Collector Surface (collector + surface)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Stretching operational life of trickle-bed filters by liquid-induced pulse flow

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 7 2005
Ion Iliuta
Abstract When dilute liquid suspensions contaminated with fine solids are treated in catalytic trickle-bed reactors, bed plugging develops and increases the resistance to two-phase flow until ultimate unit shutdown for bed substitution with pristine catalyst. The release of deposited fines, or the inhibition of fines deposition over some regions of the collector, is expected to alleviate the plugging if liquid flow shock or periodic operation policies are implemented. Current physical models linking gas,liquid phase flow to space,time evolution of fines deposition and release are unable to depict this new type of filtration in trickle beds. This work attempts to fill in this gap by developing a dynamic multiphase flow deep-bed filtration model. The model incorporates the physical effects of porosity and effective specific surface area changes as a result of fines deposition/release, gas and suspension inertial effects, and coupling effects between the filtration parameters and the interfacial momentum exchange force terms. The release of the fine particles from the collector surface was assumed to be induced by the colloidal forces in the case of Brownian particles or by the hydrodynamic forces in the case of non-Brownian particles. An important finding of the work was that for noncolloidal fines both induced pulsing and liquid flow shock operations conferred substantial improvements (measured in terms of reduction in specific deposit and pressure drop) in the mitigation of plugging in trickle-bed reactors. However, because of the highest critical shear stress for fines in the colloidal range, induced pulsing did not substantiate any practically useful effect. © 2005 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2005 [source]

Characteristics of cometary dust tracks in Stardust aerogel and laboratory calibrations

M. J. Burchell
An optical scan of the entire collector surface revealed 256 impact features in the aerogel (width >100 ,m). Twenty aerogel blocks (out of a total of 132) were removed from the collector tray for a higher resolution optical scan and 186 tracks were observed (track length >50 ,m and width >8 ,m). The impact features were classified into three types based on their morphology. Laboratory calibrations were conducted that reproduced all three types. This work suggests that the cometary dust consisted of some cohesive, relatively strong particles as well as particles with a more friable or low cohesion matrix containing smaller strong grains. The calibrations also permitted a particle size distribution to be estimated for the cometary dust. We estimate that approximately 1200 particles bigger than 1 ,m struck the aerogel. The cumulative size distribution of the captured particles was obtained and compared with observations made by active dust detectors during the encounter. At large sizes (>20 ,m) all measures of the dust are compatible, but at micrometer scales and smaller discrepancies exist between the various measurement systems that may reflect structure in the dust flux (streams, clusters etc.) along with some possible instrument effects. [source]

Measurement of sliding velocity and induction time of a single micro-bubble under an inclined collector surface

Aref Seyyed Najafi
Abstract In this study, interactions between a gas bubble and a flat solid surface were investigated by determining two dynamic parameters, bubble sliding velocity underneath an inclined solid surface and induction time of the gas bubble attaching to the solid surface in aqueous solutions. A single micro-bubble was allowed to move vertically toward an inclined solid surface. After reaching its terminal velocity, the bubble approaches the inclined solid surface and slides underneath it. Complete trajectory of the bubble movement was monitored and recorded by a high-speed CCD video imaging system. Various types of gas bubbles (CO2, air, H2, and O2) and solid surfaces such as bitumen-coated Teflon, hydrophobized and hydrophilic silica were used in sliding velocity and induction time measurements. The effect of water chemistry (industrial process water and de-ionized water) and surface heterogeneity on bubble sliding velocity and induction time was investigated. The results showed that the sliding velocity of micro-bubbles under an inclined solid surface is a strong function of water chemistry, gas type, temperature and hydrophobicity of the solid surface. This study provides relevant information on bubble,solid interactions that would assist in the understanding of bubble,solid attachment under diverse conditions. Dans cette étude, on a étudié les interactions entre une bulle de gaz et une surface solide plane en déterminant deux paramètres dynamiques, la vitesse de glissement de bulle sous une surface de solides inclinée ainsi que le temps d'induction de l'attachement d'une bulle de gaz à une surface solide en solution aqueuse. On a fait se déplacer une micro-bulle unique verticalement vers une surface solide inclinée. Après avoir atteint sa vitesse terminale, la bulle s'approche de la surface solide inclinée et glisse sous elle. La trajectoire complète de la bulle a été enregistrée par un système d'imagerie vidéo CCD à haute vitesse. Différents types de bulles de gaz (CO2, air, H2, et O2) et de surfaces solides telles que du téflon enduit de bitume, de la silice hydrophobe et hydrophile, ont été utilisés dans les mesures de vitesse de glissement et de temps d'induction. L'effet de la chimie de l'eau (eau de procédés industriels et eau déminéralisée) et de l'hétérogénéité de la surface sur la vitesse de glissement et le temps d'induction a été étudié. Les résultats montrent que la vitesse de glissement des micro-bulles sous une surface solide inclinée dépend fortement de la chimie de l'eau, du type de gaz, de la température et de l'hydrophobicité de la surface solide. Cette étude fournit des informations pertinentes sur les interactions bulles-solides pouvant permettre de comprendre l'attachement bulles-solides dans des conditions diverses. [source]

Kinetics of microbubble,solid surface interaction and attachment

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2003
Chun Yang
Microbubble,solid surface interaction and attachment under the influence of hydrodynamic and physicochemical forces were studied experimentally and theoretically. An impinging-jet technique was developed to measure bubble-attachment flux onto a flat solid surface in an impinging-jet stagnation flow. A video imaging system enables direct observation of the attachment behavior of hydrogen microbubbles onto two different collector surfaces: hydrophilic untreated glass and hydrophobic methylated glass. Experimental results showed that the attachment flux depends on both hydrodynamic flow and electrolyte concentration. A mass-transfer model developed computes bubble-attachment flux, considering hydrodynamic convection, Brownian diffusion, migration under gravitational buoyancy, and DLVO surface forces (that is, van der Waals and electric double-layer forces). At high flow rates, the numerical predictions for attachment rates onto methylated glass generally agreed well with the experimental data. However, a difference exists between theoretical and experimentally determined attachment rates for both untreated and methylated glass when the Reynolds number of the flow is low. Several mechanisms are proposed to account for this discrepancy. [source]