Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Colon

  • ascending colon
  • descending colon
  • distal colon
  • human colon
  • human sigmoid colon
  • inflamed colon
  • leave colon
  • mouse colon
  • murine colon
  • normal colon
  • proximal colon
  • rat colon
  • rat distal colon
  • rectosigmoid colon
  • right colon
  • sigmoid colon
  • transverse colon
  • whole colon

  • Terms modified by Colon

  • colon adenocarcinoma
  • colon adenocarcinoma cell
  • colon biopsy
  • colon cancer
  • colon cancer cell
  • colon cancer cell line
  • colon cancer patient
  • colon cancer risk
  • colon cancer screening
  • colon cancer.
  • colon cancers
  • colon carcinogenesi
  • colon carcinoma
  • colon carcinoma cell
  • colon carcinoma cell line
  • colon epithelial cell
  • colon length
  • colon mucosa
  • colon resection
  • colon sample
  • colon surgery
  • colon tissue
  • colon tumor

  • Selected Abstracts


    Takeshi Mizukami
    Colonoscopy is a difficult examination to conduct for inexperienced examiners. In an attempt to improve the view, there is often a tendency to overinsufflate air, which causes elongation or acute angulations of the colon and makes passage of the scope difficult. Sakai et al. were the first to describe a simple colonoscopic technique using water infusion instead of air insufflation. We have modified this technique to simplify the procedure further by combining water infusion using disposable syringes with complete air suction from the rectum to the descending colon. With the resultant elimination of the boundary lines between water and air, a good view of the lumen is obtained though the transparent water. With the patient in the left lateral position, this procedure allows the water to flow straight down into the descending colon through the ,collapsed' lumen, and the scope to be easily negotiated through the straightened recto-sigmoid colon and sigmoid-descending colon junction with minimum discomfort. Measurements of the patients' abdominal circumference during colonoscopy showed that colonic distension hardly occurred. Under supervision by the author, six complete novices were allowed to insert the colonoscope within 10 min by this method for one patient per week, as long as the patients did not complain of pain. The average trial number for the first cecal intubation within 10 min was 3.3, and the average success rate during the first 3 months was 58.6%. We believe that this ,collapse-submergence method' is easy to master, even for inexperienced examiners. [source]


    Tomoko Morita
    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) with hemorrhagic tendency, is often recognized in the oral mucosa and skin, but rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Only 20 cases have been reported in the gastric mucosa. There have been no reports of gastrointestinal PG treated by argon plasma coagulation (APC). We report here the first case of PG in the sigmoid colon treated by APC. The patient was a 64-year-old woman complaining of constipation who was referred to a university hospital of Kochi Medical School. She presented with easily bleeding mucosa, as revealed by a total colonoscopic study in the sigmoid colon. Magnifying colonoscopic examination showed two sessile small polyps in the sigmoid colon. Pathological examination of the biopsy specimens revealed pyogenic granuloma. We treated this lesion by endoscopic APC. No recurrence has been found as of 9 months after APC therapy. [source]


    Yasushi Oda
    ABSTRACT Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is the technique used to resect flat or depressed tumors or larger tumors such as laterally spreading tumors with marginal normal mucosa. Recently, endoscopic mucosal dissection technique has been rapidly accepted, mainly in early gastric cancer in Japan. We need to have firm knowledge of EMR technique in the colon for recovery as we advance this new technique. We describe our conventional EMR method practically. EMR should be performed to locate the target lesion at down side to perform sure EMR. The ideal shape of upheaval by saline injection is hemisphere. The needle sheath and snare should be taken out a little of the endoscopy to manipulate firmly. Another technique of secure EMR is the snare manipulation. We prefer that the shape of the snare is circular and the snare is hard. It is important while trapping to press the target lesion with both the whole snare circle and the end of the sheath. With these fundamental procedures we could resect the target lesions at will. [source]


