Coarse-textured Soils (coarse-textured + soil)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Laboratory experimental check of a conceptual model for infiltration under complex rainfall patterns

Florisa Melone
Abstract Experimental evidence of the accuracy of the model proposed by Corradini et al. (1997, Journal of Hydrology192: 104,124) for local infiltration,redistribution,reinfiltration in homogeneous soils is given. The model provides infiltration through the time evolution of the soil water content vertical profile, which is described by an ordinary differential equation in any stage of a given rainfall event. A nearly horizontal laboratory slope was used for the experiments performed over both a medium- and a coarse-textured soil. During each experiment characterized by a complex rainfall pattern, the soil water content , at different depths was continuously monitored using the time-domain reflectometry method. Our results indicate that the model simulated the experimental vertical profiles of , accurately, particularly during the infiltration and reinfiltration stages separated by a rainfall hiatus with redistribution of soil water. These results indicate the reliability of the model in computing the local effective rainfall for hydrological response. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prescribed-fire effects on rill and interrill runoff and erosion in a mountainous sagebrush landscape ,

Frederick B. Pierson
Abstract Changing fire regimes and prescribed-fire use in invasive species management on rangelands require improved understanding of fire effects on runoff and erosion from steeply sloping sagebrush-steppe. Small (05 m2) and large (325 m2) plot rainfall simulations (85 mm h,1, 1 h) and concentrated flow methodologies were employed immediately following burning and 1 and 2 years post-fire to investigate infiltration, runoff and erosion from interrill (rainsplash, sheetwash) and rill (concentrated flow) processes on unburned and burned areas of a steeply sloped sagebrush site on coarse-textured soils. Soil water repellency and vegetation were assessed to infer relationships in soil and vegetation factors that influence runoff and erosion. Runoff and erosion from rainfall simulations and concentrated flow experiments increased immediately following burning. Runoff returned to near pre-burn levels and sediment yield was greatly reduced with ground cover recovery to 40 per cent 1 year post-fire. Erosion remained above pre-burn levels on large rainfall simulation and concentrated flow plots until ground cover reached 60 per cent two growing seasons post-fire. The greatest impact of the fire was the threefold reduction of ground cover. Removal of vegetation and ground cover and the influence of pre-existing strong soil-water repellency increased the spatial continuity of overland flow, reduced runoff and sediment filtering effects of vegetation and ground cover, and facilitated increased velocity and transport capacity of overland flow. Small plot rainfall simulations suggest ground cover recovery to 40 per cent probably protected the site from low-return-interval storms, large plot rainfall and concentrated flow experiments indicate the site remained susceptible to elevated erosion rates during high-intensity or long duration events until ground cover levels reached 60 per cent. The data demonstrate that the persistence of fire effects on steeply-sloped, sandy sagebrush sites depends on the time period required for ground cover to recover to near 60 per cent and on the strength and persistence of ,background' or fire-induced soil water repellency. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Fate of microbial residues in sandy soils of the South African Highveld as influenced by prolonged arable cropping

W. Amelung
Summary Long-term cultivation of former grassland soils results in a significant decline of both living and dead microbial biomass. We evaluated the effect of duration of cropping on the preservation of fungal and bacterial residues in the coarse-textured soils of the South African Highveld. Composite samples were taken from the top 20 cm of soils (Plinthustalfs) that have been cropped for periods varying from 0 to 98 years in each of three different agro-ecosystems in the Free State Province. Amino sugars were determined as markers for the microbial residues in bulk soil and its particle-size fractions. Long-term cultivation reduced N in the soil by 55% and the contents of amino sugars by 60%. Loss rates of amino sugars followed bi-exponential functions, suggesting that they comprised both labile and stable fractions. With increased duration of cropping the amino sugars attached to silt dissipated faster than those associated with the clay. This dissipation was in part because silt was preferentially lost through erosion, while clay particles (and their associated microbial residues) remained. Erosion was not solely responsible for the reduction in amino sugar concentrations, however. Bacterial amino sugars were lost in preference to fungal ones as a result of cultivation, and this effect was evident in both silt- and clay-sized separates. This shift from fungal to bacterial residues was most pronounced within the first 20 years after converting the native grassland to arable cropland, but continued after 98 years of cultivation. [source]

Carbon sequestration in soils of central Asia,

R. Lal
Abstract Problems of frequent drought stress, low soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration, low aggregation, susceptibility to compaction, salinization and accelerated soil erosion in dry regions are accentuated by removal of crop residues, mechanical methods of seedbed preparation, summer clean fallowing and overgrazing, and excessive irrigation. The attendant soil degradation and desertification lead to depletion of SOC, decline in biomass production, eutrophication/pollution of waters and emission of greenhouse gases. Adoption of conservation agriculture, based on the use of crop residue mulch and no till farming, can conserve water, reduce soil erosion, improve soil structure, enhance SOC concentration, and reduce the rate of enrichment of atmospheric CO2. The rate of SOC sequestration with conversion to conservation agriculture, elimination of summer fallowing and growing forages/cover crops may be 100 to 200,kg,ha,1,y,1 in coarse-textured soils of semiarid regions and 150 to 300,kg,ha,1,y,1 in heavy-textured soils of the subhumid regions. The potential of soil C sequestration in central Asia is 10 to 22,Tg,C,y,1 (168,Tg,C,y,1) for about 50 years, and it represents 20,per,cent of the CO2 emissions by fossil fuel combustion. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]