Cohort

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Cohort

  • age cohort
  • american cohort
  • asian cohort
  • australian cohort
  • birth cohort
  • british birth cohort
  • british cohort
  • cancer cohort
  • case-control cohort
  • caucasian cohort
  • clinical cohort
  • combined cohort
  • community cohort
  • comparison cohort
  • complete cohort
  • consecutive cohort
  • contemporary cohort
  • control cohort
  • cross-sectional cohort
  • current cohort
  • different cohort
  • disease cohort
  • diverse cohort
  • dutch cohort
  • elderly cohort
  • entire cohort
  • family cohort
  • first cohort
  • german cohort
  • high-risk cohort
  • historical cohort
  • hiv cohort
  • hypothetical cohort
  • inception cohort
  • independent cohort
  • initial cohort
  • international cohort
  • intervention cohort
  • italian cohort
  • large cohort
  • larger cohort
  • largest cohort
  • longitudinal cohort
  • matched cohort
  • multicenter cohort
  • multicentre cohort
  • national birth cohort
  • national cohort
  • nationwide cohort
  • new cohort
  • observational cohort
  • older cohort
  • one cohort
  • original cohort
  • other cohort
  • patient cohort
  • population birth cohort
  • population cohort
  • present cohort
  • prospective birth cohort
  • prospective cohort
  • recent cohort
  • representative cohort
  • retrospective cohort
  • same cohort
  • screening cohort
  • second cohort
  • separate cohort
  • similar cohort
  • single-centre cohort
  • small cohort
  • stroke cohort
  • student cohort
  • study cohort
  • successive cohort
  • summer cohort
  • swedish cohort
  • total birth cohort
  • total cohort
  • twin cohort
  • unselected cohort
  • validation cohort
  • well-defined cohort
  • whole cohort
  • younger cohort

  • Terms modified by Cohort

  • cohort analysis
  • cohort consisting
  • cohort data
  • cohort design
  • cohort effect
  • cohort effects
  • cohort entry
  • cohort follow-up
  • cohort group
  • cohort i
  • cohort ii
  • cohort member
  • cohort model
  • cohort models
  • cohort prospective study
  • cohort size
  • cohort studies
  • cohort study
  • cohort study design
  • cohort study involving
  • cohort survey
  • cohort variation

  • Selected Abstracts


    LIFE SPAN OFFENDING TRAJECTORIES OF A DUTCH CONVICTION COHORT,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    ARJAN A.J. BLOKLAND
    The aim of this paper is to describe the development of criminal behavior from early adolescence to late adulthood based on conviction data for a sample of Dutch offenders. Measuring over an age span of 12 to 72, we ask whether there is evidence for (1) criminal trajectories that are distinct in terms of time path, (2) a small group of persistent offenders, (3) criminal trajectories that are distinct in the mix of crimes committed, or, more specifically, persistent offenders disproportionately engaging in violent offences, and (4) different offender groups having different social profiles in life domains other than crime. The analysis is based on the conviction histories of the Dutch offenders in the Criminal Career and Life Course Study. Four trajectory groups were identified using a semi-parametric, group-based model: sporadic offenders, low-rate desisters, moderate-rate desisters and high-rate persisters. Analyses show that high-rate persisters engage in crime at a very substantial rate, even after age 50. Compared to other trajectory groups the high-rate persistent trajectory group disproportionately engages in property crimes rather than violent crimes. Also, these distinct trajectories are found to be remarkably similar across age cohorts. [source]


    OUTBREEDING DEPRESSION VARIES AMONG COHORTS OF IPOMOPSIS AGGREGATA PLANTED IN NATURE

    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2000
    Nickolas M. Waser
    Abstract., Outbreeding depression in progeny fitness may arise from disruption of local adaptation, disruption of allelic coadaptation, or a combination of these "environmental" and "physiological" mechanisms. Thus the minimum spatial scale over which outbreeding depression arises should depend on the spatial scale of gene dispersal and (with an environmental mechanism) of change in selection regimes. We previously reported substantial outbreeding depression in lifetime fitness of progeny resulting from crosses among parents separated by 100 m in natural populations of the herbaceous plant Ipomopsis aggregata. In this paper we explore the effect of crossing distance on fitness in two additional experiments begun in 1987 and 1990. We planted seed progeny derived from partial diallel crossing designs in randomized blocks in maternal environments and scored emergence of seedlings, survival, and eventual flowering of individuals over the subsequent six to eight years. Nested within each diallel design were crossing distances of 1 m, 10 m, and 100 m. Compared to 1-m and 10-m progeny, 100-m progeny of the 1987 diallel suffered a significant reduction in seedling emergence, and both 1-m and 100-m progeny that survived to flower achieved lower ,-values on average than 10-m progeny. Total outbreeding depression suffered by 100-m relative to 10-m progeny was approximately 10%, compared to approximately 30% in our earlier study of I. aggregata. Progeny of 10-m crosses also outperformed 1-m and 100-m progeny of the 1990 diallel by approximately 5%, but no difference among crossing distance treatments was significant. Thus, the magnitude of outbreeding depression in 100-m crosses varied among experiments. This is not surprising given likely spatial and temporal variation in gene flow and selection regimes, different population histories, and different parental and progeny environments. Characterizing outbreeding depression on the shortest spatial scales over which it is expressed, as well as its variation and causes, is worthwhile because it promises to shed light on the earliest stages of angiosperm speciation. [source]


