Collective Identity (collective + identity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Rules, Social Ontology and Collective Identity

JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR, Issue 3 2009
NUNO MARTINS
Mainstream game theory explains cooperation as the outcome of the interaction of agents who permanently pursue their individual goals. Amartya Sen argues instead that cooperation can only be understood by positing a type of rule-following behaviour that can be (and often is) out of phase with the pursuit of individual goals, due to the existence of a collective identity. However, Sen does not clarify the ontological preconditions for the type of social behaviour he describes. I will argue that Sen's account of collective identity can be best interpreted in the light of John Searle's notion of collective intentionality, while Sen's explanation of rule-following behavior and agency is best understood using the critical realist transformational model of social activity. [source]


Names, Places, and Power: Collective Identity in the Miss Oruro Pageant, Cochabamba, Bolivia

POLAR: POLITICAL AND LEGAL ANTHROPOLOGY REVIEW, Issue 1 2000
Daniel M. Goldstein
First page of article [source]


The Politicization of Migrants: Further Evidence that Politicized Collective Identity is a Dual Identity

POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
Bernd Simon
The article examines the role of collective identification processes in the politicization of Russian migrants in Germany. Building on the assumption that politicized collective identity (PCI) is a dual identity, the authors predicted and found that dual identification as both Russian and German was positively related to politicization among members of the Russian minority in Germany. This relationship held up even when the influences of several sociodemographic variables, past political activity, and other forms of collective identification were statistically controlled. In addition, perceived maltreatment of Russian migrants in Germany moderated the relationship between dual identification and politicization in keeping with the theoretical assumption that the development of PCI presupposes high awareness of shared grievances. Finally, dual identification was unrelated to acceptance of political violence, but positively related to self-restriction to peaceful political means. The constructive role of politicization driven by dual identification in social integration is discussed. [source]


Conflict, identity, and resilience: Negotiating collective identities within the Israeli and Palestinian diasporas

CONFLICT RESOLUTION QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2007
Peter T. Coleman
Collective identities serve many important psychological and practical functions in group life, but under conditions of protracted conflict, such identities can become a primary obstacle to peace. This article presents a program of exploratory research and model-building on collective identity negotiation with members of the Palestinian and Israeli diasporas during a high-intensity phase of the conflict.. [source]


The End of Violence and Introduction of ,Real' Politics: Tensions in Peaceful Northern Ireland

GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2001
Arponen, Kaisa Kuusisto
This article discusses contemporary developments in the Northern Ireland peace process, and pays particular attention to some of the main paths away from political violence towards ,real' politics. Even the peace process has left many tensions in Northern Ireland. The article focuses on the gap between formal governing or decision,making and everyday life in localities, and the role of geographical scales in the peace initiatives is touched upon. In particular, the Belfast Agreement and its effects on localities are assessed to illustrate some of the advances and drawbacks of the multi,level peace developments. By looking at the local context of Derry/Londonderry, this study shows how ambiguous the very existence of peace is in Northern Ireland: for international media there is peace in Northern Ireland, for local politicians ,yes, maybe', but for many locals ,no'. In the localities territoriality, secured boundaries and collective identities remain crucial elements of everyday life. [source]


Mythico-History, Social Memory, and Praxis: Anthropological Approaches and Directions

HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2009
Susan Rasmussen
This article explores the interface and tension between myth, history, and memory, in relation to ideology and praxis of identity. There is a critical overview of anthropological and other approaches in the humanities and social sciences to ,mythico-history' and social memory, their mutual influences, and current debates and directions in this literature. In particular, emphasis is upon the uses of oral narratives in historiography and social context in the constructions of personal and collective identities of difference, for example, ethnicity and gender in ,narratives of nation' and ,myths of matriliny' and their connections to social practice, drawing on secondary cross-cultural data and primary data from this anthropologist's research in Tuareg (Kel Tamajaq) communities of northern Niger and Mali. [source]


The Effects of Charismatic Leadership on Followers' Self-Concept Accessibility

JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 9 2001
Jim Paul
Shamir, House, and Arthur (1993) suggested that the effects of charismatic leadership on followers' motivation are mediated by the increased salience of collective identities in followers' self-concepts. This study empirically examines the effects of leadership messages on followers' self-concept accessibilities. Charismatic and integrative (combined charismatic and individualized consideration) leadership increased the accessibility of followers' collective self-concepts. Individualized consideration increased the accessibility of followers' private self-concepts. These results support the propositions of the self-concept-based theory of charismatic leadership. Charismatic and integrative leadership messages from a leader resulted in higher follower collective self-concept accessibilities than did routinized messages. This finding underscores the importance of a charismatic leader, even when charismatic messages have become routinized. [source]


