Covalent Character (covalent + character)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Optimizing the formula of rare earth-bearing materials: A computational chemistry investigation

Marjorie Bertolus
Abstract We present a computational investigation into the nature of bonds formed by rare earth elements (REE) in materials. This study focuses on the incorporation of neodymium in minerals called apatites, which are derived from fluorapatite: Ca10(PO4)6F2. These minerals, which allow many substitutions on all three Ca, P, and F sites, are considered as potential host phases for radioactive elements separated from nuclear waste. Nd and trivalent actinides have very similar physical and chemical properties, and Nd is not radioactive and much more easily handled. It is therefore very often used as a surrogate for actinides with oxidation degree three in experimental studies. Several formulas can be considered to substitute Nd3+ to Ca2+ and maintain charge balance of the apatite. Existing experimental and theoretical studies, however, mostly concern the Ca9Nd(PO4)5SiO4F2 formula, where the Nd incorporation is compensated by the replacement of one PO by a SiO group. Moreover, only the cation position has been studied, whereas the silicate position and its influence on stability are unknown. We present a more general investigation of possible charge compensations on the one hand, and of the various resulting configurations on the other. All possible configurations of the two formulas Ca9Nd(PO4)5 SiO4F2 and Ca8NdNa(PO4)6F2 have been considered. Calculations have been performed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). A computation scheme that permits good accuracy in these systems within reasonable computation times is determined. The results obtained for cohesion energies, geometries, and electronic densities are discussed. As for the formulation, it is shown that the Ca8NdNa(PO4)6F2 formula is less stable than the fluorapatite, while Ca9Nd(PO4)5 SiO4F2 is more stable. For the structures, it is found that Nd substitutes preferably in the second cationic site. Moreover, the most stable structures exhibit the shortest Na,Nd or Nd,Si distances. Local charge balance therefore seems favorable. Then, it is shown that Nd forms covalent bonds both in apatite and in britholite, while Na forms ionic bonds. Finally, a first correlation between the material stability and the covalent character of the bonds formed is established. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2007 [source]

Interaction of cysteine with Cu2+ and group IIb (Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+) metal cations: a theoretical study

M. Belcastro
Abstract The structure and energetics of complexes obtained upon interaction between cysteine and Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Cu2+ cations were studied using quantum chemical density functional theory calculations with the 6,311++G** orbital basis set and relativistic pseudopotentials for the cations. Different coordination sites for metal ions on several cysteine conformers were considered. In their lowest energy complexes with the amino acid, the Zn2+ and Cd2+ cations appear to be three-coordinated to carbonyl oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur atoms, whereas the Cu2+ and Hg2+ ions are coordinated to both the carbonyl oxygen and sulfur atoms of one of the zwitterion forms of the amino acid. Bonds of metal cations with the coordination sites are mainly ionic except those established with sulfur, which show a small covalent character that become most significant when Cu2+ and Hg2+ are involved. The order of metal ion affinity proposed is Cu > Zn > Hg > Cd. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Increased aggregation propensity of IgG2 subclass over IgG1: Role of conformational changes and covalent character in isolated aggregates

Heather Franey
Abstract Aggregation of human therapeutic antibodies represents a significant hurdle to product development. In a test across multiple antibodies, it was observed that IgG1 antibodies aggregated less, on average, than IgG2 antibodies under physiological pH and mildly elevated temperature. This phenomenon was also observed for IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses of anti-streptavidin, which shared 95% sequence identity but varied in interchain disulfide connectivity. To investigate the structural and covalent changes associated with greater aggregation in IgG2 subclasses, soluble aggregates from the two forms of anti-streptavidin were isolated and characterized. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC) measurements confirmed that the aggregates were present in solution, and revealed that the IgG1 aggregate was composed of a predominant species, whereas the IgG2 aggregate was heterogeneous. Tertiary structural changes accompanied antibody aggregation as evidenced by greater ANS (8-Anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid) binding to the aggregates over monomer, and differences in disulfide character and tryptophan environments between monomer, oligomer and aggregate species, as observed by near-UV circular dichroism (CD). Differences between subclasses were observed in the secondary structural changes that accompanied aggregation, particularly in the intermolecular ,-sheet and turn structures between the monomer and aggregate species. Free thiol determination showed ,2.4-fold lower quantity of free cysteines in the IgG1 subclass, consistent with the 2.4-fold reduction in aggregation of the IgG1 form when compared with IgG2 under these conditions. These observations suggested an important role for disulfide bond formation, as well as secondary and tertiary structural transitions, during antibody aggregation. Such degradations may be minimized using appropriate formulation conditions. [source]

Modulation of protein aggregation by polyethylene glycol conjugation: GCSF as a case study

Rahul S. Rajan
Abstract Polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugation to proteins has emerged as an important technology to produce drug molecules with sustained duration in the body. However, the implications of PEG conjugation to protein aggregation have not been well understood. In this study, conducted under physiological pH and temperature, N-terminal attachment of a 20 kDa PEG moiety to GCSF had the ability to (1) prevent protein precipitation by rendering the aggregates soluble, and (2) slow the rate of aggregation relative to GCSF. Our data suggest that PEG-GCSF solubility was mediated by favorable solvation of water molecules around the PEG group. PEG-GCSF appeared to aggregate on the same pathway as that of GCSF, as evidenced by (a) almost identical secondary structural transitions accompanying aggregation, (b) almost identical covalent character in the aggregates, and (c) the ability of PEG-GCSF to rescue GCSF precipitation. To understand the role of PEG length, the aggregation properties of free GCSF were compared to 5kPEG-GCSF and 20kPEG-GCSF. It was observed that even 5kPEG-GCSF avoided precipitation by forming soluble aggregates, and the stability toward aggregation was vastly improved compared to GCSF, but only marginally less stable than the 20kPEG-GCSF. Biological activity measurements demonstrated that both 5kPEG-GCSF and 20kPEG-GCSF retained greater activity after incubation at physiological conditions than free GCSF, consistent with the stability measurements. The data is most compatible with a model where PEG conjugation preserves the mechanism underlying protein aggregation in GCSF, steric hindrance by PEG influences aggregation rate, while aqueous solubility is mediated by polar PEG groups on the aggregate surface. [source]