    Occurrence and prognosis of hand eczema in the car industry: results from the PACO follow-up study (PACO II)

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 6 2008
    Christian J. Apfelbacher
    Background:, Only a few epidemiological studies on hand eczema (HE) in the metalworking industry have been conducted, and no study has attempted a long-term follow-up. Objectives:, In the Prospective Audi Cohort (PACO) II follow-up study, we aimed to estimate burden and prognosis of HE in a car industry setting (follow-up > 10 years). Patients/Methods:, Eligible participants were individuals who had been examined in the original PACO study (1990,1998) and had been followed through until the end of their apprenticeship (n = 1909). Participants were interviewed and underwent dermatological examination. An exposure assessment was carried out according to a pre-defined algorithm. Results:, The follow-up rate was 78.3% (1494/1909). Mean follow-up time was 13.3 [standard deviation 1.3] years. The period prevalence of HE in the follow-up period was 21.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19.0,23.1%], yielding a cumulative incidence of 29.3% (95% CI 26.9,31.6%) in the entire study period. HE persisted after the end of apprenticeship in 40.0% (95% CI 33.3,46.7%) of subjects who had had HE during apprenticeship (n = 205). 18.0% (95% CI 15.9,20.1%) developed HE in the follow-up period (n = 1289). Conclusions:, Around 30% of subjects were affected by HE at least once during the study period. HE persisted in 40% of the participants affected during apprenticeship. [source]


    The effect of social networks and social support on common mental disorders following specific life events

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2010
    P. K. Maulik
    Maulik PK, Eaton WW, Bradshaw CP. The effect of social networks and social support on common mental disorders following specific life events. Objective:, This study examined the association between life events and common mental disorders while accounting for social networks and social supports. Method:, Participants included 1920 adults in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Cohort who were interviewed in 1993,1996, of whom 1071 were re-interviewed in 2004,2005. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results:, Social support from friends, spouse or relatives was associated with significantly reduced odds of panic disorder and psychological distress, after experiencing specific life events. Social networks or social support had no significant stress-buffering effect. Social networks and social support had almost no direct or buffering effect on major depressive disorder, and no effect on generalized anxiety disorder and alcohol abuse or dependence disorder. Conclusion:, The significant association between social support and psychological distress, rather than diagnosable mental disorders, highlights the importance of social support, especially when the severity of a mental health related problem is low. [source]


    Side-effects of antipsychotic medication and health-related quality of life in schizophrenia

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2009
    P. E. Bebbington
    Objective:, This analysis used data from the large (n = 1208) European Schizophrenia Cohort to examine the association between subjective side-effects of antipsychotic medication and the Mental and Physical Composite Scores (MCS; PCS) of the SF-36 scale. Method:, Relationships between the subjective evaluation of side-effects identified from the Subjective Side-Effects Scale and the adjusted mean score on the PCS and MCS were examined. Where appropriate, these associations of subjective side-effects were compared with those of the same side-effects measured objectively. Results:, In this study, subjective side-effects of antipsychotic medication were linked either to both the PCS and the MCS or, in a few instances, to neither. Subjective evaluations of sexual side-effects were associated only with the MCS, those of sialorrhoea only with the PCS. Objective ratings of extrapyramidal side-effects were related neither to PCS nor to MCS. Conclusion:, These data suggest that side-effects, whether subjective or objective, may need to be considered individually in relation to their impact on quality of life. [source]


    PROCEED: Prospective Obesity Cohort of Economic Evaluation and Determinants: baseline health and healthcare utilization of the US sample,

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 12 2008
    A. M. Wolf
    Aim:, To summarize baseline characteristics, health conditions, resource utilization and resource cost for the US population for the 90-day period preceding enrolment, stratified by body mass index (BMI) and the presence of abdominal obesity (AO). Methods:, PROCEED (Prospective Obesity Cohort of Economic Evaluation and Determinants) is a multinational, prospective cohort of control (BMI 20,24.0 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25,29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI , 30 kg/m2) subjects with AO and without AO [non-abdominal obesity (NAO)], defined by waist circumference (WC) >102 and 88 cm for males and females, respectively. Subjects were recruited from an Internet consumer panel. Outcomes were self-reported online. Self-reported anthropometric data were validated. Prevalence of conditions and utilization is presented by BMI class and AO within BMI class. Differences in prevalence and means were evaluated. Results:, A total of 1067 overweight [n = 474 (NAO: n = 254 and AO: n = 220)] and obese [n = 493 (NAO: n = 39 and AO: n = 454)] subjects and 100 controls were recruited. Self-reported weight (r = 0.92) and WC (r = 0.87) were correlated with measured assessments. Prevalence of symptoms was significantly higher in groups with higher BMI, as were hypertension (p < 0.0001), diabetes (p < 0.0001) and sleep apnoea (p < 0.0001). Metabolic risk factors increased with the BMI class. Among the overweight class, subjects with AO had significantly more reported respiratory, heart, nervous, skin and reproductive system symptoms. Overweight subjects with AO reported a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes (13%) compared with overweight subjects with NAO (7%, p = 0.04). Mean healthcare cost was significantly higher in the higher BMI classes [control ($456 ± 937) vs. overweight ($1084 ± 3531) and obese ($1186 ± 2808) (p < 0.0001)]. Conclusion:, An increasing gradient of symptoms, medical conditions, metabolic risk factors and healthcare utilization among those with a greater degree of obesity was observed. The independent effect of AO on health and healthcare utilization deserves further study with a larger sample size. [source]


