Cochrane Collaboration (cochrane + collaboration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Medication errors in older people with mental health problems: a review

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 6 2008
Ian D Maidment
Abstract Objective To review and summarise published data on medication errors in older people with mental health problems. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify studies that investigated medication errors in older people with mental health problems. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PHARMLINE, COCHRANE COLLABORATION and PsycINFO were searched electronically. Any studies identified were scrutinized for further references. The title, abstract or full text was systematically reviewed for relevance. Results Data were extracted from eight studies. In total, information about 728 errors (459 administration, 248 prescribing, 7 dispensing, 12 transcribing, 2 unclassified) was available. The dataset related almost exclusively to inpatients, frequently involved non-psychotropics, and the majority of the errors were not serious. Conclusions Due to methodology issues it was impossible to calculate overall error rates. Future research should concentrate on serious errors within community settings, and clarify potential risk factors. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A systematic review of the diagnostic classifications of traumatic dental injuries

DENTAL TRAUMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
Karla Maria Pugliesi da Costa Feliciano
Abstract,,, A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate the criteria used for the diagnostic classification of traumatic dental injuries from an epidemiological standpoint. The methodology used was that suggested by the Cochrane Collaboration and the National Health Service. A total of 12 electronic bibliographical databases (BBO, BioMed Central, Blackwell Synergy, Cochrane, DARE, EMBASE, HighWire, LILACS, MEDLINE, PubMed Central, SciELO, SciSearch) and the World Wide Web were searched. There was no attempt to specify the strategy in relation to date, study design, or language. The last search was performed in May 2003. Two reviewers screened each record independently for eligibility by examining titles, abstracts, keywords and using a standardized reference form. Disagreements were resolved through consensus. The final study collection consisted of 164 articles, from 1936 to 2003, and the population sample ranged from 38 to 210 500 patients. 54 distinct classification systems were identified. According to the literature, the most frequently used classification system was that of Andreasen (32%); as regards the type of injury, the uncomplicated crown fracture was the most mentioned lesion (88.5%). Evidence supports the fact that there is no suitable system for establishing the diagnosis of the studied injuries that could be applied to epidemiological surveys. [source]


A review of studies describing the use of acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors in Parkinson's disease dementia

ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2005
I. D. Maidment
Objective:, To review the literature relating to the use of acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Method:, MEDLINE (1966 , December 2004), PsychINFO (1972 , December 2004), EMBASE (1980 , December 2004), CINHAL (1982 , December 2004), and the Cochrane Collaboration were searched in December 2004. Results:, Three controlled trials and seven open studies were identified. Efficacy was assessed in three key domains: cognitive, neuropsychiatric and parkinsonian symptoms. Conclusion:, Cholinesterase inhibitors have a moderate effect against cognitive symptoms. There is no clear evidence of a noticeable clinical effect against neuropsychiatric symptoms. Tolerability including exacerbation of motor symptoms , in particular tremor , may limit the utility of cholinesterase inhibitors. [source]


Culturally appropriate health education for Type 2 diabetes in ethnic minority groups: a systematic and narrative review of randomized controlled trials

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2010
K. Hawthorne
Diabet. Med. 27, 613,623 (2010) Abstract To determine if culturally appropriate health education is more effective than ,usual' health education for people with diabetes from ethnic minority groups living in high- and upper-middle-income countries. A systematic review with meta-analysis, following the methodology of the Cochrane Collaboration. Electronic literature searches of nine databases were made, with hand searching of three journals and 16 author contacts. The criteria for inclusion into the analysis were randomized controlled trials of a specified diabetes health education intervention, and a named ethnic minority group with Type 2 diabetes. Data were collected on HbA1c, blood pressure, and quality-of-life measures. A narrative review was also performed. Few studies fitted the selection criteria, and were heterogeneous in methodologies and outcome measures, making meta-analysis difficult. HbA1c showed an improvement at 3 months [weighted mean difference (WMD) ,0.32%, 95% confidence interval (CI) ,0.63, ,0.01] and 6 months post intervention (WMD ,0.60%, 95% CI ,0.85, ,0.35). Knowledge scores also improved in the intervention groups at 6 months (standardized mean difference 0.46, 95% CI 0.27, 0.65). There was only one longer-term follow-up study, and one formal cost-effectiveness analysis. Culturally appropriate health education was more effective than ,usual' health education in improving HbA1c and knowledge in the short to medium term. Due to poor standardization between studies, the data did not allow determination of the key elements of interventions across countries, ethnic groups and health systems, or a broad view of their cost-effectiveness. The narrative review identifies learning points to direct future research. [source]