Patriotism, nationalism and modernity: the patriotic societies in the Danish conglomerate state, 1769,1814

NATIONS AND NATIONALISM, Issue 2 2007
JULIANE ENGELHARDT
ABSTRACT. This article investigates sixty-three patriotic societies established in the Danish conglomerate state during the Age of Enlightenment, since they can throw light on the pre-national collective identities. It explains how the patriotic societies had both an external function in regard to society and an internal function among their members. It analyses how the members comprehended patriotism and how they propagated ideas of solidarity and good citizenship to a wider audience. The patriotism of the eighteenth century is also compared with the nationalism of the nineteenth century, and the way they reflect two different understandings of core concepts such as state, language and folk culture is explained. However, both ideologies correlate to modernity, since they reflect the same dialectic tension in the relationship between the individual, the social community and the modern state. [source]


Not forging nations but foraging for them: uncertain collective identities in Gran Colombia,

NATIONS AND NATIONALISM, Issue 2 2006
MATTHEW BROWN
ABSTRACT. This article examines the place of the nation in discussions of collective identities in the early nineteenth century in northern Hispanic South America. It provides a historical account of the birth of national identities in the late colonial and early republican period, and then explores two main sections. The first looks at the port of Riohacha and its experiences during the Wars of Independence. The second examines the in-patients at a hospital in Caracas just after the end of the wars in 1821. The conclusion suggests that foreign involvement in the Wars of Independence was a crucial catalyst to national identity formation in Gran Colombia. As such the article brings out the extent to which these wars were part of Atlantic networks which were being reconfigured during the Age of Revolution. Rather than forging national identities, the Wars of Independence were the arena in which elites foraged for the constituents of new states and nations. [source]


Forbidden intimacies: Christian,Muslim intermarriage in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST, Issue 3 2009
JENNIFER CONNOLLY
ABSTRACT As a disadvantaged minority, Dayaks have turned to Christianity as a way to maintain their ethnic identity in the face of threats from their Muslim neighbors. Given Indonesian state policies' compelling conversion in the case of interfaith marriage, most anthropological analyses would attribute the anguish Christian Dayaks experience over such marriages to the threat it poses to their community-building efforts. But Dayaks themselves anchor their concerns about intermarriage in religious and familial obligations, not in the maintenance of collective religious and ethnic identities. Drawing on the work of Fredrik Barth, I argue that understanding the nature of interfaith marriage and the fears it arouses requires anthropologists to consider not only the macrolevel of state policies and the median level of collective identities but also the more intimate emotional and experiential level of the family and the individual. [marriage, Indonesia, Islam, Christianity, ethnicity] [source]


A Christian or a Lac Europe?

RATIO JURIS, Issue 2 2005
Christian Values, European Identity
Weiler has advocated that the writing of a Constitution for the European Union is a very apt moment to reconsider the conceptualization of freedom of conscience and religion. On constitutional and historical grounds, he has advocated that a reference to Christian values should be made in the preamble of the European fundamental law, and that this will be the alternative most respectful to the pluralistic national solutions, ranging from republican non-confessionality to the establishment of an official church. But contrary to what Weiler argues, the drafting of the constitution of the European Union is not bound by the present shape of European constitutional traditions; moreover, it is hard to conclude that the present common constitutional traditions require an explicit reference to Christianity to be included in the text. Furthermore, the claim that the individual and collective identities of Europeans are unavoidably shaped by Christian values is only tenable if we uphold a rather simplistic relation between history, memory, and identity. Finally, once one moves from law and history to practical reasoning, one finds that there are good substantive reasons why our collective identity should not contain reference to Christian values. [source]


Social Identity, Organizational Identity and Corporate Identity: Towards an Integrated Understanding of Processes, Patternings and Products