    Kazuhiro Yada
    We report a case of colonic bleeding complicating congestive heart failure in a patient with Peutz,Jeghers (P,J) polyposis successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery. A 49-year-old woman was admitted for severe cough and edema of the extremities. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral pleural effusion and cardiomegaly. Her cardiac function was within normal limits, but anemia and severe hypoproteinemia were observed. During the treatment, anal bleeding was observed. Endoscopic and radiographic examinations revealed hundreds of polyps from the duodenum to the rectum. 99mTc-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid human serum albumin scintigraphy showed radiotracer collected in the sigmoid colon, the area having the most polyps. After some intestinal polypoid lesions were resected endoscopically, laparoscopy-assisted sigmoid colectomy and cecectomy were performed. In the postoperative course, she complained less about abdominal pain and her first flatus occurred on the third postoperative day. She recovered uneventfully. The anemia, hypoproteinemia, and congestive heart failure resolved and gastrointestinal bleeding has not been seen. It was thought that protein loss and hemorrhage due to the P,J polyposis caused congestive heart failure. When congestive heart failure is accompanied by gastrointestinal hemorrhage, it is important to consider hypoproteinemia due to gastrointestinal polyposis, such as that characterizing P,J syndrome. Laparoscopic surgery was very useful for the treatment of colonic bleeding. [source]


    Yoshie Tada
    A 72-year-old woman presented with hematochezia. Colonoscopy revealed branch-like vasodilation in the ascending colon and chronic hemorrhage from vascular ectasia of the colon was suspected. Argon plasma coagulation was performed. After treatment, epithelialization of the lesion site was noted and her anemia improved. Vascular ectasia of the colon is recognized as the etiology of lower gastrointestinal bleeding with increasing frequency. Infrared ray electronic endoscopy is useful for determining the extent of disease and argon plasma coagulation, a new hemostatic technique, is suitable for treatment of this condition. [source]


    S Sengupta
    Butyrate, a major product of bacterial fermentation of dietary fibre, is trophic to the colonic epithelium, when deprived of dietary fibre or faecal stream. However, the dose,response relationship of butyrate to this trophic effect is not known. The mechanism of this effect is still debated and how it relates to the antitumorigenic action of butyrate is unclear. Aim, To characterise the dose,response relationship of the effect of butyrate delivered topically to the distal colon on fibre-deprived atrophic colonic epithelium in rats. Methods, Sixty-four male Sprague,Dawley rats were maintained on a fibre-free AIN 93G diet for 3 weeks to induce mucosal atrophy in the colon. The rats then underwent laparotomy for colonic intubation, in which a polyethylene tube was positioned at the proximal end of the distal colon via a caecotomy. After recovering from surgery, they were randomly divided into five groups, which were given for 4 days twice daily infusions of 0.5 mL butyrate at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 mm (at which complete reversal of atrophy has been previously observed). Prior to sacrifice, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with vincristine to induce mitotic arrest. Crypt column heights and mitotic arrests were quantified by light microscopy. Results, All treatment groups were healthy and stress-free. The mucosa of vehicle-infused rats was atrophic (mean 38 cells/crypt). Effects of twice daily infusions of butyrate were first observed on cell proliferation (number of mitotic arrests per crypt column) at 10 mm, and increased linearly to 80 mm. Crypt column height increased linearly from 20 mm to 80 mm, at which a mean of 45 cells/crypt were observed (the number usually observed in chow-fed healthy rats). The mitotic index (number of mitotic arrests per 100 crypt cells) also increased linearly from 10 mm. Conclusions, Butyrate's trophic effect showed a linear dose,dependent relationship. Although a maximal effect was not convincingly demonstrated, the results indicate that very small amounts of butyrate are required to affect epithelial proliferation. Since much higher luminal delivery is required to suppress tumorigenesis in this model, the mechanism by which butyrate exerts its trophic and antitumorigenic effects are likely to be different. [source]


    Andrei Sibaev
    SUMMARY 1Gap junctions exist between circular muscle cells of the colon and between interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the myenteric plexus of the gastrointestinal tract. They also probably couple intramuscular ICC with smooth muscle cells. Recent functional evidence for this was found in dye-coupling and myoelectrical experiments. 2In the present study, we tested the hypothesis of gap junctions putatively being involved in neuromuscular interaction in mouse colon by using different classes of gap junction blockers. 3Electrical field stimulation of the myenteric plexus elicited tetrodotoxin-sensitive and hexamethonium-independent fast and slow inhibitory junction potentials (fIJP and sIJP, respectively) in circular smooth muscle cells, as evaluated by intracellular recording techniques in impaled smooth muscle cells. Heptanol produced a time-dependent hyperpolarization of the membrane potential (MP) and abolished fIJP and sIJP. Octanol had no effect on the MP and abolished fIJP and sIJP. Carbenoxolone produced a time-dependent depolarization of the MP without any effect on fIJP or sIJP. The connexin 43 mimetic gap junction blocker GAP-27 had no effect on MP, fIJP or sIJP. 4Based on the presently available gap junction blockers we found no evidence that gap junctions are involved in neuromuscular transmission in mouse colon, as suggested by morphological studies. [source]


