Comorbid Disorders (comorbid + disorders)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Gender differences in bipolar disorder type I and II

K. Suominen
Objective:, We investigated gender differences in bipolar disorder (BD) type I and II in a representative cohort of secondary care psychiatric in- and out-patients. Method:, In the prospective, naturalistic Jorvi Bipolar Study of 191 secondary care psychiatric in- and out-patients, 160 patients (85.1%) could be followed up for 18 months with a life chart. Results:, After adjusting for confounders, no marked differences in illness-related characteristics were found. However, female patients with BD had more lifetime comorbid eating disorders (P < 0.001, OR = 5.99, 95% CI 2.12,16.93) but less substance use disorders (P < 0.001, OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.16,0.56) than males. Median time to recurrence after remission was 3.1 months longer among men than women, female gender carrying a higher hazard of recurrence (P = 0.006, HR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.22,3.27). Conclusion:, Men and women with type I and II BD have fairly similar illness-related clinical characteristics, but their profile of comorbid disorders may differ significantly, particularly regarding substance use and eating disorders. In medium-term follow-up, females appear to have a higher hazard of recurrence than males. [source]

Prevalence and correlates of comorbidity 8 years after a first psychotic episode

S. Farrelly
Objective:, While rates and correlates of comorbidity have been investigated in the early course of psychosis, little is known about comorbidity in the medium-to-longer term or its relationship with outcome. Method:, A total of 182 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients who met DSM-IV criteria for a current psychotic disorder 8 years after index presentation were grouped according to concurrent comorbidity [no concurrent axis I disorder; concurrent substance use disorder (SUD); other concurrent axis I disorder; concurrent SUD and other axis I disorder]. Outcomes were compared between groups controlling for relevant covariates. Results:, As much as 39% met criteria for one or more concurrent axis 1 diagnoses. Comorbidity was associated with greater severity of general psychopathology, but not with measures of functioning, treatment or negative symptoms. Conclusion:, Specific combinations of comorbid disorders may influence patterns of psychotic symptomatology. Routine examination of axis I disorders is warranted in the ongoing management of psychosis. [source]

An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: selected findings from 3500 individuals in 22 countries

Roger D Freeman MD
We have established a multisite, international database of 3500 individuals diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (TS). The male:female ratio is 4.3:1 for the total sample, with wide variation among sites; the male excess occurs at every site. Anger control problems, sleep difficulties, coprolalia, and self-injurious behavior only reach impressive levels in individuals with comorbidity. Anger control problems are strongly correlated with comorbidity, regardless of site, region, or whether assessed by neurologists or psychiatrists. The mean age at onset of tics is 6.4 years. At all ages, about 12% of individuals with TS have no reported comorbidity. The most common reported comorbidity is attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Males are more likely to have comorbid disorders than females. The earlier the age at onset, the greater the likelihood of a positive family history of tics. An understanding of the factors producing these and other variations might assist in better subtyping of TS. Because behavioral problems are associated with comorbidity, their presence should dictate a high index of suspicion of the latter, whose treatment may be at least as important as tic reduction. The established database can be used as the entry point for further research when large samples are studied and generalizability of results is important. [source]

Risk factors for suicide attempts in patients with alcohol dependence or abuse and a history of depressive symptoms: A subgroup analysis from the WHO/ISBRA study

Abstract Introduction and Aims. Alcoholism, depression and suicide attempts (SA) are strongly interrelated. The aims were to determine risk factors and develop a prognostic predictor model for SA in a subgroup of patients with a history of alcohol dependence or abuse and depressive symptoms. Design and Methods. A subgroup analysis from the data of the World Health Organisation (WHO)/the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA)-collaborative study on biological state and trait marker of alcohol use and dependence, an international multi-centre study with a cross-sectional design, based on a standardised questionnaire. We analysed from 1314 variables 43 factors,including demographic characteristics, dependence variables, comorbid disorders, personality trait markers and family history,that were supposed to be most predictive for SA according to the literature. Correlation analyses by the ,2 -test and Mann,Whitney U -test were performed to obtain statistical meaningful parameters for logistic regression analysis. Results. Of the 1863 persons included in the WHO/ISBRA study, 292 had both a history of depressive symptoms and alcohol dependence or abuse and were included in the subgroup analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, drinking status, depressive symptoms, adverse drinking experiences during alcohol consumption, bad experiences from drug abuse and antidepressant therapy were found to be independent risk factors for SA. Positive family history of alcoholism was a model-improving co-factor. This predictive model explains approximately 60% of the variance (Nagelkerkes' square). Discussion and Conclusions. This prognostic model derived from data of the WHO/ISBRA collaborative study shows important risk factors for SA in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence and depressive symptoms. [ Yaldizli Ö, Kuhl HC, Graf M, Wiesbeck GA, Wurst FM. Risk factors for suicide attempts in patients with alcohol dependence or abuse and a history of depressive symptoms: A subgroup analysis from the WHO/ISBRA study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009] [source]