BRITISH JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, Issue 2007
Joep P. Cornelissen
This paper provides an overview of previous work that has explored issues of social, organizational and corporate identity. Differences in the form and focus of research into these three topics are noted. Social identity work generally examines issues of cognitive process and structure; organizational identity research tends to address the patterning of shared meanings; studies of corporate identity tend to focus on products that communicate a specific image. Nonetheless, across these areas there is general consensus that collective identities are (a) made viable by their positivity and distinctiveness, (b) fluid, (c) a basis for shared perceptions and action, (d) strategically created and managed, (e) qualitatively different from individual identities and (f) the basis for material outcomes and products. This paper calls for greater cross-fertilization of the three identity literatures and discusses requirements for the integration of micro- and macro-level analyses. [source]


El Alto, Ciudad Rebelde: Organisational Bases for Revolt

BULLETIN OF LATIN AMERICAN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2006
Sian Lazar
The events of October 2003 reveal something about how Bolivian democracy works under ,normal' circumstances because they built upon well-established patterns of political behaviour whereby corporate groupings have become used to direct negotiations with the government. It was the breakdown of these patterns that forced the resignation of the President in 2003. I detail here the collective identities that provide the foundations for mobilisational power in Bolivia and examine the organisation behind the uprising in El Alto and its roots in quotidian experiences of collective mobilisation. I conclude with a consideration of the relationship between social mobilisation, democracy and politics in contemporary Bolivia. [source]


Identity affirmation and social movement support

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Bernd Simon
It is argued that the power of collective identification to mobilize people for collective action such as social movement support derives at least partly from processes of identity affirmation. The hypothesized identity-affirming function of social movement support is tested in two laboratory experiments which revolve around collective identity as a supporter of the peace movement. In Experiment 1, we predicted and found that people who strongly identified with the peace movement showed more movement support (i.e. made more monetary donations to the peace movement) under conditions of uncertain as opposed to certain possession of identity as a movement supporter. In Experiment 2, we replicated this finding, but also found, in accordance with the notion of substitution, that the mobilizing effect of uncertain collective-identity possession was undermined when an identity symbol was available that could function as a surrogate for more costly identity-affirming behaviour. Further conceptual and social implications of the identity-affirming function of social movement support are discussed. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Opinion-based group membership as a predictor of commitment to political action

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Ana-Maria Bliuc
Research on group identification has shown it to be a surprisingly weak predictor of intentions to take large-scale social action. The weak links may exist because researchers have not always examined identification with the type of group that is most relevant for predicting action. Our focus in two studies (one in Romania and one in Australia, both Ns,=,101) was on opinion-based groups (i.e. groups formed around shared opinions). We found that social identification with opinion-based groups was an excellent predictor of political behavioural intentions, particularly when items measuring identity certainty were included. The results provide clear evidence of the role of social identity constructs for predicting commitment to social action and complement analyses of politicised collective identity and crowd behaviour. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Inclusiveness of identification among farmers in The Netherlands and Galicia (Spain)

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
Bert Klandermans
In this paper we discuss inclusiveness of identification among farmers in Galicia (Spain) and The Netherlands. Identification with three nested categories,farmers in the local community, farmers in the country, and farmers in Europe was assessed among 167 Dutch and 248 Galician farmers at three points in time: winter of 1993/94, winter 1995 and fall 1995. Our findings suggest that inclusiveness reduces the level of identification. However, the observed patterns of identification were more complex than inclusiveness per se can account for. Borrowing from the common ingroup-identity model, functional and socialization models of identity formation, and a model of politicized collective identity we formulated hypotheses about patterns of identification that were to be expected. On the whole our findings supported our theoretical reasoning. Galician farmers appear to identify much less with farmers in their country and Europe than Dutch farmers do. Inclusiveness of identification appears to be linked to experience with national and supranational political institutions. More political knowledge and involvement appear to generate more inclusive patterns of identification. Among Galician farmers evaluation of the agricultural policy of the European Union is negatively related to identification with farmers in Europe, among Dutch farmers the two are positively related. Finally, more inclusive identities seem to be more politicized. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Melancholy, Topography and the Search for Origin in Ingeborg Bachmann's Drei Wege Zum See

