Collision Avoidance (collision + avoidance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Analytical inverse kinematics with body posture control

COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 2 2008
Marcelo Kallmann
Abstract This paper presents a novel whole-body analytical inverse kinematics (IK) method integrating collision avoidance and customizable body control for animating reaching tasks in real-time. Whole-body control is achieved with the interpolation of pre-designed key body postures, which are organized as a function of the direction to the goal to be reached. Arm postures are computed by the analytical IK solution for human-like arms and legs, extended with a new simple search method for achieving postures avoiding joint limits and collisions. In addition, a new IK resolution is presented that directly solves for joints parameterized in the swing-and-twist decomposition. The overall method is simple to implement, fast, and accurate, and therefore suitable for interactive applications controlling the hands of characters. The source code of the IK implementation is provided. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Behavior and physiology of mechanoreception: separating signal and noise

INTEGRATIVE ZOOLOGY (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2009
John C. MONTGOMERY
Abstract The mechanosensory lateral line is found in all aquatic fish and amphibians. It provides a highly sensitive and versatile hydrodynamic sense that is used in a wide range of behavior. Hydrodynamic stimuli of biological interest originate from both abiotic and biotic sources, and include water currents, turbulence and the water disturbances caused by other animals, such as prey, predators and conspecifics. However, the detection of biologically important stimuli often has to occur against a background of noise generated by water movement, or movement of the fish itself. As such, separating signal and noise is "of the essence" in understanding the behavior and physiology of mechanoreception. Here we discuss general issues of signal and noise in the lateral-line system and the behavioral and physiological strategies that are used by fish to enhance signal detection in a noisy environment. In order for signal and noise to be separated, they need to differ, and we will consider those differences under the headings of: frequency and temporal pattern; intensity discrimination; spatial separation; and mechanisms for the reduction of self-generated noise. We systematically cover the issues of signal and noise in lateral-line systems, but emphasize recent work on self-generated noise, and signal and noise issues related to prey search strategies and collision avoidance. [source]


The CSMA/DM LAN protocol

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 8 2006
Wuxu Peng
Abstract We propose an extension of the classical CSMA/CD protocol that eliminates its three main drawbacks. The new protocol, called dual-mode CSMA/CD (CSMA/DM), operates in two modes, light mode and heavy mode. The light mode of CSMA/DM is almost the same as the original CSMA/CD protocol and is primarily used when the LAN load is light. The heavy mode is a collision free mode and is applied when the LAN load is heavy. The proposed modification to CSMA/CD is minimal while performance gain is significant. CSMA/DM automatically switches between its two modes based on the observed LAN load. Under heavy mode, the monitor station in a CSMA/DM LAN allocates bandwidth to those busy stations without collisions. The newly added priority scheme in the heavy mode allows stations to reserve bandwidth for their high priority frames. Compared with the current collision-free fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet, CSMA/DM has the advantage of not needing any extra switches or hubs while maintaining comparable performance. Its priority scheme provides more flexibility on bandwidth distribution than in fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. It can also be easily adapted for high-speed wireless LANs. More importantly, CSMA/DM should be a good alternative of the widely used CSMA/CA (collision avoidance) in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) and sensor networks. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A method for protocol-based collision avoidance between autonomous marine surface craft

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 5 2006
Michael R. Benjamin
This paper is concerned with the in-field autonomous operation of unmanned marine vehicles in accordance with convention for safe and proper collision avoidance as prescribed by the Coast Guard Collision Regulations (COLREGS). These rules are written to train and guide safe human operation of marine vehicles and are heavily dependent on human common sense in determining rule applicability as well as rule execution, especially when multiple rules apply simultaneously. To capture, the flexibility exploited by humans, this work applies a novel method of multiobjective optimization, interval programming, in a behavior-based control framework for representing the navigation rules, as well as task behaviors, in a way that achieves simultaneous optimal satisfaction. We present experimental validation of this approach using multiple autonomous surface craft. This work represents the first in-field demonstration of multiobjective optimization applied to autonomous COLREGS-based marine vehicle navigation. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Collision-free control of robotic manipulators in the task space

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 8 2005
Miros, aw Galicki
This paper addresses the problem of position control of robotic manipulators in the task space with obstacles. A computationally simple class of task space regulators consisting of a transpose Jacobian controller plus an integral term including the task error and the gradient of a penalty function generated by obstacles is proposed. The Lyapunov stability theory is used to derive the control scheme. Through the use of the exterior penalty function approach, collision avoidance of the robot with obstacles is ensured. The performance of the proposed control strategy is illustrated through computer simulations for a direct-drive arm of a SCARA type manipulator operating in both an obstacle-free task space and a task space including obstacles. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Potential-based path planning for robot manipulators

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 6 2005
Chien-Chou Lin
In this paper, a potential-based path-planning algorithm for a high DOF robot manipulator is proposed. Unlike some c-space-based approaches, which often require expensive preprocessing for the construction of the c-space, the proposed approach uses the workspace information directly. The approach computes, similar to that done in electrostatics, repulsive force and torque between objects in the workspace. A collision-free path of a manipulator will then be obtained by locally adjusting the manipulator configuration to search for minimum potential configurations using that force and torque. The proposed approach is efficient because these potential gradients are analytically tractable. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm works well, in terms of computation time and collision avoidance, for manipulators up to 9 degrees of freedom (DOF). 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]