    Shiro Oka
    Bleeding, perforation, and residual/local recurrence are the main complications associated with colonoscopic treatment of colorectal tumor. However, current status regarding the average incidence of these complications in Japan is not available. We conducted a questionnaire survey, prepared by the Colorectal Endoscopic Resection Standardization Implementation Working Group, Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR), to clarify the incidence of postoperative bleeding, perforation, and residual/local recurrence associated with colonoscopic treatment. The total incidence of postoperative bleeding was 1.2% and the incidence was 0.26% with hot biopsy, 1.3% with polypectomy, 1.4% with endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), and 1.7% with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The total incidence of perforation was 0.74% (0.01% with the hot biopsy, 0.17% with polypectomy, 0.91% with EMR, and 3.3% with ESD). The total incidence of residual/local recurrence was 0.73% (0.007% with hot biopsy, 0.34% with polypectomy, 1.4% with EMR, and 2.3% with ESD). Colonoscopic examination was used as a surveillance method for detecting residual/local recurrence in all hospitals. The surveillance period differed among the hospitals; however, most of the hospitals reported a surveillance period of 3,6 months with mainly transabdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography in combination with the colonoscopic examination. [source]

    The Secretory Response of the Rat Colon to the Flavonol Quercetin is Dependent on Ca2+ -Calmodulin

    R. Cermak
    The dietary flavonol quercetin induces chloride secretion in rat intestine. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, experiments were performed in Ussing chambers with tissue from rat proximal and distal colon. Quercetin induced an increase in short-circuit current (Isc), which was largely independent of submucosal neurons, as it was not affected by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin. The effect of quercetin was blocked by the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine and ophiobolin A and was diminished by a blocker of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores (TMB-8), whereas the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine was ineffective. The quercetin-induced Isc was abolished in Ca2+ -free solution. The flavonol was able to further increase Isc after maximal stimulation of the cAMP pathway by forskolin. The Isc increase by the flavonol was differently affected by two analogous phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Whereas 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) antagonized the effect of quercetin, 8-methoxymethyl-IBMX had no effect. Both phosphodiesterase inhibitors similarly influenced the Isc increase induced by forskolin. These results indicate that the chloride secretion induced by quercetin in rat colon depends on Ca2+ and calmodulin. The cAMP pathway and inhibition of phosphodiesterase appear not to be responsible for the secretory activity of the flavonol. [source]

    Expression of IL-27 in murine carcinoma cells produces antitumor effects and induces protective immunity in inoculated host animals

    Masako Chiyo
    Abstract A novel cytokine interleukin-27 (IL-27), composed of p28 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3), is produced from activated dendritic cells and is involved in an early phase of T-helper type I differentiation. We examined whether Colon 26 murine colon carcinoma cells that were retrovirally transduced with the p28 -linked EBI3 gene (Colon 26/IL-27) could produce antitumor effects in inoculated mice. Although proliferation in vitro of Colon 26/IL-27 cells was not different from that of parent cells, syngeneic BALB/c mice rejected Colon 26/IL-27 tumors inoculated and subsequently acquired tumor-specific protective immunity. In contrast, mice inoculated with Colon 26 cells transduced with either the p28 or EBI3 gene developed tumors and survival of the mice remained the same as that of the mice inoculated with parent cells. Syngeneic nude mice developed Colon 26/IL-27 tumors, but the growth was retarded compared to that of parent tumors. Depletion of natural killer cells from nude mice with anti-asialo GM1 antibody diminished the growth retardation of Colon 26/IL-27 tumors. Survival of severe combined immunodeficient mice that received subcutaneous inoculation of Colon 26/IL-27 cells was not different from that of the immunodeficient mice inoculated with parent cells. Interferon-, was produced from CD4+ and CD8+ T, and natural killer cells of the mice that rejected Colon 26/IL-27 tumors and cytotoxic activity against Colon 26 cells were also detected from the mice. These data collectively suggest that expressed IL-27 in tumors produces T cell-dependent and-independent antitumor effects and is a possible therapeutic strategy for cancer. ©2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fas ligand expressed in colon cancer is not associated with increased apoptosis of tumor cells in vivo