GERMAN LIFE AND LETTERS, Issue 2 2009
Katya Krylova
ABSTRACT Bachmann's Drei Wege zum See is a text insistently preoccupied with questions of identity, origin and origination. Operating along a topographical structure that both frames and drives the narrative, its concern is a walking through personal and collective history in search of an elusive point of origin. This attempt is always necessarily melancholic, standing under the perennial threat of missed or failed homecomings. Using psychoanalytic conceptions of psychic topography and Walter Benjamin's conception of origin, this essay explores the intersections of memory, place and identity in Drei Wege zum See, as well as drawing on related theories of melancholy and nostalgia. The present article builds on previous explorations of identity, intertextuality and collective memory in Drei Wege zum See, shedding a new light on these through consideration of the text's psychotopographical preoccupation. I explore how an attempt to reconstruct a personal narrative with the aid of a topographical frame is one that will always resist totalisation, where reconstruction may only ever be partial, never complete. Finally, I argue that topographical melancholy is a highly productive mode of identity formation, serving to subvert and overturn falsifying constructions of personal and collective identity. [source]


Death of a migrant: transnational death rituals and gender among British Sylhetis

GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 3 2002
Katy Gardner
In this article I discuss transnational burial rituals carried out in London and Sylhet. While collective identity and reaffirming social ties are important issues in discussing the burial of migrants in Sylhet, the main focus of the article is on gender. The analysis of what happens when Londonis die reveals a great deal about the differential effects of living between two places on men and women. While transnationalism may in some contexts be understood as potentially subversive, for the majority of Sylhetis in Britain movement between places is highly constrained by poverty and British immigration controls, as well as by particular gender and household relations. These in turn impact on men and women's experiences of bereavement, as well as on their access to and relationship with the British state. [source]


Native Americans and National Identity in Early North America

HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2006
Tyler Boulware
Nation as a concept has been applied to a variety of peoples and societies across time and space, and Native Americans during the colonial era are no exception. This essay offers a brief exploration into the uses and meanings of nation and national identity for the indigenous peoples of North America. It suggests that alternate definitions of collective identity might prove more suitable, which should remind us of the need to both clarify our conceptual framework and take into account the tremendous diversity that existed in early America. [source]


Diaspora Migration: Definitional Ambiguities and a Theoretical Paradigm

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, Issue 5 2000
Judith T. Shuval
Diaspora migration is one of many types of migration likely to increase considerably during the early twenty-first century. This article addresses the many ambiguities that surround diaspora migration with a view to developing a meaningful theoretical scheme in which to better understand the processes involved. The term diaspora has acquired a broad semantic domain. It now encompasses a motley array of groups such as political refugees, alien residents, guest workers, immigrants, expellees, ethnic and racial minorities, and overseas communities. It is used increasingly by displaced persons who feel, maintain, invent or revive a connection with a prior home. Concepts of diaspora include a history of dispersal, myths/memories of the homeland, alienation in the host country, desire for eventual return , which can be ambivalent, eschatological or utopian , ongoing support of the homeland and, a collective identity defined by the above relationship. This article considers four central issues: How does diaspora theory link into other theoretical issues? How is diaspora migration different from other types of migration? Who are the relevant actors and what are their roles? What are the social and political functions of diaspora? On the basis of this analysis a theoretical paradigm of diasporas is presented to enable scholars to move beyond descriptive research by identifying different types of diasporas and the dynamics that differentiate among them. Use of the proposed typology , especially in comparative research of different diasporas , makes it possible to focus on structural differences and similarities that could be critical to the social processes involved. [source]


Rules, Social Ontology and Collective Identity

JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR, Issue 3 2009
NUNO MARTINS
Mainstream game theory explains cooperation as the outcome of the interaction of agents who permanently pursue their individual goals. Amartya Sen argues instead that cooperation can only be understood by positing a type of rule-following behaviour that can be (and often is) out of phase with the pursuit of individual goals, due to the existence of a collective identity. However, Sen does not clarify the ontological preconditions for the type of social behaviour he describes. I will argue that Sen's account of collective identity can be best interpreted in the light of John Searle's notion of collective intentionality, while Sen's explanation of rule-following behavior and agency is best understood using the critical realist transformational model of social activity. [source]


Social Support as a Moderator of the Big-Fish-in-a-Little-Pond Effect in Online Self-Help Support Groups,

JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOBEHAVIORAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2005
Cynthia M. H. Bane
Downward social comparisons to others in a relatively unsuccessful group can bolster mood, a phenomenon known as the big-fish-in-a-little-pond effect (BFLPE). The current study examined social support as a moderator of the BFLPE in online weight-management support groups (SGs). Participants (N= 149) were recruited from weight-management message boards. In an Internet survey, participants made weight-related social comparisons to the average person and the average SG member. Big fish indicated that they would feel more self-pride after reading a downward social comparison message than did other participants, but the BFLPE occurred only for participants with lower weight-related social support. Social support could foster collective identity in online self-help support groups, reducing the BFLPE. [source]


