College Education (college + education)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Schooling, cognitive ability and health

M. Christopher Auld
Abstract A large literature documents a strong correlation between health and educational outcomes. In this paper we investigate the role of cognitive ability in the health-education nexus. Using NLSY data, we show that one standard deviation increase in cognitive ability is associated with roughly the same increase in health as two years of schooling and that cognitive ability accounts for roughly one quarter of the association between schooling and health. Both schooling and ability are strongly associated with health at low levels but less related or unrelated at high levels. Estimates treating schooling as endogenous to health suggest that much of the correlation between schooling and health is attributable to unobserved heterogeneity; the causal effect of schooling on health is large only for respondents with low levels of schooling and low cognitive ability. An implication is that policies which increase schooling will only increase health to the extent that they increase the education of poorly-educated individuals. Subsidies to college education, for example, are unlikely to increase population health. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Factors Affecting Plan Choice and Unmet Need among Supplemental Security Income Eligible Children with Disabilities

Jean M. Mitchell
Objective. To evaluate factors affecting plan choice (partially capitated managed care [MC] option versus the fee-for-service [FFS] system) and unmet needs for health care services among children who qualified for supplemental security income (SSI) because of a disability. Data Sources. We conducted telephone interviews during the summer and fall of 2002 with a random sample of close to 1,088 caregivers of SSI eligible children who resided in the District of Columbia. Research Design. We employed a two-step procedure where we first estimated plan choice and then constructed a selectivity correction to control for the potential selection bias associated with plan choice. We included the selectivity correction, the dummy variable indicating plan choice and other exogenous regressors in the second stage equations predicting unmet need. The dependent variables in the second stage equations include: (1) having an unmet need for any service or equipment; (2) having an unmet need for physician or hospital services; (3) having an unmet need for medical equipment; (4) having an unmet need for prescription drugs; (5) having an unmet need for dental care. Principal Findings. More disabled children (those with birth defects, chronic conditions, and/or more limitations in activities of daily living) were more likely to enroll in FFS. Children of caregivers with some college education were more likely to opt for FFS, whereas children from higher income households were more prone to enroll in the partially capitated MC plan. Children in FFS were 9.9 percentage points more likely than children enrolled in partially capitated MC to experience an unmet need for any type of health care services (p<.01), while FFS children were 4.5 percentage points more likely than partially capitated MC enrollees to incur a medical equipment unmet need (p<.05). FFS children were also more likely than partially capitated MC enrollees to experience unmet needs for prescription drugs and dental care, however these differences were only marginally significant. Conclusions. We speculate that the case management services available under the MC option, low Medicaid FFS reimbursements and provider availability account for some of the differences in unmet need that exist between partially capitated MC and FFS enrollees. [source]

Sources of family income and expenditure on children's private, after-school education in Korea

Young Sook Chung
Abstract This paper examines the relationship between sources of family income and household expenditure on private, after-school education for children in secondary schools in Korea in the context of educational ,credentialism', which values evidence of college education highly. Data from a survey of 514 parents of secondary school students are used. Estimated ordinary least squares coefficients indicate that the wife's income, but not the husband's, was positively associated with the amount of spending on children's education at private, after-school programmes. This finding suggests that some married women with children in Korea seek employment in order to earn the money needed for their children's private, after-school education. [source]

How Would Terminally Ill Patients Have Others Make Decisions for Them in the Event of Decisional Incapacity?

A Longitudinal Study
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role terminally ill patients would opt to have their loved ones and physicians play in healthcare decisions should they lose decision-making capacity and how this changes over time. DESIGN: Serial interviews. SETTING: The study institutions were The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore, Maryland, and St. Vincent's Hospital, in New York. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred forty-seven patients with cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or heart failure, at baseline and 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: Patients' baseline decision control preferences varied widely, but most opted for shared decision-making, leaning slightly toward independence from their loved ones. This did not change significantly at 3 or 6 months. Fifty-seven percent opted for the same degree of decision control at 3 months as at baseline. In a generalized estimating equation model adjusted for time, more-independent decision-making was associated with college education (P=.046) and being female (P=.01), whereas more-reliant decision-making was associated with age (P<.001). Patients leaned toward more reliance upon physicians to make best-interest determinations at diagnosis but opted for physicians to decide based upon their own independent wishes (substituted judgment) over time, especially if college educated. CONCLUSION: Terminally ill patients vary in how much they wish their own preferences to control decisions made on their behalf, but most would opt for shared decision-making with loved ones and physicians. Control preferences are stable over time with respect to loved ones, but as they live longer with their illnesses, patients prefer somewhat less reliance upon physicians. [source]