    Aileen Houston
    Abstract Expression of Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L) may help to maintain colon cancers in a state of immune privilege by inducing apoptosis of antitumor immune effector cells. Colon tumor-derived cell lines appear to be relatively insensitive to apoptosis mediated by their own or exogenous FasL in vitro, despite expression of cell surface Fas. In our present study, we sought to investigate if FasL upregulated in human colon cancers leads to any increase in apoptosis of the tumor cells in vivo. FasL and Fas receptor (APO-1/CD95) expression by tumor cells were detected immunohistochemically. Apoptotic tumor cell death was detected by immunohistochemistry for caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18. FasL expression did not correlate with the extent of apoptosis of tumor cells. There was no significant local difference in the frequency of apoptosis of tumor cells between tumor nests that expressed FasL (mean = 2.4%) relative to those that did not (mean = 2.6%) (p = 0.625, n = 10; Wilcoxon signed rank). FasL expressed by the tumor cells appeared to be functional, since FasL expression in tumor nests correlated with diminished infiltration of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). TILs were detected using immunohistochemistry for CD45. Expression of FasL by tumor nests was associated with a mean 4-fold fewer TILs relative to FasL-negative nests (range 2.4,33-fold, n = 10, p < 0.003). Together, our results indicate that colon tumors are insensitive to FasL-mediated apoptosis in vivo. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Colon, Rectum and Small Bowel

    Article first published online: 2 OCT 200

    Colon, Rectum and Small Bowel

    Article first published online: 3 SEP 200

    Difference in susceptibilities of different cell lines to bilirubin damage

    K-C Ngai
    Objective: To investigate if there are differences in susceptibilities to bilirubin toxicity of different cell lines. Methodology: A modified 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was adopted to study the cytotoxic effect of bilirubin on several commercially available cell lines including human glioblastoma (ATCC CRL 1690, T98G), human neuroblastoma (ATCC HTB-10, SK-N-MC), human liver (ATCC CCL 13, Chang Liver, HeLa markers) and a mouse fibroblast (ATCC CCL-1, NCTC Colon 929). Results: Cytotoxicity was observed when certain bilirubin:albumin molar ratios were exceeded in the medium of a cell line in culture. Different cells exhibited different susceptibilities to the cytotoxic effects of bilirubin; neuroblastoma and glioblastoma were most susceptible, fibroblasts were the least vulnerable. Conclusions: Our findings have confirmed the clinical impression that different cells sustain different degrees of cytotoxicities caused by bilirubin. [source]

    Alcohol Stimulates Activation of Snail, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling, and Biomarkers of Epithelial,Mesenchymal Transition in Colon and Breast Cancer Cells

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2010
    Christopher B. Forsyth
    Background:, Alcohol consumption is associated with the risk of progressive cancers including colon and breast cancer. The mechanisms for the alcohol-induced aggressive behavior of these epithelial cancer cells have not been fully identified. Epithelial,mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program recently shown to play a role in cancer progression and metastases. We hypothesized that alcohol might promote cancer progression by inducing EMT in cancer cells and tested this hypothesis by assessing alcohol-stimulated changes in phenotypic markers of EMT as well as the EMT transcription factor Snail and its related cell signaling. Methods:, Colon and breast cancer cell lines and a normal intestinal epithelial cell line were tested as well as colonic mucosal biopsy samples from alcoholic subjects. Cells were treated with alcohol and assessed for EMT-related changes using immunofluorescent microscopy, western blotting, reporter assays, RT-PCR, and knockdown of Snail with siRNA. Results:, We show alcohol upregulated the signature EMT phenotypic marker vimentin as well as matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 and cell migration in colon and breast cancer cells,all characteristics of EMT. Alcohol also stimulated nuclear localization of Snail phosphorylated at Ser246, transcription from a Snail reporter plasmid, and Snail mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Snail siRNA knockdown prevented alcohol-stimulated vimentin expression. In vivo, Snail expression was significantly elevated in colonic mucosal biopsies from alcoholics. Also, we found alcohol stimulated activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and an EGFR inhibitor blocked alcohol-induced cell migration and Snail mRNA expression. Conclusions:, Collectively, our data support a novel mechanism for alcohol promoting cancer progression through stimulating the EMT program in cancer cells via an EGFR-Snail mediated pathway. This study reveals new pathways for alcohol-mediated promotion of cancer that could be targeted for therapy or prevention of alcohol-related cancers. [source]

    An Innovative Sphincter Preserving Pull-Through Technique with En Bloc Colon and Small Bowel Transplantation

