College Undergraduates (college + undergraduate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cultivating mindfulness: effects on well-being

Shauna L. Shapiro
Abstract There has been great interest in determining if mindfulness can be cultivated and if this cultivation leads to well-being. The current study offers preliminary evidence that at least one aspect of mindfulness, measured by the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS; K. W. Brown & R. M. Ryan, 2003), can be cultivated and does mediate positive outcomes. Further, adherence to the practices taught during the meditation-based interventions predicted positive outcomes. College undergraduates were randomly allocated between training in two distinct meditation-based interventions, Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; J. Kabat-Zinn, 1990; n=15) and E. Easwaran's (1978/1991) Eight Point Program (EPP; n=14), or a waitlist control (n=15). Pretest, posttest, and 8-week follow-up data were gathered on self-report outcome measures. Compared to controls, participants in both treatment groups (n=29) demonstrated increases in mindfulness at 8-week follow-up. Further, increases in mindfulness mediated reductions in perceived stress and rumination. These results suggest that distinct meditation-based practices can increase mindfulness as measured by the MAAS, which may partly mediate benefits. Implications and future directions are discussed. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 64: 1,23, 2008. [source]

Taking Offense: Effects of Personality and Teasing History on Behavioral and Emotional Reactions to Teasing

Julie M. Bollmer
College undergraduates (N=108) worked on a task with a same-sex confederate. While interacting, the confederate either teased participants about how slowly they were working on the task or made a benign comment about the nature of the task. Analyses revealed that even mild teasing can generate negativity towards the teaser and interaction. More interestingly, however, personality moderated reactions to teasing, as teasing condition interacted with each of the Big Five personality domains in theoretically meaningful ways. Childhood teasing history also moderated reactions to teasing, as frequent victims and frequent teasers responded in different ways. [source]

Psychometric properties of the Trauma Assessment for Adults

Matt J. Gray Ph.D.
Abstract Background: The Trauma Assessment for Adults (TAA) was developed to facilitate the assessment of exposure to traumatic events that could result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The TAA inquires about numerous potentially traumatic events that an individual may have experienced. Although the TAA has been used extensively for clinical and research purposes, its psychometric properties have never been formally evaluated. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the psychometric properties of this frequently used measure. Methods: The studies reported here describe the performance of the TAA in two samples,college undergraduates (N=142) and community mental health center clients (N=67). Among undergraduates, 1-week temporal stability was evaluated and, in both samples, item- and scale-level convergence of the TAA with an established trauma exposure measure was assessed. Convergence of the TAA with clinically related constructs was also evaluated. Results: The TAA exhibited adequate temporal stability (r=.80) and satisfactory item-level convergence with existing measures of trauma history among college students. In the clinical sample, the TAA again converged well with an established measure of trauma exposure (r=.65). It was not as strongly predictive, in either sample, of trauma-related distress relative to an alternate trauma exposure measure. Conclusion: Although it performs satisfactorily, the TAA does not appear to be superior to other existing measures of trauma exposure. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The expression of anger and its relationship to symptoms and cognitions in obsessive,compulsive disorder

Stephen P. Whiteside
Abstract We compared the association between obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD) and the expression of anger in a sample of 71 patients and 71 college students. Some authors [Rubenstein et al., J Anxiety Disord 1995;9:1,9] have proposed that anger and hostility underlie the symptoms of OCD; however, there has been little empirical study of this relationship. One recent study [Whiteside and Abramowitz, Cog Therapy Res 2004;28:259,268] with college undergraduates found that the association between OCD symptoms and anger was attributable to depressive symptoms. In the present study, we compared the expression of anger in a sample of patients diagnosed with OCD and nonclinical volunteers. Consistent with the previous study, we found increased levels of anger in patients with OCD as compared to control participants; however, these differences could be attributed to between-group differences in general distress. These results were discussed within the framework of the cognitive theory of OCD. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Eating problems, body image disturbances, and academic achievement: Preliminary evaluation of the eating and body image disturbances academic interference scale

Tovah Yanover MA
Abstract Objective: To examine the relationships between a new scale, the Eating and Body Image Disturbances Academic Interference Scale (EBIDAIS), and measures of eating disturbance, body image, and academic achievement. Method: One thousand five hundred eighty-four college undergraduates completed the measures in an online survey and were awarded class credit for their participation. Measures included the Eating Disorder Inventory Bulimia, Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, and Perfectionism subscales. Grade point average (GPA) was also reported. Results: Academic interference and GPA were significantly correlated, indicating that higher interference scores were related to lower GPA. EBIDAIS was also significantly correlated with drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction, but was not significantly associated with perfectionism. The correlation between interference and GPA was substantially higher for a subsample of individuals who scored in the elevated range on eating and body dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Academic interference may be a relatively unexamined, but potentially important, outcome for individuals who experience eating problems and body image disturbance. 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

Treading on Tradition: Approaches to Teaching International Relations to the Nontraditional Undergraduate

Nancy E. Wright
Nontraditional undergraduates (NTUs), undergraduates who typically are older than average, work full-time, and/or are entrusted with substantial family responsibilities, pose a special challenge to international relations educators. Severe constraints on time and access to library facilities both impede progress and may give an erroneous impression that NTUs are not as committed to their education as more conventional college undergraduates. The lack of continuity in education that typifies the NTU experience often manifests itself in anxiety, frustration, and gaps in fundamental knowledge. At the same time, the maturity and sophistication that come with life experience often far exceed that of the more conventional college student. Furthermore, typical requirements of international relations and international studies majors, such as second and third language proficiency, internships with international organizations, and overseas study are often not feasible for the working student with family responsibilities. Possibilities for meeting the challenges of teaching NTUs include greater use of open-book examinations, research proposals, case studies, simulations, problem-based learning (PBL), use of the Internet, and the development of short-term intensive overseas study opportunities that accommodate the working student's schedule. [source]

Relational closeness: Comparing undergraduate college students' geographically close and long-distance friendships

As interpersonal relationships change with the advent of new technology, researchers need to reexamine their theoretical constructs (R. G. Adams, 1998). This study uses survey methodology to examine college undergraduates from the United States. It explores the concept of relational closeness by comparing how geographically close and long-distance friends define closeness in their relationships. It assesses prior methods of defining and measuring closeness in interpersonal relationships for the impact of physical distance between the friends. Differences illustrate factors that are important in understanding relational closeness in general and in long-distance relationships in particular. [source]