Returns to Schooling and Bayesian Model Averaging: A Union of Two Literatures

Justin L. Tobias
Abstract., In this paper, we review and unite the literatures on returns to schooling and Bayesian model averaging. We observe that most studies seeking to estimate the returns to education have done so using particular (and often different across researchers) model specifications. Given this, we review Bayesian methods which formally account for uncertainty in the specification of the model itself, and apply these techniques to estimate the economic return to a college education. The approach described in this paper enables us to determine those model specifications which are most favored by the given data, and also enables us to use the predictions obtained from all of the competing regression models to estimate the returns to schooling. The reported precision of such estimates also account for the uncertainty inherent in the model specification. Using U.S. data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we also revisit several ,stylized facts' in the returns to education literature and examine if they continue to hold after formally accounting for model uncertainty. [source]

Change in Work-Family Conflict Among Employed Parents Between 1977 and 1997

Kei M. Nomaguchi
Using data from two national surveys (N = 2,050), this paper examines what accounts for the increase in the sense of work-family conflict among employed parents between 1977 and 1997. Decomposition analysis indicates that the increases in women's labor force participation, college education, time pressure in completing one's job, and the decline in free time were related to the increase. Fathers in dual-earner marriages experienced a particular increase in work-family conflict. With the same amount of time spent with children, parents felt greater work-family conflict in 1997 than in 1977. Although masked by the overall increase, some trends, such as the increases in intrinsic job rewards, time with children, and egalitarian gender attitudes, contributed to a decline in work-family conflict. [source]

Demographic Characteristics, Life Context, and Patterns of Substance Use Among Alcohol-Dependent Treatment Clients in a Health Maintenance Organization

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2000
Tammy W. Tam
Background: Although individuals dependent only on alcohol and those dependent on both alcohol and drugs typically are not studied together in clinical trials, they are treated together in most treatment programs. In this study we compared epidemiological characteristics of the alcohol-only and alcohol-and-drug dependents in a treatment sample to assess differential treatment needs. Method: Patients admitted to treatment at a health maintenance organization's chemical dependency program were sampled and interviewed by using a structured questionnaire. The sample included 491 alcohol-only and 217 alcohol-and-drug dependents. Demographic characteristics, lifetime and current substance use, Addiction Severity Index composite scores, and DSM-IV criteria for alcohol and drug dependence were assessed at admission . Results: The odds of alcohol-and-drug dependence were higher among males, African Americans (when compared with whites), those who were younger, and those with less than college education. The risk was also higher among those who initiated heavy drinking or drug use before the age of 18. Increased psychiatric and family/social problems also were associated with combined dependence. Conclusions: Even in this relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status population, demographic characteristics were important predictors of type of dependence. Treatment programs which provide services that address prevention and psychosocial problems should pay attention to age of initiation as well as psychiatric and social problems. [source]


Hwei-Lin Chuang
The present study examines the employment status and choice of employment sector of female foreign spouses from Southeast Asia and Mainland China in Taiwan. The conceptual framework is based on the family labour supply model, human and social capital theory, and immigrant assimilation theory. Our findings indicate that in regard to employment status, family background variables, including the presence of small children and husbands' characteristics, play a more significant role in determining the employment probability for these foreign spouses than do human capital variables. In particular, for spouses from Southeast Asia, each additional child is correlated with a decrease in working probability of 11.3%, whereas college education has an insignificant effect on their employment probability. Employment assimilation for these marriage immigrants may be confirmed by the finding that the employment probability of foreign spouses rises rapidly with the number of years that have elapsed since migration. As for the choice of employment sector, a strong linkage between the employment sector of the foreign spouses and their husbands' employment sector is found in this study. [source]

Racial and ethnic disparities in low birth weight delivery associated with maternal occupational characteristics