    Childhood body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding and risk of Type 1 diabetes: findings from a longitudinal national birth cohort

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2008
    R. M. Viner
    Abstract Aims To perform a longitudinal analysis of the association between childhood body mass index (BMI) and later risk of Type 1 diabetes, controlling for socio-economic status, birthweight, height in early and late childhood, breastfeeding history and pubertal status. Methods Analysis of the 1970 British Birth Cohort, followed up at age 5, 10 and 30 years (n = 11 261). Data were available on birthweight, breastfeeding; height, weight, pubertal status, socio-economic status at age 10 years; self-report data on history of diabetes (type, age at onset) at age 30 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine relations of childhood growth, socio-economic status and breastfeeding history to the incidence of Type 1 diabetes between 10 and 30 years of age. Results Sixty-one subjects (0.5%) reported Type 1 diabetes at 30 years of age; 47 (77%) reported onset , age 10 years. Higher BMI z -score at 10 years predicted higher risk of subsequent Type 1 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.8, P = 0.01) when adjusted for birthweight, pubertal status, breastfeeding history and socio-economic status. Repeating the model for childhood obesity, the hazard ratio was 3.1 (1.0, 9.3; P = 0.05). Birthweight, breastfeeding, height growth and pubertal timing were not associated with incidence of Type 1 diabetes. Conclusions Higher BMI in childhood independently increased the risk of later Type 1 diabetes, supporting suggestions that obesity may provide a link between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. This supports observations of a rise in Type 1 diabetes prevalence. Reduction in childhood obesity may reduce the incidence of Type 1 as well as Type 2 diabetes. [source]


    Aortic Root Dimension as an Independent Predictor for All-Cause Death in Adults <65 Years of Age (from The Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort Study)

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2010
    Chao-Lun Lai M.D.
    Background: Evidence on aortic root dimension for predicting cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is inconclusive. This cohort study sought to characterize the predictive power of aortic root dimension on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in an ethnic Chinese population. Methods: We recruited 1,851 participants in the Chin,Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC) study who had received echocardiography without previous cardiovascular events. Aortic root dimension was measured by M-mode echocardiography and indexed by body surface area to obtain aortic root dimension index (AOI). The end points were all-cause death and incident cardiovascular events including coronary heart disease and stroke over a median follow-up of 11.9 years. Results: Although tertiles of AOI was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause death in univariate analysis, the significance diminished after adjusting for age variable (P for trend = 0.11 for cardiovascular events; P for trend = 0.23 for all-cause death). In subgroup analysis, we found a significant association between tertiles of AOI and risk of all-cause death in the final multivariate Cox regression model in adults <65 years. The adjusted relative risk was 1.88 (95% CI, 1.04 to 3.40) in participants in the upper tertile of AOI compared with participants in the lower tertile (P for trend = 0.037). In adults ,65 years, tertile of AOI was not associated with all-cause death (P for trend = 0.14). Tertiles of AOI was not associated with cardiovascular events throughout this study. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant association between AOI and all-cause death in adults <65 years in an ethnic Chinese population. (Echocardiography 2010;27:487-495) [source]


    Prevalence and Characteristics of Left Ventricular Noncompaction in a Community Hospital Cohort of Patients with Systolic Dysfunction

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2008
    Roopinder Sandhu M.D.
    Background: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is felt to be a rare form of cardiomyopathy, although its prevalence in a nonreferred population is unknown. We examined the prevalence and clinical characteristics of LVNC in a community hospital cohort of adult patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. Methods: All adult echocardiograms with global LV dysfunction and an LVEF , 45% over a 1-year period were reviewed for signs of LV noncompaction. Its presence was confirmed by the consensus of at least 2/3 readers specifically searching for this using standard criteria for noncompaction. Results: A 3.7% prevalence of definite or probable LVNC was found in those with LVEF, 45% and a 0.26% prevalence for all patients referred for echocardiography during this period. This is appreciably higher than prior reports from tertiary centers. Conclusion: Noncompaction may not be a rare phenomenon and is comparable to other more widely recognized but less common causes of heart failure such as peripartum myopathy, connective tissue diseases, chronic substance abuse and HIV disease. [source]


    Early pubertal maturation in the prediction of early adult substance use: a prospective study

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
    Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine whether self-reporting a later stage of pubertal development in early adolescence predicts young adults' use of illicit drugs. Design Population-based prospective birth cohort study. Setting Follow-up of a cohort of mothers and their children, recruited between 1981 and 1983. Participants Cohort of 2710 young adults who completed a self-report questionnaire about their use of cannabis and amphetamines at the 21-year follow-up. Measurements Young adults' use of cannabis and amphetamines were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Stage of pubertal development was assessed at the 14-year follow-up. Potential confounding and mediating variables were assessed between birth and when the child was 14 years. Findings Of 2710 young adults, 49.9% (47.3 females and 52.7% males) reported that they had used cannabis and 21.0% (18.9% females and 23.3% males) reported that they had used amphetamines and cannabis by 21 years. In multivariate analyses, adolescents with a later stage of puberty were more likely to use cannabis or amphetamines in young adulthood. This association was not confounded by mother's education or child's gender and age. Part of the relationship was explained by the higher frequency of child externalizing behaviour at 14 years. Conclusions The findings warrant further attention to puberty as a sensitive period in an individual's development. With regard to prevention, there is a need to understand more about the pathways between pubertal development, child behaviour problems and substance use. [source]