Binge eating disorder pharmacotherapy clinical trails,who is left out?

Anna I. Guerdjikova
Abstract Objective This report examined the characteristics of subjects interested in binge eating disorder (BED) pharmacotherapy trails who were ineligible for participation. Methods Data on 2685 potential subjects interested in participating in five different placebo-controlled monotherapy trails of BED were analysed. Results Of the 2685 potential subjects, 1230 (45.8%) were ineligible because they did not meet entry criteria, 586 (21.8%) were eligible for participation, 531 (19.8%) were not interested in the study and 338 (12.6%) were not contacted. Among the 1230 ineligible candidates, 525 (42.7%) were taking exclusionary psychotropic medication, 305 (24.8%) did not meet specified BED criteria, 157 (12.7%) were out of the required age (n,=,83) or weight (n,=,74) range, 212 (17.2%) had prohibited medical (n,=,78) or psychiatric (n,=,134) disorders and 31 (2.5%) were participating in weight loss programmes. Discussion Given the complexity of BED, future pharmacotherapy studies should examine a broader range of subjects, including subjects with subthreshold forms of BED, those with comorbid disorders and elderly subjects. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Is Headache Related to Asthma, Hay Fever, and Chronic Bronchitis?

HEADACHE, Issue 2 2007
The Head-HUNT Study
Objectives.,To examine the relationship between migraine and nonmigrainous headache and asthma, hay fever, and chronic bronchitis in a large cross-sectional population-based study. Background.,Associations between prevalence of migraine and asthma or allergy have been demonstrated in clinic-based and epidemiologic studies whereas studies on chronic bronchitis are scarce. Methods.,A total of 51,383 subjects completed a headache questionnaire and constituted the "Head-HUNT" Study. Of these 50,401 (98.1%) answered the questions about asthma and chronic bronchitis, and 47,029 (91.5%) answered the question about hay fever. Associations were assessed in multivariate analyses, estimating prevalence odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results.,Both migraine and nonmigrainous headache were approximately 1.5 times more likely among those with current asthma, asthma related symptoms, hay fever, and chronic bronchitis than those without. The association increased with increasing headache frequency. Conclusions.,This large questionnaire-based study confirms that migraine and other headaches are associated with respiratory and allergic disorders. The magnitude of the association between headache and asthma, hay fever, and chronic bronchitis tended to be in the same order. Headache frequency seems to have a greater impact on the association with respiratory or allergic conditions than headache diagnoses. Whether it is a causal relationship is uncertain, but the results underline the importance of considering comorbid disorders among patients with frequent headache. [source]

Psychiatric Comorbidity in Treatment-Seeking Alcoholics: The Role of Childhood Trauma and Perceived Parental Dysfunction

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2004
Willie Langeland
Abstract: Background: This study among treatment-seeking alcoholics examined the relationship between childhood abuse (sexual abuse only [CSA], physical abuse only [CPA], or dual abuse [CDA]) and the presence of comorbid affective disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicide attempts, controlling for the potential confounding effects of other childhood adversities (early parental loss, witnessing domestic violence, parental alcoholism, and/or dysfunction) and adult assault histories. Method: We assessed 155 (33 females, 122 males) treatment-seeking alcoholics using the European Addiction Severity Index, the Structured Trauma Interview, and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results: The severity of childhood abuse was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide attempts in females and with PTSD, social phobia, agoraphobia, and dysthymia in males. Among men, multiple logistic regression models showed that CPA and CDA were not independently associated with any of the examined comorbid disorders or with suicide attempts. However, CSA independently predicted comorbid social phobia, agoraphobia, and PTSD. For the presence of comorbid affective disorders (mainly major depression) and suicide attempts, maternal dysfunctioning was particularly important. CSA also independently contributed to the number of comorbid diagnoses. For females, small sample size precluded the use of multivariate analyses. Conclusion: Childhood abuse is an important factor in understanding clinical impairment in treated alcoholics, especially regarding comorbid phobic anxiety disorders, PTSD, and suicidality. These findings underline the importance of routine assessment of childhood trauma and possible trauma-related disorders in individuals presenting to alcohol treatment services. More studies with bigger samples sizes of female alcohol-dependent patients are needed. [source]