Changing role of in vivo models in columnar-lined lower esophagus

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 4 2002
Y. Koak
SUMMARY. Columnar-lined lower esophagus (CLE) or Barrett's esophagus (BE) is caused by chronic reflux of the gastrointestinal tract and can progress to invasive adenocarcinoma. However, the pathophysiology, cell of origin, and management of this condition is incompletely understood. This review evaluates the role of in vivo models in resolving these debates. A search was performed on the Ovid and Pub Medline for 1964,2001 and Cochrane Collaboration. The keywords used were adenocarcinoma, animal model, Barrett's esophagus, columnar-lined esophagus, eosophageal neoplasms, and esophageal carcinogenesis. All relevant papers were scrutinized and an attempt at tabulation was made. In vivo models have been used at several stages of debate on the pathophysiology of BE. They provide conclusive evidence for its acquired nature secondary to duodenogastroesophageal reflux. The cell of origin of experimental BE may arise from adjacent columnar epithelium, basal layer multipotent cells, or esophageal glands. Experimental work on BE is lacking in assessing therapeutic modalities. [source]


Does opioid substitution treatment in prisons reduce injecting-related HIV risk behaviours?

ADDICTION, Issue 2 2010
A systematic review
ABSTRACT Objectives To review systematically the evidence on opioid substitution treatment (OST) in prisons in reducing injecting-related human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviours. Methods Systematic review in accordance with guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies of prison-based opioid substitution treatment programmes that included assessment of effects of prison OST on injecting drug use, sharing of needles and syringes and HIV incidence. Published data were used to calculate risk ratios for outcomes of interest. Risk ratios were not pooled due to the low number of studies and differences in study designs. Results Five studies were included in the review. Poor follow-up rates were reported in two studies, and representativeness of the sample was uncertain in the remaining three studies. Compared to inmates in control conditions, for treated inmates the risk of injecting drug use was reduced by 55,75% and risk of needle and syringe sharing was reduced by 47,73%. No study reported a direct effect of prison OST on HIV incidence. Conclusions There may be a role for OST in preventing HIV transmission in prisons, but methodologically rigorous research addressing this question specifically is required. OST should be implemented in prisons as part of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes that also provide condoms and sterile injecting and tattooing equipment. [source]