    Intensity of drug injection as a determinant of sustained injection cessation among chronic drug users: the interface with social factors and service utilization

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2004
    Julie Bruneau
    ABSTRACT Aims The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with sustained injection cessation and to examine further the relationship between the occurrence of sustained injection cessation of injection drug users (IDUs) and prior injection frequency. Design and setting IDUs in the Montreal St Luc Cohort who had at least three consecutive interviews between 1995 and 1999 were included. Sustained injection cessation was defined as a period of at least 7 consecutive months without injection. All IDUs completed interview-administered questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, drug and sexual behaviours and health-related issues. Logistic regression was used for analyses. Findings A total of 186/1004 (18.5%) IDUs reported a period of sustained injection cessation during the study period. In multivariate analysis, HIV-positive status, ,booting' and cumulative time spent in prison were negatively associated with injection cessation, while injection initiation after 35 years of age and frequent crack use were positively associated with injection cessation. We found a negative association between the occurrence of injection cessation and the frequency of injection; the odds ratios (OR) for cessation were 0.49 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.78] for IDUs who injected 30,100 times and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.46) for IDUs who injected more than 100 times in the previous month. Attending needle exchange programmes (NEPs) or pharmacies appeared to be a modifier of the relation between cessation and prior injection frequency. The OR was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.12) for IDUs who injected 30,100 times prior to injection and attended NEPs or pharmacies and was 0.07 (0.01, 0.30) for IDUs who did not use these services. Conclusions Overall, a fifth of IDUs experienced at least one episode of injection cessation of 7 months or more during a period of 4.5 years. Our data suggest that NEPs and pharmacies may have played a role in inducing injection cessation episodes in a subgroup of IDUs. Research is needed to better identify the characteristics of IDUs who could benefit from an injection cessation intervention strategy. This information is important for social and health policy planning. [source]


    Perceptions of Elderly Self-Neglect: A Look at Culture and Cohort

    FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 3 2007
    Sylvia Marie San Filippo
    Abuse and neglect are issues of concern that face the elderly population. This study investigated differences in perception of self-neglect behaviors among four cohort and four cultural groups. Data were collected from students, staff, and faculty at a large state university, attendees at multiple senior centers, and people attending cultural fairs in Southern California. Using this convenience sample of 494 participants, age 18 years or older, researchers identified factors influencing self-neglect perceptions in the culture and cohort models. Significant variables identified in both models are: having a daily caloric intake of fewer than 1,000 calories, avoiding friends and social events, drinking three to four alcoholic drinks at social occasions, and working part-time. It is important for professionals working with self-neglecting elders to understand differences in perception by culture and cohort. Agreement on a definition of self-neglect is a step toward better addressing self-neglect in the elderly community. [source]


    Cohort splitting in bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, in the US mid-Atlantic Bight

    FISHERIES OCEANOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2008
    JODY L. CALLIHAN
    Abstract Atlantic bluefish exhibit cohort splitting, whereby two modes of juvenile recruits originate from spatially distinct spring- and summer-spawning regions in US Atlantic shelf waters. We evaluate the pattern of cohort splitting in a transition area (US Maryland coastal region and Chesapeake Bay) between the two major spawning regions. Spring and summer cohorts were differentially represented in Maryland estuarine (Chesapeake Bay) and coastal waters. The spring cohort was dominant in Chesapeake Bay, but was not well represented in the ocean environment, and the converse true for the summer cohort. We hypothesized that ocean temperatures control the bimodal spawning behavior and extent of cohort splitting. As evidence, we observed an intervening early summer cohort produced in years when shelf temperatures during early summer were suitably warm for spawning. In most years however, two dominant cohorts were evident. We propose that vernal warming dynamics in the mid-Atlantic Bight influence spawning behavior and the resultant bimodal pattern of seasonal juvenile cohort production commonly observed along the US east coast. [source]


    Replication study of candidate genes for cognitive abilities: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 2 2009
    L. M. Houlihan
    As the proportion of older people in societies has increased, research into the determinants of cognitive ageing has risen in importance. Genetic influences account for over 50% of the variance in adult cognitive abilities. Previous studies on cognition and illnesses with cognitive impairments have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes that might influence cognition or age-related cognitive change. This study investigated 10 candidate genes in over 1000 Scots: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936). These participants were tested on general cognitive ability (Scottish Mental Survey 1947) at age 11. At mean age 70, they completed the same general cognitive ability test and a battery of diverse cognitive tests. Nineteen SNPs in 10 genes previously associated with cognition, Alzheimer's disease or autism were genotyped in 1063 individuals. The genes include BDNF, COMT, DISC1, KL, NCSTN, PPP1R1B, PRNP, SHANK3, SORL1 and WRN. Linear regression analysis investigated the additive effect of each SNP on the cognitive variables, covarying for gender and age. Childhood cognitive ability was also included as a covariate to identify associations specifically with cognitive ageing. Certain SNPs reached the conventional significance threshold for association with cognitive traits or cognitive ageing in LBC1936 (P < 0.05). No SNPs reached the Bonferroni-level of significance (all P > 0.0015). Of the 10 genes, we discuss that COMT, KL, PRNP, PPP1R1B, SORL1 and WRN especially merit further attention for association with cognitive ability and/or age-related cognitive change. All results are also presented so that they are valuable for future meta-analyses of candidate genes for cognition. [source]