Lawyer Specialization,Managing the Professional Paradox

LAW & POLICY, Issue 2 2010
RICHARD MOORHEAD
This article explores a series of paradoxes exposed by specialization within the legal profession. It will argue that while the existing literature rightly identifies specialization as posing potential challenges to coherence, legitimacy, and professional ethics, it fails to grapple with the relationship between professional competence and specialization. In exploring this relationship, three paradoxes are articulated. The first is that specialization is both a necessary element in the development of professionalism and a threat to it. The second is the normative ambiguity of specialization: specialization is capable of giving rise to both benefits and detriments. The third paradox is the profession's response to this ambiguity. It will be argued that the profession's approach is incoherent in public interest terms and can be best explained as part of a desire to protect its members' interests and its collective identity over the public interest in competence. These arguments are made in the context of a series of three empirical studies of specialists and nonspecialists in legal aid practice in England and Wales. The evidence is worrying enough to suggest significant concerns about the quality and indeed legitimacy of the professional qualification as a general warrant of competence. The implications for institutionalizing specialization within the legal profession are discussed. [source]


The historical dynamics of ethnic conflicts: confrontational nationalisms, democracy and the Basques in contemporary Spain,

NATIONS AND NATIONALISM, Issue 2 2010
FERNANDO MOLINA
ABSTRACT. All the historical moments in which the Basque debate reached political protagonism in contemporary Spain coincided with political contexts of institutional democratisation. The debate on patriotism in the Basque Country is connected with a uniform narrative regarding the Basques and their moral distance from the Spanish nation: the ,Basque problem'. This narrative has fostered a confrontational discourse between Spanish and Basque nationalism. It has also promoted recourse to specific stereotypical images of the Basques, which bind ethnicity to collective identity. Such representations reveal that the invention of the Basque country as a uniform ethnic collective had much more to do with the internal contradictions of Spanish national identity , and later of Basque identity , than with the existence of a secular conflict between Basques and Spaniards. The Basque case shows that every ,ethnic conflict' requires adequate contextualisation in order to avoid simplifying its origins and past pathways to make it conform to present uses. [source]


Indigeneity across borders: Hemispheric migrations and cosmopolitan encounters

AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST, Issue 1 2010
ROBIN MARIA DELUGAN
ABSTRACT The increasing migration of indigenous people from Latin America to the United States signals a new horizon for the study of indigeneity,complexly understood as subjectivities, knowledge, and practices of the earliest human inhabitants of a particular place and including legal and racial identities that refer to these people. Focusing on indigenous migration to San Francisco, California, I explore how government, service providers, and community organizations respond to the arrival of new ethnic groups while also contributing to an expanding Urban Indian collective identity. In addition to reviewing such governmental practices as the creation of new census categories and related responses to indigenous ethnic diversity, I illustrate how some members of a diverse Urban Indian population unite through participation in rituals such as the Maya Waqxaqi' B'atz' (Day of Human Perfection), transplanted to San Francisco from Guatemala. The rituals recall homelands near and far in a broader social imagination about being and belonging in the world. The social imagination, borne in part through migration and diaspora, acknowledges the local and the particular in a framework of shared values about what it means to be human. I analyze this meaning making as cosmopolitanism in practice. By merging indigeneity and cosmopolitanism, I join other scholars who strive to decenter classical notions of cosmopolitan "worldliness," drawing attention to alternative sources of beneficent sociality and for cultivating humanity. [source]


The Politicization of Migrants: Further Evidence that Politicized Collective Identity is a Dual Identity

POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
Bernd Simon
The article examines the role of collective identification processes in the politicization of Russian migrants in Germany. Building on the assumption that politicized collective identity (PCI) is a dual identity, the authors predicted and found that dual identification as both Russian and German was positively related to politicization among members of the Russian minority in Germany. This relationship held up even when the influences of several sociodemographic variables, past political activity, and other forms of collective identification were statistically controlled. In addition, perceived maltreatment of Russian migrants in Germany moderated the relationship between dual identification and politicization in keeping with the theoretical assumption that the development of PCI presupposes high awareness of shared grievances. Finally, dual identification was unrelated to acceptance of political violence, but positively related to self-restriction to peaceful political means. The constructive role of politicization driven by dual identification in social integration is discussed. [source]