John D. Meyer MD
Abstract Objectives Work characteristics and maternal education have both been associated with low birth weight (LBW) delivery. We sought to examine the relative contribution of these two factors to LBW delivery and determine whether ethnic/racial differentials in educational attainment and work characteristics might play a role in well-described disparities in LBW. Methods Scores for work substantive complexity (SC) derived from the O*NET were imputed to maternal occupation for Connecticut singleton births in 2000. Risks for LBW were estimated separately for black, Hispanic, and white mothers using logistic regression controlling for maternal covariates. Results Using white mothers as a referent, working is associated with reduced LBW risk in black mothers compared to those not in work (OR 2.06 vs. 3.07). LBW in working black women was strongly associated with less that a high school education (OR 4.80, 95% CI 1.68,13.7), and with low work SC in blacks in those with a college education or greater (OR 4.48, 95% CI 1.24,16.2). Examination of work SC scores, controlling for age and educational level, showed lower values for blacks; increased work SC was seen in Hispanics after adjustment for lower educational attainment. A decrease in risk for LBW was seen in black mothers, compared with whites, as work SC increased. By contrast, college-educated black mothers had a greater risk for LBW than those with high school or some college education. Conclusions Maternal employment and work in a job with greater SC were associated with a reduced risk of LBW in black mothers. Improved LBW risk was also seen with employment in Hispanics. Low work SC in those with higher educational attainment was strongly associated with LBW in blacks, but not whites or Hispanics. Education/work mismatch may play a role in racial disparities in birth outcomes. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:153,162 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A National Study of Obesity Prevalence and Trends by Type of Rural County

J. Elizabeth Jackson MA
ABSTRACT: Context: Obesity is epidemic in the United States, but information on this trend by type of rural locale is limited. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of and recent trends in obesity among US adults residing in rural locations. Methods: Analysis of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for the years 1994,1996 (n = 342,055) and 2000,2001 (n = 385,384). The main outcome measure was obesity (body mass index [BMI] ,30), as determined by calculating BMI from respondents' self-reported height and weight. Results: In 2000,2001, the prevalence of obesity was 23.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.6%-23.4%) for rural adults and 20.5% (95% CI 20.2%-20.7%) for their urban counterparts, representing increases of 4.8% (95% CI 4.2%-5.3%) and 5.5% (95% CI 5.1%-5.9%), respectively, since 1994,1996. The highest obesity prevalence occurred in rural counties in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas; obesity prevalence increased for rural residents in all states but Florida over the study period. African Americans had the highest obesity prevalence of any group, up to 31.4% (95% CI 29.1%-33.6) in rural counties adjacent to urban counties. The largest difference in obesity prevalence between those with a college education compared with those without a high school diploma occurred in urban areas (18.4% [95% CI 17.9%-18.9%] vs 23.5% [95% CI 22.5%-24.5%], respectively); the smallest difference occurred in small, remote rural counties (20.3% [95% CI 18.7%-21.9%] versus 22.3% [95% CI 20.7%-24.0%], respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity is higher in rural counties than in urban counties; obesity affects some residents of rural counties disproportionately. [source]

Moderate Physical Activity and Its Relationship to Select Measures of a Healthy Diet

Frank Blakely MS
ABSTRACT: Context: In rural communities, physical activity may influence and predict nutritional behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if an individual's stage of participation in moderate physical activity was related to select measures of a healthy diet. Methods: Data were collected using a mail-in survey from a random sample conducted in the rural/frontier communities of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. A total of 6 communities, 2 from each state, were surveyed with approximately 575 surveys sent to each community. The response rate was 51.5%. Findings: Regression analysis revealed that there was a significant difference (P<.05) in select measures of a healthy diet between those in the maintenance stage of moderate levels of physical activity (physically active for 6 months or more) and those in precontemplation (not currently active and with no intention of starting), contemplation (not currently active but considering starting within the next 6 months), and preparation (not currently active but taking steps to become active within the next 30 days). Those in maintenance had a healthier diet. Additionally, women, older people, those with at least some college education, and those who were employed had healthier diets. Conclusions: These results lend preliminary support to the idea that moderate physical activity could act as a gateway behavior, a behavior that, if adopted, could lead to the adoption of other healthy behaviors. However, additional research is needed to confirm the nature, if any, of this relationship. [source]

Prevalence and Correlates of Erectile Dysfunction by Race and Ethnicity Among Men Aged 40 or Older in the United States: From the Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health Survey