    Dental status and dental caries in 85-year-old Danes

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Lene Vilstrup
    Objectives:, This study reports findings on the dental status and the prevalence of dental caries among a group of 85-year-old Danes from the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, Denmark. The purpose of the study was to analyse whether caries experience was related to number of teeth and to indicators of functional ability and cognitive function. Methods:, A total of 191 individuals (78 men and 113 women) participated in a cross-sectional population study conducted in 2000. Using mobile dental equipment, a clinical oral examination and an interview were administered to all participants in their homes. Functional ability was measured by the Mob-H scale and cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results:, Fifty-nine per cent of the participants had their own natural teeth and for the dentate participants, the mean number of teeth was 13 (range 1,27). A high prevalence of active caries on coronal and root surfaces was observed. Older adults with few natural teeth had a higher prevalence of active coronal and root caries and a higher unmet treatment need than older adults with many teeth. Further, the study showed that 85-year-old persons with reduced functional ability and cognitive impairment tended to have more active caries than 85-year-olds with no impairment. Conclusions:, A substantial proportion of 85-year-old individuals had retained a natural dentition; however, active dental caries is a problem of concern among the most elderly. [source]


    Effective interventions with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) to decrease hemodialysis (HD) tunneled catheter-related infections

    HEMODIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2005
    N. Redman
    Purpose:,Identify practices to reduce HD catheter access related bacteremias (ARB). Methods:,Data was collected per the CDC Dialysis Surveillance Network protocol. ARB was defined as a patient with a positive blood culture with no apparent source other than the vascular access catheter. ARB's were calculated in events per 100 patient months with 3 cohorts. Cohort 1 was observed for 12 months, Cohort 2 for the subsequent 10 months, and Cohort 3 for the final 10 months. Cohort 1 had weekly transparent dressing changes, cleansing of the skin and 5 minute soaking of the connection lines with 10% povidone-iodine (PI) solution, and HCW use of clean gloves and face shield without a mask. Cohort 2 changes consisted of thrice weekly gauze dressing changes, skin cleansing with ChloraPrep, a 2% CHG/70% isopropyl alcohol applicator, masks on the patients, adding a face mask to the shield, and application of 10% PI ointment to the exit site. Cohort 3 changes included weekly application of BioPatch (BioP), an antimicrobial dressing with CHG, sterile glove use, and replacing the PI line soaks with 4% CHG. Results:,The catheter-associated ARB rate per 100 patient months was 7.9 (17ARB/216 patient months) in Cohort 1, 8.6 (13/151) in Cohort 2, and 4.7 (5/107) in Cohort 3(p = 0.31 compared with Cohorts 1 and 2 combined). During the last 2 months, in Cohort 3, 9 catheter lumen cracks occurred, with one of the patients having a bacteremia. Conclusions:,Addition of CHG line soaks and BioP reduced tunneled catheter infections, although this is not statistically significant. The increased number of catheter lumen cracks raises concern with the use of CHG line soaks. Further investigation with use of CHG line soaks and the BioP for decreasing ARB is needed. [source]


    Political Partisanship, Voting Abstention and Higher Education: Changing Preferences in a British Youth Cohort in the 1990s

    HIGHER EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2002
    Muriel EgertonArticle first published online: 16 DEC 200
    This paper focuses on the relationship between education and political partisanship, using the British Household Panel Study (1991,1999). It is known that partisanship has been falling in Britain since the mid,1950s. However, voting abstention rose only gradually until the June 2001 election where the turnout (at 59 per cent) was the lowest since 1918. Partisanship also fell sharply during the 1990s. Although social class and education are associated with turnout in the USA, no relationship has been reported in the UK, and voting seems to have been perceived as a citizen duty. However, in the light of recent changes in voting patterns and educational participation, this paper investigates the role of education, contextualising education effects in social class and gender effects. The preferences of young people are observed in their late teens, before entering the labour market or higher education, and are compared with those of the same young people in their early 20s, after completing higher education courses or gaining labour market experience. The BHPS yielded a sample of about 500 young people with the required data over the time period. It was hypothesised that dissatisfaction with government performance would take different forms for the more and the less educated, with the more educated shifting preferences to minority parties while the less educated shift preferences to voting abstention. The hypothesis was confirmed for young men. Endorsement of abstention was very high for adolescent women who also seemed to be more influenced by their family's social class. However, by early adulthood a lower proportion of young women endorsed abstention than young men. Strong effects of education were still found with more highly educated young women (as with more highly educated young men) being more likely to have party preferences. [source]


    Lipoatrophy among HIV-infected patients is associated with higher levels of depression than lipohypertrophy

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 9 2008
    HM Crane
    Objectives We sought to determine the association between body morphology abnormalities and depression, examining lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy separately. Methods An observational cross-sectional study of 250 patients from the University of Washington HIV Cohort was carried out. Patients completed an assessment including measures of depression and body morphology. We used linear regression analysis to examine the association between lipoatrophy or lipohypertrophy and depression. Analysis of variance was used to examine the relationship between mean depression scores and lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy in 10 body regions. Results Of 250 patients, 76 had lipoatrophy and 128 had lipohypertrophy. Mean depression scores were highest among patients with moderate-to-severe lipoatrophy (16.4), intermediate among those with moderate-to-severe lipohypertrophy (11.7), mild lipohypertrophy (9.9) and mild lipoatrophy (8.5), and lowest among those without body morphology abnormalities (7.7) (P=0.002). After adjustment, mean depression scores for subjects reporting moderate-to-severe lipoatrophy were 9.2 points higher (P<0.001), scores for subjects with moderate-to-severe lipohypertrophy were 4.8 points higher (P=0.02), and scores for subjects with mild lipohypertrophy were 2.8 points higher (P=0.03) than those for patients without body morphology abnormalities. Facial lipoatrophy was the body region associated with the most severe depression scores (15.5 vs. 8.9 for controls; P=0.03). Conclusions In addition to long-term cardiovascular implications, body morphology has a more immediate effect on depression severity. [source]