Neural control of the lower urinary tract: Peripheral and spinal mechanisms,

L. Birder
Abstract This review deals with individual components regulating the neural control of the urinary bladder. This article will focus on factors and processes involved in the two modes of operation of the bladder: storage and elimination. Topics included in this review include: (1) The urothelium and its roles in sensor and transducer functions including interactions with other cell types within the bladder wall ("sensory web"), (2) The location and properties of bladder afferents including factors involved in regulating afferent sensitization, (3) The neural control of the pelvic floor muscle and pharmacology of urethral and anal sphincters (focusing on monoamine pathways), (4) Efferent pathways to the urinary bladder, and (5) Abnormalities in bladder function including mechanisms underlying comorbid disorders associated with bladder pain syndrome and incontinence. Neurourol. Urodynam. 29: 128,139, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Comorbidity in attention deficit,hyperactivity disorder

Takashi Ishii
Abstract Attention deficit,hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been noted for its high rate of comorbidity. The present study is the first report in Japan evaluating the proportion of comorbidity in ADHD cases presenting in the clinical setting, aiming at clarifying the picture of ADHD in Japan. The subjects consisted of 68 child and adolescent cases meeting criteria for ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn) under treatment at a child psychiatry clinic (IQ > 50, mental age , 4 years old). Disorders evaluated as comorbid disorders were mood disorders, anxiety disorders, elimination disorders, sleep disorders, tic disorders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), school refusal, and epilepsy. Comorbidity with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, ODD, and CD, were found to be lower than the high rates conventionally reported in North America. The lower age of the present subjects, primarily in infancy and elementary school age with few adolescent cases, and a bias towards milder cases from an outpatient clinic without inpatient facilities are believed to be factors accounting for this disparity. Furthermore, it was a notable fact that mentally delayed cases (IQ: 51,84) amounted to 34% of the cases, indicating the necessity to consider intelligence level when formulating a treatment strategy for ADHD. [source]

Symptom Severity, Alcohol Craving, and Age of Trauma Onset in Childhood and Adolescent Trauma Survivors with Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Julie A. Schumacher PhD
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are frequently comorbid disorders. Given evidence that childhood traumas may be associated with broader, more severe psychological sequelae than later traumas, the present study examined whether the association between alcohol and trauma symptomatology is more pronounced among individuals with earlier trauma onsets in a sample of 42 childhood and adolescent trauma survivors diagnosed with comorbid AD-PTSD. As predicted, individuals reporting childhood traumas reported greater severity of trauma and alcohol symptoms and greater alcohol craving. These results suggest that individuals with childhood trauma histories may be particularly vulnerable to relapse following AD treatment. [source]

Substance Dependence and Other Psychiatric Disorders Among Drug Dependent Subjects: Race and Gender Correlates

Wilson M. Compton III M.D.
Persons in drug treatment with drug dependence were interviewed with the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule to ascertain DSM-III-R disorders. Lifetime prevalence rates were 64% for alcohol dependence, 44% for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), 39% for phobic disorders, 24% for major depression, 12% for dysthymia, 10% for generalized anxiety disorder, 3% for panic disorder, 3% for mania, 3% for obsessive compulsive disorder, 2% for bulimia, 1% for schizophrenia, and 1% for anorexia. When stratified by race and age, significant main effects were seen, but there were no significant interactions except in "any non-substance disorder" and in the mean number of non-substance use disorders. Caucasians had a higher mean number of drug dependence disorders and higher overall rates of "any other" disorder than African-Americans, and Caucasians and males had higher mean numbers of non-substance use disorders than African-Americans and females, respectively. This was related to rates of alcohol, cannabis, and hallucinogen dependence, and ASPD rates that were higher among men than women and higher among Caucasian respondents than African-American for alcohol, cannabis, hallucinogen, opiate and sedative dependence, major depression, dysthymia, and generalized anxiety disorder. In contrast, women had higher rates than men of amphetamine dependence, phobic disorder, major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and mania. African-Americans had higher rates than Caucasians of amphetamine, cocaine, and phencyclidine dependence, but for no comorbid disorders were the rates higher among African-Americans than Caucasians. The differences according to gender in rates of disorders among substance dependent persons are consistent with the results of general population surveys, but the differences in rates according to race are in contrast to these same community surveys. Limitations in the utility of the concept of race as a valid category diminish the generalizability of the findings; however, one possible explanation is differential treatment seeking in African-American and Caucasian populations that would result in the differences seen. [source]