Edward O. Laumann PhD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Most U.S. population-based estimates of erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence restricted upper age, were not nationally representative, or underrepresented minority groups. Aim., To estimate, by race/ethnicity in the United States, the prevalence of ED and the impact of sociodemographic, health, relationship, psychological, and lifestyle variables. Methods., This cross-sectional, population-based, nationally representative probability survey conducted between May 2001 and January 2002 in the general community setting facilitated equivalent representation among U.S. non-Hispanic white (N = 901), non-Hispanic black (N = 596), and Hispanic (N = 676) men aged 40 and older by using targeted phone lists to oversample the minority populations. Main Outcome Measure., Estimated prevalence of moderate or severe ED, defined as a response of "sometimes" or "never" to the question "How would you describe your ability to get and keep an erection adequate for satisfactory intercourse?" Results., The estimated prevalence was 22.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.4,24.6) overall, 21.9% (95% CI, 18.8,24.9) in whites, 24.4% (95% CI, 18.4,30.5) in blacks, and 19.9% (95% CI, 13.9,25.9) in Hispanics, and increased with increasing age. The odds ratio increased with increasing age. Probability also increased with diabetes, hypertension, and moderate or severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) overall; age ,70 years and diabetes in whites; severe LUTS in blacks; and age ,60 years, moderate LUTS, hypertension, and depression in Hispanics. It decreased with exercise and college vs. less than high school education overall; with exercise, good relationship quality, and according to alcohol intake in blacks; and with high school or college education in Hispanics. Conclusions., The odds of ED increased with increasing age across race/ethnicity when controlling for sociodemographic, health, relationship, psychological, and lifestyle variables. These initial analyses suggest further study of the interrelationships among risk factors for ED. Laumann EO, West S, Glasser D, Carson C, Rosen R, and Kang J-H. Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction by race and ethnicity among men aged 40 or older in the United States: From the Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health survey. J Sex Med 2007;4:57,65. [source]

Cancer patients' expectations of experiencing treatment-related side effects

CANCER, Issue 4 2004
A University of Rochester Cancer Center-Community Clinical Oncology Program study of 938 patients from community practices
Abstract BACKGROUND Adequate management of treatment-related side effects is important for patients and challenging for clinicians. Side effects generated by various treatments have been characterized reasonably well. However, to the authors' knowledge, less is known regarding what patients expect to experience regarding these side effects and how patient characteristics are related to these expectations. METHODS Patients with cancer (n = 1015 patients) from 17 Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) institutions affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center CCOP Research Base were surveyed regarding their expectations of experiencing side effects associated with cancer treatment, with 938 patients providing evaluable data. Patients responded to the item, "Indicate your expectations of having this side effect" for 12 common side effects. Patients rated their expectations using a 5-point Likert scale, from 1 ("I definitely will not have this") to 5 ("I definitely will have this"). RESULTS The median number of symptoms expected (characterized by any value other than one) was nine. The six most expected symptoms were fatigue, nausea, sleep disturbance, weight loss, hair loss, and skin problems. Patients age > 60 years expected to have fewer symptoms than younger patients; female patients expected more side effects than male patients; and patients who had some college education expected more side effects than patients who were high school graduates or had not completed high school. CONCLUSIONS Patients with cancer clearly exhibit expectations regarding treatment-related side effects; and age, gender, and education level appear to influence these expectations. Further careful characterization of patient expectations and how expectations relate to experience may lead to earlier and more effective management of side effects. Cancer 2004. 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]

Exception from Informed Consent Enrollment in Emergency Medical Research: Attitudes and Awareness

Wayne Triner DO
Objectives To explore attitudes surrounding exception from informed consent enrollment into research studies. In addition, the authors sought to determine the level of awareness of such an ongoing study among potential subjects, as defined by their presence in an emergency department (ED). Methods A convenience sample of urban academic ED patients and visitors was surveyed during a visit regarding their attitudes and awareness of an emergency exception from informed consent, blood-substitute trial ongoing in the community. Results There was a 13% refusal rate, and 32% of those approached had characteristics that met exclusion criteria. There were 497 surveys analyzed. There was a predominance of women, Caucasians, and persons with at least some college education. Only 39 (8%) of respondents reported awareness of the ongoing blood substitute trial, and only 19 (4%) were able to list a risk or benefit of participation. Education, income, and age were not associated with reported awareness. Male gender, younger age, awareness of the existing exception from informed consent study, and being married were associated with greater acceptability for such enrollment practices. Conclusions The overall awareness of an ongoing exception from informed consent trial after community consultation and notification was low. A population with potential for enrollment in such a study did not demonstrate a high degree of acceptance of such practices. There were differences among certain demographic groups in the degree of acceptance. These differences may guide institutional review boards and investigators in community-consultation strategies for future waiver of or exception from informed consent studies. [source]