    Trends and determinants of severe morbidity in HIV-infected patients: the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000,2004,

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 8 2007
    F Bonnet
    Objective The aim of the study was to characterize the causes, trends and determinants of severe morbidity in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients between 2000 and 2004. Method Severe morbid events were defined as medical events associated with hospitalization or death. Epidemiological and biological data were recorded at the time of the morbid event. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression. Results Among 3863 individuals followed between 2000 and 2004, 1186 experienced one or more severe events, resulting in 1854 hospitalizations or deaths. The severe events recorded included bacterial infections (21%), AIDS events (20%), psychiatric events (10%), cardiovascular events (9%), digestive events including cirrhosis (7%), viral infections (6%) and non-AIDS cancers (5%). Between 2000 and 2004, the incidence rate of AIDS events decreased from 60 to 20 per 1000 person-years, that of bacterial infections decreased from 45 to 24 per 1000 person-years, and that of psychiatric events decreased from 26 to 14 per 1000 person-years (all P<0.01), whereas the incidences of cardiovascular events and of non-AIDS cancers remained stable at 14 and 10 per 1000 person-years, on average, respectively. Conclusion Severe morbidity has shifted from AIDS-related to non-AIDS-related events during the course of HIV infection in developed countries. Limiting endpoints to AIDS events and death is insufficient to describe HIV disease progression in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. [source]


    CD4 cell count and initiation of antiretroviral therapy: trends in seven UK centres, 1997,2003

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 3 2007
    W Stöhr
    Objectives We examined whether the timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in routine clinical practice reflected treatment guidelines, which have evolved towards recommending starting therapy at lower CD4 cell counts. Methods We analysed longitudinal data on 10 820 patients enrolled in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study, which includes seven large clinical centres in south-east England. CD4 cell and viral load measurements performed in the period between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2003 were classified according to whether ART was subsequently initiated or deferred, to estimate the probability of ART initiation by CD4 count and viral load over time. The effect of nonclinical factors (age, sex, ethnicity, and exposure category) was analysed by logistic regression. Kaplan,Meier analysis was used to estimate the proportion of patients who had initiated ART by a particular CD4 count among ,early' presenters (initial CD4 cell count >500 cells/,L). Results There was a tendency to initiate ART at lower CD4 cell counts over time in the years 1997,2000, especially in the range 200,500 cells/,L, with little change thereafter. An estimated 34% of HIV-infected individuals having presented early initiated ART at a CD4 count <200 cells/,L. We also found an independent influence of viral load, which was particularly pronounced for CD4 <350 cells/,L. Use of injection drugs was the only nonclinical factor associated with initiation of ART at lower CD4 cell counts. Conclusions The initiation of ART in the clinics included in this analysis reflected evolving treatment guidelines. However, an unexpectedly high proportion of patients started ART at lower CD4 counts than recommended, which is only partly explained by late presentation. [source]


    Citrus consumption and cancer incidence: the Ohsaki cohort study

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 8 2010
    Wen-Qing Li
    Abstract Basic research and case,control studies have suggested that citrus consumption may protect against cancer. However, the protective effect has been observed from few prospective studies. This study investigated the association of citrus consumption with cancer incidence among 42,470 Japanese adults in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort, which covered an age range of 40,79 years, and was followed up from 1995 to 2003 for all-cancer and individual cancer incidence. Citrus consumption was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. During the 323,204 person-years of follow-up, 3,398 cases were identified totally. Citrus consumption, especially daily consumption, was correlated with reduced all-cancer incidence, the RRs were 0.89 (95% CI = 0.80,0.98) for total participants, 0.86 (0.76,0.98) for males and 0.93 (0.79,1.09) for females, as well as multiple cancers at individual sites, especially pancreatic (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.38,1.00) and prostate cancer (RR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.41,0.97). Joint effect analysis showed a reduced risk of overall cancer existed only for subjects who consumed ,1 cup green tea/day (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.73,0.93) as well as for males (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71,0.97) or females (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68,0.99). These findings suggest that citrus consumption is associated with reduced all-cancer incidence, especially for subjects having simultaneously high green tea consumption. Further work on the specific citrus constituents is warranted, and clinical trials are ultimately necessary to confirm the protective effect. [source]


    Population dynamics of serologically identified coinfections with human papillomavirus types 11, 16, 18 and 31 in fertile-aged Finnish women

