Comorbid Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (comorbid + obsessive-compulsive_disorder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Factors associated with treatment nonadherence among US bipolar disorder patients,

Ross J. Baldessarini
Abstract Objective Since sustained treatment-adherence is often problematic and may limit clinical outcomes among bipolar disorder (BPD) patients, we sought risk factors to guide clinical prediction of nonadherence. Methods Data were from a 2005 US national sample providing questionnaire responses by 131 randomly selected prescribing psychiatrists and their adult BPD patients. We contrasted demographic and clinical factors in treatment-adherent versus nonadherent patients (strictly defined as missing ,1 dose within 10 days) in univariate analyses followed by multivariate logistic-regression modeling. Results Of 429 DSM-IV BPD patients (79% type-I; 62% women; 17% minorities), 34% reported missing,,,1 dose of psychotropic medication within 10 days, 20% missed entire daily doses at least once, and only 2.5% missed all doses for 10 days. However, their prescribing psychiatrists considered only 6% as treatment-nonadherent. Factors significantly associated with nonadherence in multivariate modeling ranked: alcohol-dependence,>,youth,>,greater affective morbidity,>,various side effects,,,comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder,,,recovering from mania-hypomania. Unrelated were sex, diagnostic subtype, and other comorbidities. Since most patients received,,,2 psychotropics, potential relationships between treatment-complexity and adherence were obscured. Conclusions Prevalent treatment-nonadherence among American BPD patients, and striking underestimation of the problem by prescribing clinicians may encourage increasingly complex treatment-regimens of untested value, but added expense, risk of adverse effects, and uncertain impact on treatment-adherence itself. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Cerebellar morphology in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder

Russell H. Tobe MD
Objective Neuroanatomical and functional imaging studies have identified the cerebellum as an integral component of motor and language control. Few studies, however, have investigated the role of the cerebellum in Tourette syndrome (TS), a condition defined by the presence of semi-involuntary movements and sounds. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted in 163 persons with TS and 147 control participants. Multivariate linear regression models were used to explore effects on cerebellar surface morphology and underlying volumes for the main diagnosis effects of TS as well as comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Additionally, the correlations of symptom severity with cerebellar morphology were also assessed. Results The TS group demonstrated reduced volumes of the cerebellar hemispheres bilaterally that derived primarily from reduced gray matter in crus I and lobules VI, VIIB, and VIIIA. These decreased regional volumes accompanied increasing tic symptom severity and motoric disinhibition as demonstrated by a finger tapping test. Males had reduced volumes of these same regions compared with females, irrespective of diagnosis. Comorbid OCD was associated with relative enlargement of these regions in proportion to the increasing severity of OCD symptoms. Interpretation The cerebellum is involved in the pathogenesis of TS and tic-related OCD. Baseline gender differences in cerebellar morphology may in part account for the more prevalent expression of TS in males. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:479,487 [source]

Bipolar disorder and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with higher rates of anxiety and impulse control disorders

Cilly Klüger Issler
Issler CK, Monkul ES, Amaral JAMS, Tamada RS, Shavitt RG, Miguel EC, Lafer B. Bipolar disorder and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with higher rates of anxiety and impulse control disorders. Objective: Although bipolar disorder (BD) with comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is highly prevalent, few controlled studies have assessed this comorbidity. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and expression of comorbid disorders in female BD patients with OCD. Method: We assessed clinically stable female outpatients with BD: 15 with comorbid OCD (BD+OCD group) and 15 without (BD/no-OCD group). All were submitted to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, with additional modules for the diagnosis of kleptomania, trichotillomania, pathological gambling, onychophagia and skin picking. Results: The BD+OCD patients presented more chronic episodes, residual symptoms and previous depressive episodes than the BD/no-OCD patients. Of the BD+OCD patients, 86% had a history of treatment-emergent mania, compared with only 40% of the BD/no-OCD patients. The following were more prevalent in the BD+OCD patients than the BD/no-OCD patients: any anxiety disorder other than OCD; impulse control disorders; eating disorders; and tic disorders. Conclusion: Female BD patients with OCD may represent a more severe form of disorder than those without OCD, having more depressive episodes and residual symptoms, and being at a higher risk for treatment-emergent mania, as well as presenting a greater anxiety and impulse control disorder burden. [source]