Effectiveness of interventions that assist caregivers to support people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EVIDENCE BASED HEALTHCARE, Issue 2 2008
Deborah Parker BA, MSocSci
Executive summary Objectives, The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of interventions that assist caregivers to provide support for people living with dementia in the community. Inclusion criteria, Types of participants, Adult caregivers who provide support for people with dementia living in the community (non-institutional care). Types of interventions, Interventions designed to support caregivers in their role such as skills training, education to assist in caring for a person living with dementia and support groups/programs. Interventions of formal approaches to care designed to support caregivers in their role, care planning, case management and specially designated members of the healthcare team , for example dementia nurse specialist or volunteers trained in caring for someone with dementia. Types of studies, This review considered any meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomised control trials, quasi-experimental studies, cohort studies, case control studies and observational studies without control groups that addressed the effectiveness of interventions that assist caregivers to provide support for people living with dementia in the community. Search strategy, The search sought to identify published studies from 2000 to 2005 through the use of electronic databases. Only studies in English were considered for inclusion. The initial search was conducted of the databases, CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsychINFO using search strategies adapted from the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group. A second more extensive search was then conducted using the appropriate Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords for other available databases. Finally, hand searching of reference lists of articles retrieved and of core dementia, geriatric and psycho geriatric journals was undertaken. Assessment of quality, Methodological quality of each of the articles was assessed by two independent reviewers using appraisal checklist developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute and based on the work of the Cochrane Collaboration and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Data collection and analysis, Standardised mean differences or weighted mean differences and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each included study reported in the meta-analysis. Results from comparable groups of studies were pooled in statistical meta-analysis using Review Manager Software from the Cochrane Collaboration. Heterogeneity between combined studies was tested using standard chi-square test. Where statistical pooling was not appropriate or possible, the findings are summarised in narrative form. Results, A comprehensive search of relevant databases, hand searching and cross referencing found 685 articles that were assessed for relevance to the review. Eighty-five papers appeared to meet the inclusion criteria based on title and abstract, and the full paper was retrieved. Of the 85 full papers reviewed, 40 were accepted for inclusion, three were systematic reviews, three were meta-analysis, and the remaining 34 were randomised controlled trials. For the randomised controlled trials that were able to be included in a meta-analysis, standardised mean differences or weighted mean differences and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each. Results from comparable groups of studies were pooled in statistical meta-analysis using Review Manager Software and heterogeneity between combined studies was assessed by using the chi-square test. Where statistical pooling was not appropriate or possible, the findings are summarised in narrative form. The results are discussed in two main sections. Firstly it was possible to assess the effectiveness of different types of caregiver interventions on the outcome categories of depression, health, subjective well-being, self-efficacy and burden. Secondly, results are reported by main outcome category. For each of these sections, meta-analysis was conducted where it was possible; otherwise, a narrative summary describes the findings. Effectiveness of intervention type, Four categories of intervention were included in the review , psycho-educational, support, multi-component and other. Psycho-educational Thirteen studies used psycho-educational interventions, and all but one showed positive results across a range of outcomes. Eight studies were entered in a meta-analysis. No significant impact of psycho-educational interventions was found for the outcome categories of subjective well-being, self-efficacy or health. However, small but significant results were found for the categories of depression and burden. Support Seven studies discussed support only interventions and two of these showed significant results. These two studies were suitable for meta-analysis and demonstrated a small but significant improvement on caregiver burden. Multi-component Twelve of the studies report multi-component interventions and 10 of these report significant outcomes across a broad range of outcome measures including self-efficacy, depression, subjective well-being and burden. Unfortunately because of the heterogeneity of study designs and outcome measures, no meta-analysis was possible. Other interventions Other interventions included the use of exercise or nutrition which resulted in improvements in psychological distress and health benefits. Case management and a computer aided support intervention provided mixed results. One cognitive behavioural therapy study reported a reduction in anxiety and positive impacts on patient behaviour. Effectiveness of interventions using specific outcome categories, In addition to analysis by type of intervention it was possible to analyse results based on some outcome categories that were used across the studies. In particular the impact of interventions on caregiver depression was available for meta-analysis from eight studies. This indicated that multi-component and psycho-educational interventions showed a small but significant positive effect on caregiver depression. Five studies using the outcome category of caregiver burden were entered into a meta-analysis and findings indicated that there were no significant effects of any of interventions. No meta-analysis was possible for the outcome categories of health, self-efficacy or subjective well-being. Implications for practice, From this review there is evidence to support the use of well-designed psycho-educational or multi-component interventions for caregivers of people with dementia who live in the community. Factors that appear to positively contribute to effective interventions are those which: ,,Provide opportunities within the intervention for the person with dementia as well as the caregiver to be involved ,,Encourage active participation in educational interventions for caregivers ,,Offer individualised programs rather than group sessions ,,Provide information on an ongoing basis, with specific information about services and coaching regarding their new role ,,Target the care recipient particularly by reduction in behaviours Factors which do not appear to have benefit in interventions are those which: ,,Simply refer caregivers to support groups ,,Only provide self help materials ,,Only offer peer support [source]