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 9 2009
    Marjo Kaasila
    Abstract Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are expected to prevent high-risk (hr) HPV-infections (most notably types 16 and 18). Whether HPV vaccination will change the distribution of hrHPVs at the population level is open, since competition between HPV types is not well understood. Two stratified random subcohorts (1983,1997 and 1995,2003) of 7,815 and 3,252 women with a minimum of 2 pregnancies (<32 years) were selected from the Finnish Maternity Cohort. Using ELISA based on virus-like particles (VLP), we determined antibodies to HPV11, 16, 18 and 31 in paired sera of the women and used Poisson regression models to estimate the risk of further infection with other HPV types in those positive for HPV16 or HPV18 at baseline. Baseline HPV16 seropositivity was associated with increased risk of later infections with HPV18 (3.1, 95% CI: 1.7, 5.6). HPV18 seropositivity was associated with increased risk of HPV16 (3.9, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.1). Our observations favor a coinfection rather than superinfection model for the different HPV types and are not suggestive for type-replacement following HPV vaccination. © 2009 UICC [source]


    Genetic variation in the toll-like receptor gene cluster (TLR10-TLR1-TLR6) and prostate cancer risk

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 11 2008
    Victoria L. Stevens
    Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key players in the innate immune system and initiate the inflammatory response to foreign pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. The proposed role of chronic inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis has prompted investigation into the association of common genetic variation in TLRs with the risk of this cancer. We investigated the role of common SNPs in a gene cluster encoding the TLR10, TLR6 and TLR1 proteins in prostate cancer etiology among 1,414 cancer cases and 1,414 matched controls from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Twenty-eight SNPs, which included the majority of the common nonsynonymous SNPs in the 54-kb gene region and haplotype-tagging SNPs that defined 5 specific haplotype blocks, were genotyped and their association with prostate cancer risk determined. Two SNPs in TLR10 [I369L (rs11096955) and N241H (rs11096957)] and 4 SNPs in TLR1 [N248S (rs4833095), S26L (rs5743596), rs5743595 and rs5743551] were associated with a statistically significant reduced risk of prostate cancer of 29,38% (for the homozygous variant genotype). The association of these SNPs was similar when the analysis was limited to cases with advanced prostate cancer. Haplotype analysis and linkage disequilibrium findings revealed that the 6 associated SNPs were not independent and represent a single association with reduced prostate cancer risk (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.90). Our study suggest that a common haplotype in the TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 gene cluster influences prostate cancer risk and clearly supports the need for further investigation of TLR genes in other populations. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Body mass index and risk of multiple myeloma: A meta-analysis

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 11 2007
    Susanna C. Larsson
    Abstract Excess body weight has been identified as a risk factor for a variety of cancer types. However, whether excess body weight increases the risk of multiple myeloma remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the evidence from epidemiologic studies of the associations of overweight and obesity with the risk of multiple myeloma. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1966 to May 2007) and the reference lists of retrieved articles. Cohort and case,control studies were included if they reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation between body mass index and multiple myeloma incidence or mortality. A random-effects model was used to combine study-specific results. A total of 11 cohort studies (involving 13,120 cases) and 4 case,control studies (1,166 cases and 8,247 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with individuals with normal weight, the risk of multiple myeloma was statistically significantly higher among those who were overweight (cohort studies: RR, 1.12, 95% CI, 1.07,1.18; case,control studies: RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.23,1.68) or obese (cohort studies: RR, 1.27, 95% CI, 1.15,1.41; case, control studies: RR, 1.82, 95% CI, 1.47,2.26). Results from this meta-analysis indicate that excess body weight may be a risk factor for multiple myeloma. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Alcoholic beverage consumption and gastric cancer risk: A prospective population-based study in women

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 2 2007
    Susanna C. Larsson
    Abstract The association between alcohol consumption and risk of gastric cancer remains controversial. Moreover, prospective data on the role of alcoholic beverage type are sparse. We prospectively investigated the association between total alcohol (ethanol) intake as well as specific alcoholic beverages and risk of gastric cancer in the Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population-based cohort of 61,433 women. Alcohol intake and other dietary exposures were assessed at baseline (1987,1990) and again in 1997 using a food-frequency questionnaire. Incident gastric cancer cases were ascertained through the Swedish Cancer Register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 966,807 person-years of follow-up, through June 2005, 160 incident cases of gastric cancer occurred. Total alcohol intake was not significantly associated with risk of gastric cancer. Compared with nondrinkers, the multivariate HR of gastric cancer for women with an alcohol intake of 40 g or more per week was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.79,2.25). Consumption of medium-strong/strong beer was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of gastric cancer; the multivariate HR for women who consumed more than one serving of medium-strong/strong beer per week (median, 2.5 drinks/week) was 2.09 (95% CI, 1.11,3.93; p -trend = 0.02) compared with no consumption. Consumption of light beer, wine, and hard liquor was not significantly associated with gastric cancer risk. Our findings suggest that constituents of beer other than alcohol may be associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Physical activity and lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 10 2006
    Karen Steindorf
    Abstract Research conducted predominantly in male populations on physical activity and lung cancer has yielded inconsistent results. We examined this relationship among 416,277 men and women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Detailed information on recent recreational, household and occupational physical activity, smoking habits and diet was assessed at baseline between 1992 and 2000. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using Cox regression. During 6.3 years of follow-up we identified 607 men and 476 women with incident lung cancer. We did not observe an inverse association between recent occupational, recreational or household physical activity and lung cancer risk in either males or females. However, we found some reduction in lung cancer risk associated with sports in males (adjusted RR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.50,0.98; highest tertile vs. inactive group), cycling (RR = 0.73; 0.54,0.99) in females and non-occupational vigorous physical activity. For occupational physical activity, lung cancer risk was increased for unemployed men (adjusted RR = 1.57; 1.20,2.05) and men with standing occupations (RR = 1.35; 1.02,1.79) compared with sitting professions. There was no evidence of heterogeneity of physical activity associations across countries, or across any of the considered cofactors. For some histologic subtypes suggestive sex-specific reductions, limited by subgroup sizes, were observed, especially with vigorous physical activity. In total, our study shows no consistent protective associations of physical activity with lung cancer risk. It can be assumed that the elevated risks found for occupational physical activity are not produced mechanistically by physical activity itself but rather reflect exposure to occupation-related lung cancer risk factors. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Coffee consumption and the risk of primary liver cancer: Pooled analysis of two prospective studies in Japan

