratio c/a as compared with reference geological calcite and annealed synthetic aragonite. The internal strain in the calcite structure obtained by thermal annealing of the biomineral samples is about two times larger than that found in the natural aragonite structure. This effect is observed despite slow heating and cooling of the sample. [source]

    The Legal Cartography of Colonization, the Legal Polyphony of Settlement: English Intrusions on the American Mainland in the Seventeenth Century

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 2 2001
    Christopher Tomlins
    This essay investigates the first century of English colonization of the North American mainland, concentrating on the charters and letters patent that proponents of western planning secured over the course of the century. The elaborated legalities of chartering should be understood as a technology of planning and design. Charters allowed projectors both to justify their pursuit of particular territorial claims and to establish, with some precision, the conceptions of the appropriate, familiar, desired order of things and people that would be imposed onto uncharted social and physical circumstance. The structures of authoritative sociolegal order planned by projectors encountered others implicit in the migrations of actual settlers. Investigating settlers'disagreement with and departure from projectors'designs, the essay discards common explanations,that these were inevitable corrections brought about by the intrusion of local environmental realities on English projectors'fantasies, or the realization of an implicit evolutionary logic of political development, or of legal reception. It argues that disagreements were more often the result of a collision of distinct English legal cultures brought, by migration, into an unavoidable proximity. The essay counterposes the paradigm of "colonization" to both "common law reception" and "bottom-up localism" analyses of the formation of early American legal culture. It proposes that "colonization" also resolves the discontinuity between early (colonial) and later (U.S.) American history. [source]

    Gothic and the Generation of Ideas1

    Donna Heiland
    Gothic writing has remarkable generative power: as Marshall Brown has described it, gothic is a genre with what he calls a teleology, whose "significance lies in what it enabled its future readers to see, in what arguments it provoked, and . . . in what dreams it stimulated" (xix). From a brief discussion of selected early studies of the gothic, this article moves on to consider the extraordinary development of gothic criticism from the 1970s on, when the emergence of feminist and post-structuralist criticism put gothic literature on the map in a new way. Tracing the development and imbrication of the many strands of gothic criticism yields a complex and at times paradoxical picture: gothic has been read as the most rigid and formulaic of literary forms but also as centrally engaged with the notably slippery concepts of sensibility and the sublime; as escapist and as grounded in the realities of human existence; as focused on the individual psyche and as socio-cultural critique; as commenting on class, on gender, on race; as engaged with questions of national, colonial, and post-colonial identity. The field is now so well developed that guidebooks and handbooks to both primary sources and critical approaches have emerged over the last few years to codify and make it accessible. And so the question arises: have we said all that we can about this genre or can we learn still more from it? The closing portion of this article suggests that we can, pointing to gothic and religion as an area of particular interest. Religious issues have been front and center in gothic writing from its inception, and criticism to date has opened up , but hardly exhausted , this potentially rich area of research. [source]

    Phylogeography and speciation of colour morphs in the colonial ascidian Pseudodistoma crucigaster

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 10 2004
    Abstract Variation in pigmentation is common in marine invertebrates, although few studies have shown the existence of genetic differentiation of chromatic forms in these organisms. We studied the genetic structure of a colonial ascidian with populations of different colour morphs in the northwestern Mediterranean. A fragment of the c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) mitochondrial gene was sequenced in seven populations of Pseudodistoma crucigaster belonging to three different colour morphs (orange, yellow and grey). Maximum likelihood analyses showed two well-supported clades separating the orange morph from the yellow-grey morphotypes. Genetic divergence between these clades was 2.12%, and ,ST values between populations of the two clades were high (average 0.936), pointing to genetic isolation. Nested clade and coalescence analyses suggest that a past fragmentation event may explain the phylogeographical origin of these two clades. Non-neutral mtDNA evolution is observed in our data when comparing the two clades, showing a significant excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism within the yellow,grey morphotype using the McDonald,Kreitman test, which is interpreted as further support of reproductive isolation. We conclude that the two clades might represent separate species. We compare the population genetic differentiation found with that estimated for other colonial and solitary ascidian species, and relate it to larval dispersal capabilities and other life-history traits. [source]