The Development and Well-Being Assessment: Description and Initial Validation of an Integrated Assessment of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology

Robert Goodman
The Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) is a novel package of questionnaires, interviews, and rating techniques designed to generate ICD-10 and DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses on 5-ldyear-olds. Nonclinical interviewers administer a structured interview to parents about psychiatric symptoms and resultant impact. When definite symptoms are identified by the structured questions, interviewers use open-ended questions and supplementary prompts to get parents to describe the problems in their own words. These descriptions are transcribed verbatim by the interviewers but are not rated by them. A similar interview is administered to 1 l-16-year-olds. Teachers complete a brief questionnaire covering the main conduct, emotional, and hyperactivity symptoms and any resultant impairment. The different sorts of information are brought together by a computer program that also predicts likely diagnoses. These computer-generated summary sheets and diagnoses form a convenient starting point for experienced clinical raters, who decide whether to accept or overturn the computer diagnosis (or lack of diagnosis) in the light of their review of all the data, including transcripts. In the present study, the DAWBA was administered to community (N= 491) and clinic (N= 39) samples. There was excellent discrimination between community and clinic samples in rates of diagnosed disorder. Within the community sample, subjects with and without diagnosed disorders differed markedly in external characteristics and prognosis. In the clinic sample, there was substantial agreement between DAWBA and case note diagnoses, though the DAWBA diagnosed more comorbid disorders. The use of screening questions and skip rules greatly reduced interview length by allowing many sections to be omitted with very little loss of positive information. Overall, the DAWBA successfully combined the cheapness and simplicity of respondent-based measures with the clinical persuasiveness of investigator-based diagnoses. The DAWBA has considerable potential as an epidemiological measure, and may prove to be of clinical value too. [source]

Bipolar disorder and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with higher rates of anxiety and impulse control disorders

Cilly Klüger Issler
Issler CK, Monkul ES, Amaral JAMS, Tamada RS, Shavitt RG, Miguel EC, Lafer B. Bipolar disorder and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with higher rates of anxiety and impulse control disorders. Objective: Although bipolar disorder (BD) with comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is highly prevalent, few controlled studies have assessed this comorbidity. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and expression of comorbid disorders in female BD patients with OCD. Method: We assessed clinically stable female outpatients with BD: 15 with comorbid OCD (BD+OCD group) and 15 without (BD/no-OCD group). All were submitted to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, with additional modules for the diagnosis of kleptomania, trichotillomania, pathological gambling, onychophagia and skin picking. Results: The BD+OCD patients presented more chronic episodes, residual symptoms and previous depressive episodes than the BD/no-OCD patients. Of the BD+OCD patients, 86% had a history of treatment-emergent mania, compared with only 40% of the BD/no-OCD patients. The following were more prevalent in the BD+OCD patients than the BD/no-OCD patients: any anxiety disorder other than OCD; impulse control disorders; eating disorders; and tic disorders. Conclusion: Female BD patients with OCD may represent a more severe form of disorder than those without OCD, having more depressive episodes and residual symptoms, and being at a higher risk for treatment-emergent mania, as well as presenting a greater anxiety and impulse control disorder burden. [source]

Treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: the impact of comorbidity

William E. Pelham Jr
A significant percentage of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have comorbid, associated problems, such as learning disabilities, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and internalizing disorders. However, it will be argued that comorbid diagnoses are not useful in treatment planning. In order to effectively treat the problematic behaviours associated with these comorbidities, clinicians must systematically assess for the impairment related to these comorbidities and implement treatment aimed to reduce impaired functioning and increase competencies in important functional domains. Clinicians who utilize this approach will find (1) that diagnosis matters little for treatment planning, while functional impairment matters a great deal, and (2) that the systematic application of behaviour modification principles improves functioning across diagnostic categories. A case study of a multiply comorbid child with ADHD is presented to illustrate effective treatment for ADHD and comorbid disorders. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]