    K. R. Eid
    This report describes a new innovative pull-through technique of hindgut reconstruction with en bloc small bowel and colon transplantation in a Crohn's disease patient with irreversible intestinal failure. The approach was intersphincteric and the anastomosis was established between the allograft colon and the recipient anal verge with achievement of full nutritional autonomy and anal continence. [source]

    A novel carbazole topoisomerase II poison, ER-37328: potent tumoricidal activity against human solid tumors in vitro and in vivo

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
    Katsuji Nakamura
    We have discovered a novel topoisomerase II (topo II) poison, ER-37328 (12,13-dihydro-5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-4H-benzo[c]py-rimido[5,6,1- jk]carbazole-4,6,10(5H, 11H)-trione hydrochloride), which shows potent tumor regression activity against Colon 38 cancer inoculated s.c. Here, we describe studies on the cell-killing activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and the antitumor activity of ER-37328 against human tumor xenografts. In a cell-killing assay involving 1-h drug treatment, ER-37328 showed more potent cell-killing activity (50% lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranging from 2.9 to 20 ,M) than etoposide (LC50s>60 ,M) against a panel of human cancer cell lines. ER-37328 induced double-stranded DNA cleavage, an indicator of topo II-DNA cleavable complex formation, within 1 h in MX-1 cells, and the extent of cleavage showed a bell-shaped relationship to drug concentration, with the maximum at 2.5 ,M. After removal of the drug (2.5 ,M) at 1 h, incubation was continued in drug-free medium, and the amount of cleaved DNA decreased. However, at 10 ,M, which is close to the LC50 against MX-1 cells, DNA cleavage was not detected immediately after 1-h treatment, but appeared and increased after drug removal. This result may explain the potent cell-killing activity of ER37328 in the 1-h treatment. In vivo, ER-37328 showed potent tumor regression activity against MX-1 and NS-3 tumors. Moreover, ER-37328 had a different antitumor spectrum from irinotecan or cisplatin against human tumor xenografts. In conclusion, ER-37328 is a promising topo II poison with strong cell killing activity in vitro and tumor regression activity in vivo, and is a candidate for the clinical treatment of malignant solid tumors. (Cancer Sci 2003; 94: 119,124) [source]

    Pharmacokinetic Study of a Gallium-porphyrin Photo- and Sono-sensitizer, ATX-70, in Tumor-bearing Mice

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 9 2001
    Kazuaki Sasaki
    The tissue distribution of a gallium-porphyrin photo- and sono-sensitizer, 7,12-bis(l-decyloxy-ethyl)-Ga(III)-3,8,13,17-tetramethylporphyrin-2,18-dipropionyldiaspartic acid, ATX-70, was phar-niacokinetically examined in tumor-bearing mice. The drug was administered intravenously to CDF1mice implanted with Colon 26 carcinoma. Blood and tissue samples were collected for up to 72 h after administration. The drug concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. ATX-70 was found to accumulate in tumors at a relatively high concentration that peaked between 2 h and 6 h after administration. However, modest concentrations of ATX-70 also remained in healthy tissues for up to 6 h. We examined the distribution of ATX-70 in the tumor in comparison with other tissues from the viewpoint of minimizing possible side effects of laser or ultrasound exposure while maintaining the treatment effect. About 24 h after administration, the tumor/plasma concentration ratio peaked, and relatively high tumor/skin and tumor/muscle concentration ratios were seen. [source]

    Hexosaminidase-altered Aberrant Crypts, Carrying Decreased Hexosaminidase , and , Subunit mRNAs, in Colon of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-treated Rats

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2001
    Tetsuya Tsukamoto
    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), consisting of morphologically irregular crypts, are thought to be precancerous lesions for colon cancers. For their molecular analysis, it is necessary to avoid contamination with adjacent normal crypts and stromal cells. Decreased hexosaminidase activity in ACF, which has been histochemically demonstrated, was used in the present study to classify isolated crypts in combination with morphological changes. The length, rim diameter, and width (average±SD, ,m) of hexosaminidase-positive (Hex+) crypts were 238.6±40.4, 89.5±22.9, and 57.6±14.0, respectively. For hexosaminidase-negative (Hex-) crypts, the values were 314.4±77.8, 140.3±45.7, and 97.3±34.7, the width being 1.69 tunes greater (P<0.0001). Crypts wider than 115 ,m (approximately 2 tunes the average size of Hex+ crypts) were all from ACF, judging from hexosaminidase staining. To analyze transcription levels of Hex , and , subunits (Hexa and Hexb, respectively), real-tune relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed using the LightCycler system. In aberrant crypts, both Hexa and Hexb were significantly down-regulated to 0.266 (P<0.002) and 0.131 (P<0.001) units, respectively, compared with those in morphologically normal crypts, with , -actin as the internal standard. This decrease could be a molecular marker for precancerous enzyme-altered ACF. [source]

