Collectivistic Cultures (collectivistic + culture)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Relationships between individualism,collectivism, gender, and direct or indirect aggression: a study in China, Poland, and the US

Gordon Forbes
Abstract Direct and indirect aggression were studied in college students from China (women n=122; men n=97), a highly collectivistic culture; the US (women n=137; men n=136), a highly individualistic culture; and Poland (women n=105; men n=119), a culture with intermediate levels of collectivism and individualism. Consistent with a hypothesis derived from national differences in relative levels of collectivism and individualism, both direct and indirect aggression were higher in the US than in Poland and higher in Poland than in China. The theoretical implication of these results and directions for future research were discussed. Aggr. Behav. 35:24,30, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Is self-esteem a universal need?

Evidence from The People's Republic of China
In a provocative article, Heine et al. concluded that self-esteem needs are less important in collectivistic, East Asian countries than in individualistic, Western ones. Their conclusion was based, in part, on evidence that: (i) self-esteem scores are less positively biased in Japan than in Western countries; and that (ii) low self-esteem is less predictive of psychological distress in Japan than in Western countries. The present research examined whether these cultural differences occur in another collectivistic culture: The People's Republic of China. Two meta-analyses were conducted. Study 1 found that, for young and old alike, self-esteem was positively biased, with most participants reporting high levels of self-esteem. Study 2 found that low self-esteem in China is associated with three indicators of psychological distress: depression, anxiety and low subjective well-being. These findings are consistent with results in Western samples and suggest that high self-esteem may indeed be a universal psychological imperative. [source]

Prospects for an integrated trait and cultural psychology

A. Timothy ChurchArticle first published online: 8 APR 200
Abstract Church (2000) discussed a possible integration of trait and cultural psychology perspectives, two dominant theoretical approaches in the study of culture and personality. In this article, I summarise the results of cross-cultural studies we have conducted to test elements of this integrated perspective, discuss prospects for an integrated approach, and note future research needs. The studies address the measurement of implicit theories regarding the traitedness versus contextuality of behaviour; culture, method, and the content of self-concepts; culture and explanations of everyday behaviours; accuracy and self-enhancement in trait assessments; cross-role consistency and its relation to adjustment; and cross-situational consistency and trait prediction of daily behaviour. Our results, and those of other researchers, indicate that an integration of trait and cultural psychology perspectives has potential. However, some findings suggest that cultural psychology hypotheses may be more consistently supported in comparisons of Americans with selected Asian cultures than in comparisons of individualistic and collectivistic cultures more generally. Thus, an integrated perspective may need to be recast using theoretical perspectives that go beyond individualism,collectivism. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Leadership, Individual Differences, and Work-related Attitudes: A Cross-Culture Investigation

Fred O. Walumbwa
This study builds on previous exploratory research (Walumbwa & Lawler, 2003) that examined allocentrism as a moderator of transformational leadership,work-related attitudes and behaviors. Based on survey data collected from 825 employees from China (n= 213), India (n= 210), Kenya (n= 159), and the US (n= 243), we found that individual differences moderated the relationships between leadership and followers' work-related attitudes. Specifically, allocentrics reacted more positively when they viewed their managers as being more transformational. Idiocentrics reacted more positively when they rated their managers as displaying more transactional contingent reward leadership. The pattern of results was stronger for transformational leadership in more collectivistic cultures among allocentrics and stronger among idiocentrics in individualistic cultures for transactional contingent reward leadership. Implications of these findings for practice and research are discussed. Cette recherche se situe dans le prolongement de travaux exploratoires antérieurs (Walumbwa & Lawler, 2003) qui ont étudié l'allocentrisme comme régulateur de la relation entre le leadership transformationnel et les conduites et attitudes relevant du travail. Nous avons constaté, à partir de données d'enquête recueillies auprès de 825 salariés chinois (n= 213), indiens (n= 210) kényens (n= 159) et américains (n= 243), que les différences individuelles régulaient les relations entre le leader et les attitudes des suiveurs liées au travail. Plus particulièrement, les allocentriques réagissaient plus positivement quand ils percevaient leurs managers comme étant plutôt transformationnel. Les égocentriques réagissaient plus positivement quand ils trouvaient que leurs managers présentaient plutôt un leadership transactionnel offrant des récompenses appropriées. La configuration des résultats parle en faveur du leadership transformationnel pour les allocentriques dans les cultures à tendance communautaire et en faveur du leadership transactionnel pour les égocentriques dans les cultures individualistes. On réfléchit aux implications de ces résultats pour la recherche et la pratique. [source]

Who Makes the Choice?

Relatedness in Chinese Children's Motivation, Rethinking the Role of Autonomy
The importance of autonomy for children's motivation in collectivistic cultures has been debated hotly. With the understanding that autonomy is not equivalent to freedom of choice, 4 studies addressed this debate by investigating how socioemotional relatedness, choice, and autonomy were related to Chinese children's motivation. Study 1 (N = 56, mean age = 10.77 years), Study 2 (N = 58, mean age = 10.59), and Study 3 (N = 48, mean age = 10.53) found consistently that freedom of choice mattered less if children were socioemotionally close to the adults who made choices for them. However, Study 4 (N = 99, mean age = 11.27) showed that autonomy mattered at every level of socioemotional relatedness. These results suggested that socioemotional relatedness might have facilitated internalization and that children who did not have choice might still feel autonomous. [source]