Randomization in psychiatric intervention research in the general practice setting

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODS IN PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, Issue 3 2000
CM Van Der Feltz-Cornelis Faculty of Medicine
Abstract Most studies of psychiatric interventions in general practice settings conform only in part to the requirements of randomization, placebo control and blinding as formulated by the Cochrane Collaboration. It is possible, nonetheless, to develop experimental research designs that are sufficiently near to this standard. These must deal with certain methodological issues specific to psychiatric research. This article discusses scientific standards of psychiatric research with special consideration of interventions in general practice settings. These issues are accompanied by concrete examples and suggestions on how to confront the problems. In psychiatric intervention research, equivalence studies with single-blind outcome assessment, a tested and ethically justified method, are generally used in place of placebo-controlled studies. The article also examines randomization procedures in greater depth. Randomization can be applied across trial subjects or across doctors' practices. Practical consequences of randomizing across subjects, and specific implementations of it such as crossover and pre-post designs in general practice settings, are clarified. Overall, a research design using randomization across doctors' practices is judged preferable to one that randomizes across trial subjects. One potential problem is that the control group may become too small, especially when considerable effects are expected from the intervention being studied. One might consider making the control condition smaller in the first place, or, if indicated on ethical grounds, performing an intermediate analysis and then breaking off the study as soon as a statistically significant effect has been demonstrated. Multilevel statistical techniques offer new opportunities for analysis within such designs. Copyright 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


Silver dressings: their role in wound management

INTERNATIONAL WOUND JOURNAL, Issue 4 2006
David J Leaper
Abstract Dressings have a part to play in the management of wounds; whether they are sutured or open, usually chronic wounds of many aetiologies which are healing by secondary intention. They traditionally provide a moist wound environment, but this property has been extended through simple to complex, active dressings which can handle excessive exudate, aid in debridement, and promote disorganised, stalled healing. The control of infection remains a major challenge. Inappropriate antibiotic use risks allergy, toxicity and most importantly resistance, which is much reduced by the use of topical antiseptics (such as povidone iodine and chlorhexidine). The definition of what is an antimicrobial and the recognition of infection has proven difficult. Although silver has been recognised for centuries to inhibit infection its use in wound care is relatively recent. Evidence of the efficacy of the growing number of silver dressings in clinical trials, judged by the criteria of the Cochrane Collaboration, is lacking, but there are good indications for the use of silver dressings, to remove or reduce an increasing bioburden in burns and open wounds healing by secondary intention, or to act as a barrier against cross contamination of resistant organisms such as MRSA. More laboratory, and clinical data in particular, are needed to prove the value of the many silver dressings which are now available. Some confusion persists over the measurement of toxicity and antibacterial activity but all dressings provide an antibacterial action, involving several methods of delivery. Nanocrystalline technology appears to give the highest, sustained release of silver to a wound without clear risk of toxicity. [source]


Postnatal corticosteroids in preterm infants: Systematic review of effects on mortality and motor function

JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 2 2000
LW Doyle
Background: Postnatal corticosteroid therapy has been proved in randomized controlled trials to reduce ventilator dependence and the rate of chronic lung disease in preterm infants with few serious short-term side effects. However, there are other consequences that might follow postnatal corticosteroid therapy that are more important, including mortality or cerebral palsy. Objectives: To review the evidence from reported randomized controlled trials on the effects of postnatal corticosteroid on long-term mortality and motor dysfunction, including cerebral palsy. Methods: The methods involved a meta-analysis of reported randomized controlled trials, following guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration, including calculation of event rate differences (ERD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The mortality rate difference was non-significant both statistically and clinically (ERD , 0.1% favouring corticosteroids, 95% CI ,2.9% to 2.8%). There were no subgroups in which a beneficial effect of postnatal corticosteroids on survival could be demonstrated. The rate of motor dysfunction in survivors was significantly higher in survivors from the postnatal corticosteroid group (ERD 11.9% favouring controls, 95% CI 4.6% to 19.2%). The rate of survival, free of motor dysfunction, was significantly lower in the postnatal corticosteroid group (ERD 7.8% favouring controls, 95% CI 0.5% to 15.1%). Conclusions: Although postnatal corticosteroids have short-term benefits, they do not increase the survival rate, and they may cause motor dysfunction in survivors. A large-scale, placebo-controlled randomized trial, with survival free of sensorineural impairments and disabilities as the major endpoint, is urgently needed. [source]