    Prostaglandin I2 sensory input into the enteric nervous system during distension-induced colonic chloride secretion in rat colon

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    J. D. Schulzke
    Abstract Aim:, Intestinal pressure differences or experimental distension induce ion secretion via the enteric nervous system, the sensorial origin of which is only poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate sensorial inputs and the role of afferent and interneurones in mechanically activated submucosal secretory reflex circuits. Methods:, Distension-induced rheogenic chloride secretion was measured as increase in short-circuit current 10 min after distension (,ISC10; distension parameters ± 100 ,L, 2 Hz, 20 s) in partially stripped rat distal colon in the Ussing-chamber in vitro. PGE2 and PGI2 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results:, ,ISC10 was 2.0 ± 0.2 ,mol h,1 cm,2 and could be attenuated by lobeline, mecamylamine and dimethylphenylpiperazine, indicating an influence of nicotinergic interneurones. Additionally, a contribution of afferent neurones was indicated from the short-term potentiation of ,ISC10 by capsaicin (1 ,m). As evidence for its initial event, indomethacin (1 ,m) inhibited distension-induced secretion and the release of PGI2 was directly detected after distension. Furthermore, serotoninergic mediation was confirmed by granisetron (100 ,m) which was functionally localized distally to PGI2 in this reflex circuit, as granisetron inhibited an iloprost-induced ISC, while indomethacin did not affect serotonin-activated ion secretion. Conclusions:, Distension-induced active electrogenic chloride secretion in rat colon is mediated by a neuronal reflex circuit which includes afferent neurones and nicotinergic interneurones. It is initiated by distension-induced PGI2 release from subepithelial cells triggering this reflex via serotoninergic 5-HT3 receptor transmission. Functionally, this mechanism may help to protect against intestinal stasis but could also contribute to luminal fluid loss, e.g. during intestinal obstruction. [source]

    Resistin increases islet blood flow and decreases subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in anaesthetized rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    T. Danielsson
    Abstract Aim:, Resistin is an adipokine which has been suggested to participate in the induction of insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute administration of resistin influences tissue blood perfusion in rats. Methods:, Resistin was administered as an intravenous infusion of 7.5 ,g h,1 (1.5 mL h,1) for 30 min to rats anaesthetized with thiobutabarbital. A microsphere technique was used to estimate the blood flow to six different depots of white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as to the pancreas, islets, duodenum, colon, kidneys, adrenal glands and liver. Results:, Resistin administration led to an increased blood flow to the pancreas and islets and a decrease in subcutaneous WAT and BAT. Intra-abdominal white adipose tissue blood flow and that to other organs were not affected. Conclusion:, Acute administration of resistin markedly affects the blood perfusion of both the pancreas and subcutaneous white adipose tissue depots. At present it is unknown whether resistin exerts a direct effect on the vasculature, or works through local or systemic activation of endothelial cells and/or macrophages. The extent to which this might contribute to the insulin resistance caused by resistin is yet unknown. [source]

    The ,II isotype of tubulin is present in the cell nuclei of a variety of cancers

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 2 2004
    I-Tien Yeh
    Abstract Tubulin, the subunit protein of microtubules, has generally been thought to be exclusively a cytoplasmic protein in higher eukaryotes. We have previously shown that cultured rat kidney mesangial cells contain the ,II isotype of tubulin in their nuclei in the form of an ,,II dimer [Walss et al., 1999: Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 42:274,284, 1999]. More recently, we examined a variety of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines and found ,II in the nuclei of all of the former and only a few of the latter (Walss-Bass et al., 2002: Cell Tissue Res. 308:215,223]. In order to determine if ,II -tubulin occurs in the nuclei of actual cancers as well as in cancer cell lines, we used the immunoperoxidase method to look for nuclear ,II in a variety of tumors excised from 201 patients. We found that 75% of these tumors contain ,II in their nuclei. Distribution of nuclear ,II was highly dependent on the type of cancer, with 100% of the colon and prostate cancers, but only 19% of the skin tumors, having nuclear ,II. Nuclear ,II was particularly marked in tumors of epithelial origin, of which 83% showed nuclear ,II, in contrast to 54% in tumors of non-epithelial origin. In many cases, ,II staining occurred very strongly in the nuclei and not in the cytoplasm; in other cases, ,II was present in both. In many cases, particularly metastases, otherwise normal cells adjacent to the tumor also showed nuclear ,II, suggesting that cancer cells may influence nearby cells to synthesize ,II and localize it to their nuclei. Our results have implications for the diagnosis, biology, and chemotherapy of cancer. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 57:96,106, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Apocrine Carcinoma, Adenopathies, and Raised TAG-72 Serum Tumor Marker