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 1 2005
    Taichi Shimazu
    Abstract Although case-control studies suggested that coffee consumption is associated with a decreased risk of liver cancer, no prospective cohort study has been carried out. To examine the association between coffee consumption and the risk of liver cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of data available from 2 cohort studies in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire about the frequency of coffee consumption and other health habits was distributed to 22,404 subjects (10,588 men and 11,816 women) in Cohort 1 and 38,703 subjects (18,869 men and 19,834 women) in Cohort 2, aged 40 years or more, with no previous history of cancer. We identified 70 and 47 cases of liver cancer among the subjects in Cohort 1 (9 years of follow-up with 170,640 person-years) and Cohort 2 (7 years of follow-up with 284,948 person-years), respectively. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of liver cancer incidence. After adjustment for potential confounders, the pooled RR (95% CI) of drinking coffee never, occasionally and 1 or more cups/day were 1.00 (Reference), 0.71 (0.46,1.09) and 0.58 (0.36,0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.024). In the subgroup of subjects with a history of liver disease, we found a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of liver cancer. Our findings support the hypothesis that coffee consumption decreases the risk of liver cancer. Further studies to investigate the role of coffee in prevention of liver cancer among the high-risk population are needed. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    A longitudinal study of the development of dieting among 7,17-year-old Swedish girls

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 1 2002
    Klara Halvarsson
    Abstract Objective To examine the extent to which the prevalence of self-reported dieting and the wish to be thinner changed in 7,15-year-old girls over a 3-year period, and to explore potential differences between cohorts recruited in 1995 and 1999. In addition, changes in eating attitudes (Children's Eating Attitudes Test [ChEAT]) were compared between 1995 and 1999. Method A three-wave longitudinal study including girls (n = 1,076,1,279) in five age groups (7, 9, 11, 13, 15, the Main Cohort) and an age-matched cross-sectional sample consisting of 1,759 girls (the Societal Cohort). Results A marked increase of the wish to be thinner was evident in the 10,14-year-old age range and significant increases in dieting attempts occurred mainly among 9,13-year-old girls. ChEAT scores were significantly higher among 11-year-olds in 1999 than in 1995. However, more 7-year-olds scored above the ChEAT cutoff (,15) in 1995 compared with 1999. Discussion There was an increasing trend in the wish to be thinner and in dieting attempts among 9,14-year-olds. Attitudes and behaviors associated with disturbed eating had increased between 1995 and 1999 only among the 11-year- olds. © 2002 John Wiley& Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 31: 32,42, 2002. [source]


    Validation of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) in Hebrew

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 5 2003
    Michal Schnaider Beeri
    Abstract Introduction The validity of the Hebrew version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-Modified (TICS-m) for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), for dementia, and for cognitive impairment (either MCI or dementia) was investigated. Methods Of the 10,059 who took part of the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease Cohort, 1902 of the 2901 survivors in 1999 had TICS-m interviews. Those with a score of 27 or below and a random sample with a score of 28 or 29 were invited to have a physician's examination for the diagnosis of dementia. The analysis was performed on the 576 who agreed. Results Based on physician's diagnosis, 269 were diagnosed as suffering from dementia, 128 as suffering from MCI, and 179 were diagnosed with no cognitive impairment. The TICS-m Hebrew version's internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha,=,0.98) and showed a strong convergent validity with the MMSE (r,=,0.82; p,<,0.0005). The sensitivity was 100% for each of the conditions. Finally, after controlling for age, education and hearing impairment, TICS-m was a strong predictor of dementia, MCI and cognitive impairment. Conclusion At a cut-off of 27/50 the Hebrew version of the TICS-m is a useful screening instrument to identify subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment, dementia and cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia). Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Agreement between self-reported and pharmacy data on medication use in the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODS IN PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2010
    Marianne Haapea
    Abstract Objective: To compare self-reported (SR) medication use and pharmacy data for major psychoactive medications and three classes of medications used for different indications, and to determine the socio-economic factors associated with the congruence. Methods: Postal questionnaire data collected in 1997 were compared with the register of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland on the reimbursed prescriptions purchased during 1997. Altogether 7625 subjects were included in this study. Drugs were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) system. Results: Kappa values were 0.77, 0.68, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.55 for antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiepileptics, antidiabetics and beta-blocking agents, respectively. Prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa values were almost perfect (0.98,1.00). Reliability of antipsychotics use was better for married subjects than for those who were not married; and of antidepressants use for highly educated and married subjects than for those who were less educated and were not married. Altogether 414 (5.4%) responders and 285 (7.1%) non-responders had used at least one of the selected medications. Conclusion: Agreement between the SR and pharmacy data was moderate for psychoactive medication use. Even though data collected by postal questionnaire may underestimate the prevalence of medication use due to non-participation it can be assumed accurate enough for study purposes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]