Systematic review and meta-analysis: enhanced efficacy of proton-pump inhibitor therapy for peptic ulcer bleeding in Asia , a post hoc analysis from the Cochrane Collaboration

ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 9 2005
G. I. Leontiadis
Summary Background :,Proton-pump inhibitors reduce re-bleeding rates after ulcer bleeding. However, there is significant heterogeneity among different randomized-controlled trials. Aim :,To see whether proton-pump inhibitors for ulcer bleeding produced different clinical outcomes in different geographical locations. Methods :,This was a post hoc analysis of our Cochrane Collaboration systematic review and meta-analysis of proton-pump inhibitor therapy for ulcer bleeding. Sixteen randomized-controlled trials conducted in Europe and North America were pooled and re-analysed separately from seven conducted in Asia. We calculated pooled rates for 30-day all-cause mortality, re-bleeding and surgical intervention and derived odds ratios and numbers needed to treat with 95% confidence intervals. Results :,There was no significant heterogeneity for any outcome. Reduced all-cause mortality was seen in the Asian randomized-controlled trials (odds ratios = 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.16,0.74; number needed to treat = 33), but not in the others (odds ratios =,1.36; 95% confidence interval: 0.94,1.96; number needed to treat , incalculable). There were significant reductions in re-bleeding and surgery in both sets of randomized-controlled trials, but the effects were quantitatively greater in Asia. Conclusions :,Proton-pump inhibitor therapy for ulcer bleeding has been more efficacious in Asia than elsewhere. This may be because of an enhanced pharmacodynamic effect of proton-pump inhibitors in Asian patients. [source]


Use of devices to prevent subluxation of the shoulder after stroke

PHYSIOTHERAPY RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2005
Anchalee Foongchomcheay
Abstract Background and Purpose. Supportive devices, such as slings, wheelchair or chair attachments and orthoses, have been used for many years by physiotherapists to support the affected shoulder after stroke. The purpose of the present paper was to examine the alignment between current practice with evidence for the use of supportive devices in the prevention of subluxation of the shoulder after stroke and to provide guidance for clinical practice and future research. Method. In order to determine the evidence regarding the most appropriate supportive devices to prevent subluxation after stroke, a systematic review was undertaken following the guidelines set out by the Cochrane Collaboration. In order to determine current practice with regard to the most commonly used supportive devices to prevent subluxation after stroke, a questionnaire was designed and administered for use in Australia. Results. The collar-and-cuff sling is the most commonly used sling. However, a small amount of lower-level evidence shows that the collar-and-cuff sling only reduces subluxation by half, suggesting that it may not be the most effective to use for prevention. In contrast, this evidence supports the use of wheelchair or chair attachments. Conclusions. We found that there was a lack of high-level evidence to guide clinical practice. In order to determine evidence-based practice for the prevention of shoulder subluxation, there is a need to test the efficacy of the most promising supportive devices based on available evidence. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Interventions to improve recall of medical information in cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature

PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 9 2008
Nienke van der Meulen
Abstract This systematic review investigates which interventions are effective to improve recall of medical information in cancer patients. A literature research was done in PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, following the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. The methodological quality of selected studies was assessed independently by two reviewers. The results were synthesized with a Best Evidence Synthesis. Of initially 5173 found publications, 10 met all selection criteria. The results indicate that an audiotape of the patients' own consultation has added value upon oral information only. However, providing patients with a general audiotape does not improve recall of information and might even inhibit patients' recall. Furthermore, there is scientific evidence, although limited, that the use of a question prompt sheet (QPS) has a positive effect on recall of information, provided that the physician actively endorses this sheet. No evidence was found for an effect of providing patients with a summary letter of the consultation on recall, although research on this subject is scarce. In conclusion, the review suggests that interventions that are tailored to the individual cancer patient, such as an audiotape of the consultation or a QPS, are most effective. Further research needs to be done to establish robust results. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Protein and energy supplementation in older people at risk from malnutrition (2009)

AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL ON AGEING, Issue 3 2010
Article first published online: 2 SEP 2010
These highlights are produced with permission from the Cochrane Collaboration. To read the full findings and any updates, please visit: http://www.thecochranelibrary.com [source]


Progressive resistance strength training for improving physical function in older adults (2009)

AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL ON AGEING, Issue 2 2010
Article first published online: 8 JUN 2010
These highlights are produced with permission from the Cochrane Collaboration. To read the full findings and any updates, please visit: http://www.thecochranelibrary.com [source]


Interventions for improving older patients' involvement in primary care episodes

AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL ON AGEING, Issue 1 2010
Article first published online: 25 MAR 2010
These highlights are produced with permission from the Cochrane Collaboration. To read the full findings and any updates, please visit: http://www.thecochranelibrary.com [source]


Gynaecologists blaze the trail in primary studies and systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy

AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Neil Philip JOHNSON
As the Cochrane Collaboration is poised to begin publishing systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies in addition to its traditional systematic reviews of treatment effectiveness, we are likely to see a major expansion in the number of primary studies and systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy in the medical literature. Obstetricians and gynaecologists have played an important role in initiating this newer area of research. However, the methodology for such studies is challenging and the published literature is riddled with pitfalls. This editorial seeks to simplify the concepts involved in diagnostic test accuracy studies and systematic reviews, to reflect on the early development of this research in our specialty and to envision the future pathway for screening and diagnostic research. [source]


Antenatal Perineal Massage for Reducing Perineal Trauma

BIRTH, Issue 2 2006
M.M. Beckmann
Background:, Perineal trauma following vaginal birth can be associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity. Antenatal perineal massage has been proposed as one method of decreasing the incidence of perineal trauma. Objectives:, To assess the effect of antenatal perineal massage on the incidence of perineal trauma at birth and subsequent morbidity. Search strategy:, We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (30 January 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2005), PubMed (1966 to January 2005), EMBASE (1980 to January 2005) and reference lists of relevant articles. Selection criteria:, Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating any described method of antenatal perineal massage undertaken for at least the last four weeks of pregnancy. Data collection and analysis:, Both review authors independently applied the selection criteria, extracted data from the included studies and assessed study quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Main results:, Three trials (2434 women) comparing digital perineal massage with control were included. All were of good quality. Antenatal perineal massage was associated with an overall reduction in the incidence of trauma requiring suturing (three trials, 2417 women, relative risk (RR) 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 0.96), number needed to treat (NNT) 16 (10 to 39)). This reduction was statistically significant for women without previous vaginal birth only (three trials, 1925 women, RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.96), NNT 14 (9 to 35)). Women who practised perineal massage were less likely to have an episiotomy (three trials, 2417 women, RR 0.85 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.97), NNT 23 (13 to 111)). Again this reduction was statistically significant for women without previous vaginal birth only (three trials, 1925 women, RR 0.85 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.97), NNT 20 (11 to 110)). No differences were seen in the incidence of 1st or 2nd degree perineal tears or 3rd/4th degree perineal trauma. Only women who have previously birthed vaginally reported a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of pain at three months postpartum (one trial, 376 women, RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.91) NNT 13 (7 to 60)). No significant differences were observed in the incidence of instrumental deliveries, sexual satisfaction, or incontinence of urine, faeces or flatus for any women who practised perineal massage compared with those who did not massage. Authors' conclusions:, Antenatal perineal massage reduces the likelihood of perineal trauma (mainly episiotomies) and the reporting of ongoing perineal pain and is generally well accepted by women. As such, women should be made aware of the likely benefit of perineal massage and provided with information on how to massage. *** The preceding report is an Abstract of a regularly updated, systematic review prepared and maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration. The full text of the review is available in The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1464,780X). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006 Issue 1. Copyright 2006 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Epidural versus Non-Epidural or No Analgesia in Labour