    Jorge Santos-Juanes PHD
    Background. The detection of tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 in the serum of patients with carcinomas, basically of the colon, has proved to be of great use in the follow-up of these gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Results. We report the case of a male patient presenting adenopathies in the right axilla. The histologic study of an adjacent skin tumor enabled the diagnosis of a cutaneous apocrine carcinoma. Among the studies made, the increase in the serum antibody CA72.4 can be highlighted. The tumor marker was negative after the extirpation of the skin tumor and the axillary adenopathies. Conclusion. To our best knowledge, this is the first case in which a tumor serum marker is associated with a cutaneous apocrine carcinoma, a fact that should be confirmed with further patients. Its use in the monitoring of this infrequent skin neoplasia is also noteworthy. [source]

    De Novo Malignant Eccrine Spiradenoma with an Interesting and Unusual Location

    Serkan Yildirim MD
    Background. Reports in the literature reveal that malignant eccrine spiradenomas (MES) are exceedingly rare, and represent aggressive tumors arising in long-standing benign eccrine spiradenomas (ES). Objective. We present a de novo case of MES of the nose, in contrast to reports in the literature of progression from long-standing benign lesions. Methods. Case report and brief review of the literature. Results. Our case was accepted as de novo MES because there was no evidence of ES on pathologic examination. It was treated by surgical excision with 1 cm tumor-free margins. No recurrence or complications were observed for 2 months, but long-term follow-up could not be performed because the patient died of adenocarcinoma of the colon. Conclusion. Although previously reported lesions have arisen in long-standing benign ESs, usually on the trunk or extremities, this report shows that MES may occur as a primary malignant tumor and may occur in unusual locations such as the nose. [source]

    Expression pattern of Popdc2 during mouse embryogenesis and in the adult

    Alexander Froese
    Abstract The Popdc2 gene is a member of the Popeye domain containing gene family encoding membrane proteins with prominent expression in striated and smooth muscle tissue. After introducing a LacZ reporter gene into the Popdc2 locus, expression was studied during embryonic development and postnatal life. At embryonic day (E) 7.5, expression was present in cardiac and extraembryonic mesoderm. At E10.5, expression was found in heart, somites, and mesothelial cells lining the coelom. At E12.5, expression was present in the coelomic mesothelium, pericardial and myocardial layer of the heart, skeletal muscle, bladder, gut, and umbilical vessels. Postnatal expression was found in cardiac and skeletal muscle and in the smooth muscle layer of colon, rectum, and bladder. In the stomach, Popdc2 was exclusively present in the pyloric epithelium. In conclusion, Popdc2 is expressed in various muscle and nonmuscle cell types during embryonic development and in postnatal life. Developmental Dynamics 237:780,787, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Three-dimensional slice cultures from murine fetal gut for investigations of the enteric nervous system

    Marco Metzger
    Abstract Three-dimensional intestinal cultures offer new possibilities for the examination of growth potential, analysis of time specific gene expression, and spatial cellular arrangement of enteric nervous system in an organotypical environment. We present an easy to produce in vitro model of the enteric nervous system for analysis and manipulation of cellular differentiation processes. Slice cultures of murine fetal colon were cultured on membrane inserts for up to 2 weeks without loss of autonomous contractility. After slice preparation, cultured tissue reorganized within the first days in vitro. Afterward, the culture possessed more than 35 cell layers, including high prismatic epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, glial cells, and neurons analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The contraction frequency of intestinal slice culture could be modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin and the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin. Coculture experiments with cultured neurospheres isolated from enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic mice demonstrated that differentiating eGFP-positive neurons were integrated into the intestinal tissue culture. This slice culture model of enteric nervous system proved to be useful for studying cell,cell interactions, cellular signaling, and cell differentiation processes in a three-dimensional cell arrangement. Developmental Dynamics 236:128,133, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Adenocarcinoma in colonic brushing cytology: High-grade dysplasia as a diagnostic pitfall

