Coupling Chemistry (coupling + chemistry)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Selected Abstracts

Two-Dimensional Chromatography of Complex Polymers, 7 , Detailed Study of Polystyrene- block -Polyisoprene Diblock Copolymers Prepared by Sequential Anionic Polymerization and Coupling Chemistry

Valentina Mass
Abstract Two-dimensional chromatographic methods were developed using LC-CC in the first and SEC in the second dimension. These methods were applied for the investigation of PS- b -PI diblock copolymers synthesized by different approaches: sequential living anionic polymerization and coupling of living precursor blocks. The first dimension separates according to the individual block length of PS or PI blocks, whereas the second dimension separates with respect to the total molar masses of components. 2D-LC analysis provides information on the purity of the reaction products, the presence of by-products, the chemical compositions and the molar masses of all product components. The accuracy and selectivity of 2D-LC is discussed. [source]

Doxorubicin-Conjugated Immuno-Nanoparticles for Intracellular Anticancer Drug Delivery

Meng Shi
Abstract A polymeric nanoparticle comprised of surface furan groups is used to bind, by Diels,Alder (DA) coupling chemistry, both targeting anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2) antibodies and chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) for targeted, intracellular delivery of DOX. In this new approach for delivery, where both chemotherapeutic and targeting ligand are attached, for the first time, to the surface of the delivery vehicle, the nuclear localization of DOX in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer SKBR-3 cells is demonstrated, as determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Flow cytometric analysis shows that the conjugated DOX maintains its biological function and induces similar apoptotic progression in SKBR-3 cells as free DOX. The viable cell counts of SKBR-3 cancer cells following incubation with different nanoparticle formulations demonstrates that the combined DOX and anti-HER2 nanoparticle is more efficacious than the nanoparticle formulation with either DOX or anti-HER2 alone. While free DOX shows similar cytotoxicity against both cancerous SKBR-3 cells and healthy HMEC-1 cells, the combined DOX-anti-HER2 nanoparticle is significantly more cytotoxic against SKBR-3 cells than HMEC-1 cells, suggesting the benefit of nanoparticle-conjugated DOX for cell type-specific targeting. The DOX-conjugated immuno-nanoparticle represents an entirely new method for localized co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and antibodies. [source]

Glyconanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Ligand Presentation

Xin Wang
Abstract Glyconanomaterials, nanomaterials carrying surface-tethered carbohydrate ligands, have emerged and demonstrated increasing potential in biomedical imaging, therapeutics, and diagnostics. These materials combine the unique properties of nanometer-scale objects with the ability to present multiple copies of carbohydrate ligands, greatly enhancing the weak affinity of individual ligands to their binding partners. Critical to the performance of glyconanomaterials is the proper display of carbohydrate ligands, taking into consideration of the coupling chemistry, the type and length of the spacer linkage, and the ligand density. This article provides an overview of the coupling chemistry for attaching carbohydrate ligands to nanomaterials, and discusses the need for thorough characterization of glyconanomaterials, especially quantitative analyses of the ligand density and binding affinities. Using glyconanoparticles synthesized by a versatile photocoupling chemistry, methods for determining the ligand density by colorimetry and the binding affinity with lectins by a fluorescence competition assay are determined. The results show that the multivalent presentation of carbohydrate ligands significantly enhances the binding affinity by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the free ligands in solution. The effect is sizeable even at low surface ligand density. The type and length of the spacer linkage also affect the binding affinity, with the longer linkage promoting the association of bound ligands with the corresponding lectins. [source]

One-pot synthesis of heterograft copolymers via "graft onto" by atom transfer nitroxide radical coupling chemistry

Qiang Fu
Abstract Heterograft copolymers poly(4-glycidyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl- co - ethylene oxide)- graft -polystyrene and poly(tert -butyl acrylate) (poly (GTEMPO- co -EO)- g -PS/PtBA) were synthesized in one-pot by atom transfer nitroxide radical coupling (ATNRC) reaction via "graft onto." The main chain was prepared by the anionic ring-opening copolymerization of ethylene oxide (EO) and 4-glycidyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (GTEMPO) first, then the polystyrene and poly (tert -butyl acrylate) with bromine end (PS-Br, PtBA-Br) were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). When three of them were mixed each other in the presence of CuBr/N,N,N,,N,,N,-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) at 90 C, the formed secondary carbon radicals at the PS and PtBA chain ends were quickly trapped by nitroxide radicals on poly(GTEMPO- co -EO). The heterograft copolymers were well defined by 1H NMR, size exclusion chromatography, fourier transform infrared, and differential scanning calorimetry in detail. It was found that the density of GTEMPO groups on main chain poly(GTEMPO- co -EO), the molecular weights of PS/PtBA side chains, and the structure of macroradicals can exert the great effects on the graft efficiency. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 6770,6779, 2008 [source]

Polymerizable Well-Defined Oligo(thiophene amide)s and their ROMP Block Copolymers

Stefan Hilf
Abstract We report the synthesis of conjugated thiophene amide oligomers that constitute a new class of chromophores with potential for optoelectronic applications. The synthesis of defined norbornene-substituted oligothiophene amides using conventional coupling chemistry is described. Their electronic properties depend on the degree of oligomerization as UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrate. A significant red shift in the spectra upon an increase in the oligomer length evidences conjugation of the thiophene rings via the amide linkages. ROMP of the norbornene-substituted oligomers gives homopolymers and block-copolymers with a solubilizing second block. The amphiphilic character of the block copolymers is used to study micellization and bulk self-organization. [source]

Preparation of Tripeptide-Bridged Dicatechol Ligands and Their Macrocyclic Molybdenum(VI) Complexes: Fixation of the RGD Sequence and the WKY Sequence of Urotensin II in a Cyclic Conformation

Markus Albrecht Prof. Dr.
Abstract Dicatechol ligands were prepared with caprylic acid (6 -H4) or the naturally occurring RGD (23 -H4) or WKY sequences (32 -H4) as spacers. 6 -H4 was prepared by solution-phase amide coupling chemistry, while 16, the precursor of 23 -H4, was obtained by solution-phase and solid-phase preparation. In the latter case, a polystyrene resin with a hydrazine benzoate linker was used as the solid support. The last coupling step was performed simultaneously with cleavage of the peptide from the resin. The protecting groups of 16 were all removed in one step to yield the free ligand 23 -H4. The WKY-bridged derivative 32 -H4 was obtained by a similar solid-phase synthesis followed by deprotection. The reaction of all three ligands with dioxomolybdenum(VI) bis(acetylacetonate) afforded 19-membered metallamacrocycles in which the short peptides are conformationally fixed in a turn-type structure. Hereby, the side-chain functionalities of the peptides do not interfere in the metal complexation. [source]