Identity Processes in Collective Action Participation: Farmers' Identity and Farmers' Protest in the Netherlands and Spain

POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
Bert Klandermans
This study tested the assumption that a sense of collective identity stimulates participation in collective action. Contextual circumstances supposedly make a collective identity more salient and compel people to act as members of the group; protest participation is more likely among people with a strong collective identity. Group identification and participation in identity organizations were used as indicators of collective identity in a study of 248 farmers from Galicia (Spain) and 167 farmers from the Netherlands. The farmers were interviewed three times at intervals of 1 year. The longitudinal design also allowed a test of causality. A sense of collective identity appeared to stimulate preparedness to take part in farmers' protest. Action preparedness leads to action participation, which in turn appears to foster collective identity. [source]


Generational consciousness and retirement communities

POPULATION, SPACE AND PLACE (PREVIOUSLY:-INT JOURNAL OF POPULATION GEOGRAPHY), Issue 4 2007
Kevin E. McHugh
Abstract Time and collective historical experience loom large in the formation of generations. I argue that spatial proximity cements generational consciousness among seniors in Arizona retirement communities who identify themselves as members of the Second World War generation. The argument twins Karl Mannheim's social-historical conception of generations and Hannah Arendt's political philosophy which underscores the space of appearance in the public realm in identity formation. It is through congregating, interacting and conversing on a daily basis that seniors in retirement enclaves affirm and reaffirm who they are, both to themselves and outsiders. I draw upon a suite of Arizona case studies, 1988,2000, in revealing ,voices' for a slice of the Second World War generation. Discussions revolving around family, community and national life reveal beliefs and values coalescing around four themes: (1) splendid isolation; (2) dissolution of values; (3) absence of children; and (4) fraying the social compact. The space of appearance within retirement enclaves engenders a strong sense of collective identity and belonging in ageing and, simultaneously, leads to questions about implications and consequences of intergenerational separation. I conclude with a poignant multigenerational experience as suggestive of the potency of intergenerational contact and exchange. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A Christian or a Lac Europe?

RATIO JURIS, Issue 2 2005
Christian Values, European Identity
Weiler has advocated that the writing of a Constitution for the European Union is a very apt moment to reconsider the conceptualization of freedom of conscience and religion. On constitutional and historical grounds, he has advocated that a reference to Christian values should be made in the preamble of the European fundamental law, and that this will be the alternative most respectful to the pluralistic national solutions, ranging from republican non-confessionality to the establishment of an official church. But contrary to what Weiler argues, the drafting of the constitution of the European Union is not bound by the present shape of European constitutional traditions; moreover, it is hard to conclude that the present common constitutional traditions require an explicit reference to Christianity to be included in the text. Furthermore, the claim that the individual and collective identities of Europeans are unavoidably shaped by Christian values is only tenable if we uphold a rather simplistic relation between history, memory, and identity. Finally, once one moves from law and history to practical reasoning, one finds that there are good substantive reasons why our collective identity should not contain reference to Christian values. [source]


Collective Baha'i Identity Through Embodied Persecution: "Be ye the fingers of one hand, the members of one body"

ANTHROPOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS, Issue 1-2 2000
Curtis Humes
Members of the Baha'i Faith have been subject to persecution in Iran since the mid-nineteenth century. Our investigation considers how collective identity among a Pacific Northwest Community has been constructed through the contexts of continued persecution in Iran and the development of religious texts, which helped to define the religious community. The texts found within the Baha'i Faith utilize metaphors of the body to construct religious identity. Many anthropologists have theorized on the usefulness of the body as a unit of study; in addition, recent attention by scholars has illustrated the intersection of the body and religion. A model is developed linking identity, consciousness, the body and experience that explains how collective identity is constructed. When considering the situation of the Baha'i community, this model has proven particularly useful in understanding how geographically disassociated people manage to construct social kinship within the context of religious persecution. In particular, American Baha'is describe the persecution of Baha'is in Iran as a collective experience, especially since the direct experience of persecution is far removed from their everyday living. Preliminary analysis of interviews with an American Baha'i, and an ex-patriot Iranian Baha'i reveal differences in constructions of identity. [source]