    Gordon H. Yu M.D.
    Abstract Cytologic evaluation of brushing specimens obtained from the colon may be useful in the diagnosis of neoplastic and inflammatory lesions, as previous studies have reported favorable sensitivity and specificity figures for this procedure. In this study, we report our experience with 80 colonic brushings examined over a 5-yr period. Thirty cases received an atypical or malignant cytologic diagnosis. Nineteen of 20 cases diagnosed cytologically as adenocarcinoma revealed adenocarcinoma on biopsy; one case showed only adenomatous epithelium on biopsy and subsequent resection. Cases diagnosed cytologically as "atypical" or "adenomatous" showed adenocarcinoma, adenoma, and inflammatory conditions upon biopsy. Slides from 30 atypical/malignant cases were retrospectively reviewed for a number of cytomorphologic features and were correlated with the histologic diagnosis. Cases from histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma tended to show greater degrees of altered nuclear polarity, nuclear pleomorphism, membrane irregularities, and chromatin pattern alterations than those from histologically proven adenomatous or inflammatory lesions. The most likely cause of a false-positive diagnosis in this setting is sampling of an adenoma with high-grade dysplasia which fails to meet histologic criteria for adenocarcinoma (invasion of the underlying muscularis mucosae). Thus, in the second part of the study, we examined histologic sections from surgically excised adenomas to determine the frequency with which profound nuclear atypia is at least focally present, potentially resulting in a false-positive cytology diagnosis upon brushing. Slides from 51 cases were reviewed; cytologic atypia beyond that typically observed in adenomas was not observed in 43% of cases. However, profound nuclear atypia was present in 6% of cases; cytologic evaluation of a brushing specimen from these lesions may have resulted in a false-positive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, despite the histologic diagnosis of adenoma with severe dysplasia. The remaining cases demonstrated intermediate degrees of atypia. These findings serve to quantitate the frequency with which cytohistologic discrepancies might be expected for mass lesions of the colon. Diagn. Cytopathol. 24:364,368, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Keiko Hosho
    A 45-year-old Philippine woman who came from Mindanao Island was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of epigastric discomfort. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated a network pattern and linear calcification in the liver. Laparoscopic examination showed numerous yellowish, small speckles over the liver surface. The liver surface was separated into many small blocks by groove-like depressions, demonstrating a so-called tortoise shell pattern. Conventional colonoscopy and narrow-band imaging showed irregular areas of yellowish mucosa, and diminished vascular network and increased irregular microvessels extending from the descending colon to the rectum. Liver biopsy showed many Schistosoma japonicum eggs in Glisson's capsule and colon biopsy showed many S. japonicum eggs in the submucosal layer. These findings established a diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica. The present case is imported schistosomiasis japonica. Even though new cases have not occurred recently in Japan, we should remain aware of schistosomiasis japonica for patients who came from foreign epidemic areas. [source]


    Tateki Yamane
    A 68-year-old man visited our department because of diarrhea and bloody stools. Colonoscopy revealed diverticula scattered in the sigmoid colon with localized mucosal edema and reddening. The mucosa became somewhat rough 9 months later, and had an erosive, ulcerative colitis (UC)-like appearance after a further 6 months, with these changes extending to the rectum. These findings led to a diagnosis of diverticular colitis (DC) with UC-like changes. The condition was refractory to treatment including drug therapy and was thus surgically treated. No cases of DC have been reported in Japan, and a refractory case of DC with progressive UC-like changes extending to the rectum is rare even in Europe and the USA. [source]


    Jean-Francois Rey
    Background:, There are circumstances when a colonoscopy should be repeated after a short interval following the first endoscopic procedure which has not completely fulfilled its objective. Review of the literature:, A second look colonoscopy is proposed when there remains a doubt about missed neoplastic lesions, either because the intestinal preparation was poor or because the video-endoscope did not achieved a complete course in the colon. The second look colonoscopy is also proposed at a short interval when it is suspected that the endoscopic removal of a single or of multiple neoplastic lesions was incomplete and that a complement of treatment is required. When the initial endoscopic procedure has completely fulfilled its objective, a second look colonoscopy can be proposed at longer intervals in surveillance programs. The intervals in surveillance after polypectomy are now adapted to the initial findings according to established guidelines. This also applies to the surveillance of incident focal cancer in patients suffering from a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusion:, Finally, in most developed countries, a priority is attributed to screening of colorectal cancer and focus is given on quality assurance of colonoscopy which is considered as the gold standard procedure in the secondary prevention of colorectal cancer. [source]