    From Casta to Californio: Social Identity and the Archaeology of Culture Contact

    In culture contact archaeology, studies of social identities generally focus on the colonized,colonizer dichotomy as the fundamental axis of identification. This emphasis can, however, mask social diversity within colonial or indigenous populations, and it also fails to account for the ways that the division between colonizer and colonized is constructed through the practices of colonization. Through the archaeology of material culture, foodways, and architecture, I examine changing ethnic, racial, and gendered identities among colonists at El Presidio de San Francisco, a Spanish-colonial military settlement. Archaeological data suggest that military settlers were engaged in a double material strategy to consolidate a shared colonial identity, one that minimized differences among colonists and simultaneously heightened distinctions between colonists and local indigenous peoples. [source]

    Not forging nations but foraging for them: uncertain collective identities in Gran Colombia,

    ABSTRACT. This article examines the place of the nation in discussions of collective identities in the early nineteenth century in northern Hispanic South America. It provides a historical account of the birth of national identities in the late colonial and early republican period, and then explores two main sections. The first looks at the port of Riohacha and its experiences during the Wars of Independence. The second examines the in-patients at a hospital in Caracas just after the end of the wars in 1821. The conclusion suggests that foreign involvement in the Wars of Independence was a crucial catalyst to national identity formation in Gran Colombia. As such the article brings out the extent to which these wars were part of Atlantic networks which were being reconfigured during the Age of Revolution. Rather than forging national identities, the Wars of Independence were the arena in which elites foraged for the constituents of new states and nations. [source]

    Multicultural democracy: can it work?

    Pierre L. Van Den Berghe
    After differentiating multicultural democracy (MD) from other types of democracy (liberal, consociational, ethnic and Herrenvolk), this article explores both the conditions favouring MD and the problems it faces. The main obstacle to MD is the model of the ,nation,state', which has been the basis of legitimacy in most liberal democracies since the French Revolution. Multiculturalism has existed in many non,democratic states (such as colonial and traditional empires) and in city,states. A distinction is made between minimal MD (the simple tolerance and legal protection of cultural diversity) and maximal MD (the celebration, encouragement and official support thereof). The article concludes that minimal MD is the more feasible of the two, and that political and social conditions for it are the most favourable in urban environments, especially in city,states. [source]

    Small,scale mining in South Africa: Past, present and future

    Nellie Mutemeri
    Mining is an important part of the South African economy and has been the driver of much of the economic development of the country. However, the small,scale mining subsector still has to realise its full potential. A small,scale mine has been defined as a mining activity employing less than 50 people and with an annual turnover of less than 7.5 million Rand and includes artisanal mines. Small,scale miners are involved in many commodities but there appears to be a bias towards gold, diamonds and quarrying for construction materials, including brickclays. Small,scale mining is regulated by the same legislation (i.e., for the environment, labour, mineral rights, exploration and mining permitting, and skills development) as large,scale mining, though compliance is low, particularly where artisanal mining in concerned. The effective participation of small,scale miners in the mining sector is hampered by their lack of skills, i.e., technical, business and management, and their limited access to mineral deposits, capital and markets. Some of these hindrances have been inherited from the imbalances of the colonial and apartheid eras and continue to act as barriers, making entrance to the industry difficult. For those who have entered the industry out of desperation, as is the case with most artisanal miners, their activities result in negative impacts evident in the inefficient, unsafe and environmentally unfriendly operations. With the advent of the new political dispensation in South Africa, a new era is dawning for the country's small,scale mining subsector. This has resulted in a change of attitude and new government policies which have led to special programmes being put in place to promote the subsector. Intervention strategies for the support of small,scale mining (some of which are already in operation) include programmes for kickstarting mineral beneficiation and value,addition projects, development of appropriate technologies and skills and technology transfer. Proponents of small,scale mining see a well,regulated industry as being the cornerstone of future rural economic development, particularly for previously disadvantaged communities in the poverty nodes. [source]