College Drinking (college + drinking)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A dose,response perspective on college drinking and related problems

ADDICTION, Issue 2 2010
Paul J. Gruenewald
ABSTRACT Aims In order to examine the degree to which heavy drinking contributes to risks for problems among college drinkers this paper develops and tests a dose,response model of alcohol use that relates frequencies of drinking specific quantities of alcohol to the incidence of drinking problems. Methods A mathematical model was developed that enabled estimation of dose,response relationships between drinking quantities and drinking problems using self-report data from 8698 college drinkers across 14 campuses in California, USA. The model assumes that drinking risks are a direct monotone function of the amount consumed per day and additive across drinking days. Drinking problems accumulate across drinking occasions and are the basis for cumulative reports of drinking problems reported by college drinkers. Results Statistical analyses using the model showed that drinking problems were related to every drinking level, but increased fivefold at three drinks and more gradually thereafter. Problems were associated most strongly with occasions on which three drinks were consumed, and more than half of all reported problems were related to occasions on which four or fewer drinks were consumed. There were some important differences in dose,responsiveness between men and women and between different groups of ,light', ,moderate' and ,heavier' drinkers. Conclusion Many problems among college students are associated with drinking relatively small amounts of alcohol (two to four drinks). Programs to reduce college drinking problems should emphasize risks associated with low drinking levels. [source]

The role of personality dispositions to risky behavior in predicting first-year college drinking

ADDICTION, Issue 2 2009
Melissa A. Cyders
ABSTRACT Aims US college student drinking is associated with enormous risks to health, safety and productivity. Recent advances in personality research that have delineated multiple, separate dispositions to engage in risky behaviors may help to clarify the personality contribution to risk for this problem. Design The authors compared the prospective roles of sensation seeking, lack of planning, lack of perseverance, negative urgency and positive urgency (dispositions to engage in rash action when in an unusually negative or positive mood, respectively) in predicting increases in drinking frequency, drinking quantity and negative outcomes from consumption across the first year of college. Setting University of Kentucky campus. Participants A total of 418 first-year US college students enrolled in an Introduction to Psychology course during the first assessment; 293 participants completed both phases of the study. Measurements Participants completed self-report measures of personality and drinking behavior twice during the first year of college [the UPPS-R Impulsive Behavior Scale, positive urgency measure (PUM) and Drinking Styles Questionnaire (DSQ)]. Findings Whereas sensation seeking related to increases in the frequency with which college students drank alcohol, positive urgency predicted increases in (i) the quantity of alcohol students consumed at any given drinking episode and (ii) negative outcomes experienced from drinking. Conclusions It appears that although sensation seeking is a risk factor for participation in drinking behaviors, risk for increased quantity of consumption and its negative outcomes may be more a function of dyscontrol stemming from high positive mood for college students. [source]

Extreme College Drinking and Alcohol-Related Injury Risk

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2009
Marlon P. Mundt
Background:, Despite the enormous burden of alcohol-related injuries, the direct connection between college drinking and physical injury has not been well understood. The goal of this study was to assess the connection between alcohol consumption levels and college alcohol-related injury risk. Methods:, A total of 12,900 college students seeking routine care in 5 college health clinics completed a general Health Screening Survey. Of these, 2,090 students exceeded at-risk alcohol use levels and participated in a face-to-face interview to determine eligibility for a brief alcohol intervention trial. The eligibility interview assessed past 28-day alcohol use and alcohol-related injuries in the past 6 months. Risk of alcohol-related injury was compared across daily drinking quantities and frequencies. Logistic regression analysis and the Bayesian Information Criterion were applied to compute the odds of alcohol-related injury based on daily drinking totals after adjusting for age, race, site, body weight, and sensation seeking. Results:, Male college students in the study were 19% more likely (95% CI: 1.12,1.26) to suffer an alcohol-related injury with each additional day of consuming 8 or more drinks. Injury risks among males increased marginally with each day of consuming 5 to 7 drinks (odds ratio = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94,1.13). Female participants were 10% more likely (95% CI: 1.04,1.16) to suffer an alcohol-related injury with each additional day of drinking 5 or more drinks. Males (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.14,2.50) and females (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27,2.57) with higher sensation-seeking scores were more likely to suffer alcohol-related injuries. Conclusions:, College health clinics may want to focus limited alcohol injury prevention resources on students who frequently engage in extreme drinking, defined in this study as 8+M/5+F drinks per day, and score high on sensation-seeking disposition. [source]

Collateral Reports in the College Setting: A Meta-Analytic Integration

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2009
Brian Borsari
Background:, The majority of research examining college drinking utilizes self-report data, and collateral reports have been used to verify participants' self-reported alcohol use. Methods:, This meta-analytic integration examined the correspondence of over 970 collateral and participant dyads in the college setting. Results and Conclusions:, Results indicated that there is little bias (mean difference) between collateral estimates of participant drinking and participant's self-report. A cumulative meta-analysis revealed that this (null) effect was stable and unlikely to be altered by subsequent research or the existence of unpublished studies. Analysis of the agreement between collaterals and participant estimates (measured by intraclass correlation coefficients; ICCs) revealed moderate levels of agreement (mean ICC = 0.501). Examination of predictors of both bias and agreement in collateral and participant reports indicates a possible intentional and protective underreporting on the part of the collaterals. Ways to reduce this bias are discussed along with the value of using collaterals to verify participant self-report in the college setting. [source]


ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2008
Sunju Sohn
Aims:, Young male adults in the U. S. military drink at much higher rates than civilians and females of the same age. Drinking has been shown to be associated with stress and individuals' ability to effectively cope with stressors. Despite numerous studies conducted on young adults' drinking behaviors such as college drinking, current literature is limited in fully understanding alcohol use patterns of the young military population. The aim of the present study was to develop and test the hypothesized Structural Equation Model (SEM) of alcohol use to determine if stress coping styles moderate the relationship between stress, drinking motives, impulsivity, alcohol consumption and job performance. Methods:, Structural equation models for multiple group comparisons were estimated based on a sample of 1,715 young (aged 18 to 25) male military personnel using the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Military Personnel. Coping style was used as the grouping factor in the multi-group analysis and this variable was developed through numerous steps to reflect positive and negative behaviors of coping. The equivalences of the structural relations between the study variables were then compared across two groups at a time, controlling for installation region, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, and pay grade, resulting in two model comparisons with four coping groups. If the structural weight showed differences across groups, each parameter was constrained and tested one at a time to see where the models are different. Results:, The results showed that the hypothesized model applies across all groups. The structural weights revealed that a moderation effect exists between a group whose tendency is to mostly use positive coping strategies and a group whose tendency is to mostly use negative coping strategies (,,2(39)= 65.116, p<.05). More specifically, the models were different (with and without Bonferroni Type I error correction) in the paths between "motive and alcohol use" and "alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences (job performance)." Conclusions:, It seems plausible that coping style significantly factors into moderating alcohol use among young male military personnel who reportedly drink more excessively than civilians of the same age. The results indicate that it may be particularly important for the military to assess different stress coping styles ofyoung male military personnel so as to limit excessive drinking as well as to promote individual wellness and improve job performance. [source]

Inconsistencies Between Actual and Estimated Blood Alcohol Concentrations in a Field Study of College Students: Do Students Really Know How Much They Drink?

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2005
Courtney L. Kraus
Background: Alcohol use by college students is commonly measured through the use of surveys. The validity of such data hinge on the assumption that students are aware of how much alcohol they actually consume. Recent studies call this assumption into question. Students tend to overestimate the appropriate sizes of standard drinks, suggesting that they might underestimate how much alcohol they consume. If this is true, then students' actual blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) should be higher than BACs estimated based on self-report data. The present study examined this issue Methods: Breathalyzer readings and self-reported drinking data were collected from 152 college students during the fall of 2004. Estimated BACs were calculated by means of a standard formula, and the relation between actual and estimated BACs was examined. Factors contributing to discrepancies between the two values were identified Results: Estimated BAC levels were significantly higher, not lower, than breath BAC measures. The accuracy of estimated BACs decreased as the number of drinks and amount of time spent drinking increased. Being male and drinking only beer predicted greater accuracy of estimated BACs Conclusions: Although laboratory data suggest that students underestimate how much they drink, the hypothesis was not supported by data collected in the field. It appears that students might actually overestimate rather than underestimate their levels of consumption when surveyed in the midst of a night of drinking. The findings corroborate observations made by other researchers and suggest that the findings of laboratory studies on college drinking do not necessarily extend to real-world settings. [source]

Do College Students Drink More Than They Think?

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2003
Use of a Free-Pour Paradigm to Determine How College Students Define Standard Drinks
Rationale: Much of what is known about college drinking comes from self-report survey data. Such surveys typically ask students to indicate how many drinks they consume within a given period of time. It is currently unclear whether college students and researchers use similar operational definitions of a single drink. This information is critical given the widespread reliance on survey data for assessing the correlates and consequences of college drinking. Objectives: This study investigated whether college students define standard drink volumes in a way that is consistent with the operational definitions commonly used by researchers. Methods: Students (n= 106) were administered an alcohol survey and then asked to perform three tasks. The tasks involved free-pouring fluid into empty cups of different sizes and estimating the volume of a single beer, a shot of liquor, or the amount of liquor in a mixed drink. The volumes poured by students then were compared with standards used in a well-known nationwide survey (i.e., 12 oz of beer and 1.25 oz of liquor in a shot or mixed drink). Results: In every cup size of every task, students overestimated how much fluid they should pour to create a standard drink. In all three tasks, the magnitude of the discrepancy increased with cup size. Collapsed across cup sizes, students overpoured shots by 26%, mixed drinks by 80%, and beer by 25%. When a more liberal serving size of liquor (1.5 oz) was used as the standard, the results of the mixed drink task remained unchanged. However, the volumes poured by students during the shot free-pour task differed from the standard in only one cup size. Conclusions: The data suggest that college students drink more alcohol than indicated by their survey responses, raising questions about the validity of widely used alcohol surveys. Efforts to educate students about the alcohol content of standard drinks should be enhanced. [source]