Comorbid Psychopathology (comorbid + psychopathology)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Impulsive aggression in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

J. H. Dowson
Dowson JH, Blackwell AD. Impulsive aggression in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Objective:, DSM-IV criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include examples of ,impulsivity'. This term can refer to various dysfunctional behaviours, including some examples of aggressive behaviour. However, impulsive aggression is not included in the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. The associations of impulsive aggression with ADHD were investigated. Method:, Seventy-three male adults with DSM-IV ADHD, and their informants, completed questionnaires. Impulsive aggression was assessed by ratings of two criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD), involving hot temper and/or self-harm. Results:, Logistic regression indicated that features of DSM-IV ADHD were predictors of comorbid impulsive aggression. However, compared with ADHD features, verbal IQ and comorbid psychopathology were more strongly associated with impulsive aggression. Conclusion:, The findings support the inclusion of features of impulsive aggression, such as hot temper/short fuse, in the ADHD syndrome in adults. These overlap with features of BPD. The findings inform the selection of research samples. [source]

Genetic and non-genetic influences on the development of co-occurring alcohol problem use and internalizing symptomatology in adolescence: a review

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
Luca Saraceno
ABSTRACT Aims Alcohol problem use during adolescence has been linked to a variety of adverse consequences, including cigarette and illicit drug use, delinquency, adverse effects on pubertal brain development and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In addition, heavy alcohol-drinking adolescents are at increased risk of comorbid psychopathology, including internalizing symptomatology (especially depression and anxiety). A range of genetic and non-genetic factors have been implicated in both alcohol problem use as well as internalizing symptomatology. However, to what extent shared risk factors contribute to their comorbidity in adolescence is poorly understood. Design We conducted a systematic review on Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science to identify epidemiological and molecular genetic studies published between November 1997 and November 2007 that examined risk factors that may be shared in common between alcohol problem use and internalizing symptomatology in adolescence. Findings Externalizing disorders, family alcohol problems and stress, as well as the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) S-allele, the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity alleles and the dopamine D2 receptor (DDR2) Taq A1 allele have been associated most frequently with both traits. An increasing number of papers are focusing upon the role of gene,gene (epistasis) and gene,environment interactions in the development of comorbid alcohol problem use and internalizing symptomatology. Conclusions Further research in adolescents is warranted; the increasing availability of large longitudinal genetically informative studies will provide the evidence base from which effective prevention and intervention strategies for comorbid alcohol problems and internalizing symptomatology can be developed. [source]

Treatment of an avoidant patient with comorbid psychopathology: a plan analysis perspective

Franz Caspar
Abstract Plan Analysis provides case conceptualization for psychotherapy patients in general and for personality disorders in particular. Plan Analysis emphasizes the instrumental aspect of behavior and emotions by asking what motives or goals do a patient's functioning serve. The authors briefly describe Plan Analysis and then illustrate it with the psychotherapy of Nicole, a young patient with avoidant personality disorder, personality disorder not otherwise specified, and major depression. The case illustrates a flexible procedure, dealing with different topics in parallel, and using techniques from a variety of treatment approaches in a heuristic way. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 64: 1,15, 2008. [source]

Impact of Age at First Drink on Stress-Reactive Drinking

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2007
Deborah A. Dawson
Background: Although recent data from animal models indicate that adolescent ethanol exposure increases self-administered ethanol intake in adult rats, the impact of age at first drink on the association between stress and drinking has not been studied in humans. Methods: Data collected in the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to estimate the extent to which age at first drink modified the association between stress and average daily volume (ADV) of ethanol intake in a sample of 26,946 past-year drinkers. Successive models estimated the magnitude and significance of the interaction between age at first drink (ages 14 or younger, 15,17, and 18 or older) and number of stressors (out of 12 past-year negative life events) after (1) adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, (2) additionally adjusting for family history of alcoholism, comorbid psychopathology, adolescent, and past-year tobacco and illicit drug use, and (3) additionally adjusting for all other significant interactions with number of stressors. Results: Even after adjusting for a wide range of confounders and their interactions with stress, initiation of drinking at ages 14 and younger increased the association between the number of stressors and ADV of ethanol consumption by 8% (p=0.014), when considering the full range of 12 potential stressors. In fact, the positive association between stress and consumption was significant only for this group of drinkers with early adolescent exposure to ethanol. Within this group, ADV of consumption increased by an average of 7% with each additional stressor experienced, although the exact percentage increase varied as a function of other covariates that had significant interactions with stress. When a reduced set of 4 stressors was considered, the magnitudes of the associations were mostly unchanged, but the modifying effect of age at first drink fell short of statistical significance (p=0.309) in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions: The findings of this study are consistent with the argument that early-onset drinking may increase stress-reactive ethanol consumption; however, these findings need to be replicated in an experimental human study in order to control fully the direction of the relationship between stress and consumption. [source]