BIRTH, Issue 1 2006
Article first published online: 28 JUN 200
A substantive amendment to this systematic review was last made on 16 August 2005. Cochrane reviews are regularly checked and updated if necessary. Abstract Background:, Epidural analgesia is a central nerve block technique achieved by injection of a local anaesthetic close to the nerves that transmit pain and is widely used as a form of pain relief in labour. However, there are concerns regarding unintended adverse effects on the mother and infant. Objectives:, To assess the effects of all modalities of epidural analgesia (including combined-spinal-epidural) on the mother and the baby, when compared with non-epidural or no pain relief during labour. Search strategy:, We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (June 2005). Selection criteria:, Randomised controlled trials comparing all modalities of epidural with any form of pain relief not involving regional blockade, or no pain relief in labour. Data collection and analysis Two of the review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility, methodological quality and extracted all data. Data were entered into RevMan and double checked. Primary analysis was by intention-to-treat; sensitivity analyses excluded trials with >30% of women receiving un-allocated treatment. Main results:, Twenty-one studies involving 6664 women were included, all but one study compared epidural analgesia with opiates. For technical reasons, data on women's perception of pain relief in labour could only be included from one study, which found epidural analgesia to offer better pain relief than non-epidural analgesia (weighted mean difference (WMD),2.60, 95% confidence interval (CI),3.82 to ,1.38, 1 trial, 105 women). However, epidural analgesia was associated with an increased risk of instrumental vaginal birth (relative risk (RR) 1.38, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.53, 17 trials, 6162 women). There was no evidence of a significant difference in the risk of caesarean delivery (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.23, 20 trials, 6534 women), long-term backache (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.12, 2 trials, 814 women), low neonatal Apgar scores at 5 minutes (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.10, 14 trials, 5363 women), and maternal satisfaction with pain relief (RR 1.18 95% CI 0.92 to 1.50, 5 trials, 1940 women). No studies reported on rare but potentially serious adverse effects of epidural analgesia. Authors' conclusions:, Epidural analgesia appears to be effective in reducing pain during labour. However, women who use this form of pain relief are at increased risk of having an instrumental delivery. Epidural analgesia had no statistically significant impact on the risk of caesarean section, maternal satisfaction with pain relief and long-term backache and did not appear to have an immediate effect on neonatal status as determined by Apgar scores. Further research may be helpful to evaluate rare but potentially severe adverse effects of epidural analgesia on women in labour and long-term neonatal outcomes. Citation:, Anim-Somuah M, Smyth R, Howell C. Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD000331.pub2. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000331.pub2. *** The preceding report is an abstract of a regularly updated, systematic review prepared and maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration. The full text of the review is available in The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1465,1858). Abstracts of Cochrane reviews are compiled and produced by Update Software Ltd on behalf of the publisher, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [source]


Continuous Support for Women During Childbirth

BIRTH, Issue 1 2005
E.D. Hodnett
ABSTRACT Background:, Historically, women have been attended and supported by other women during labour. However, in recent decades in hospitals worldwide, continuous support during labour has become the exception rather than the routine. Concerns about the consequent dehumanization of women's birth experiences have led to calls for a return to continuous support by women for women during labour. Objectives:, Primary: to assess the effects, on mothers and their babies, of continuous, one-to-one intrapartum support compared with usual care. Secondary: to determine whether the effects of continuous support are influenced by: (1) routine practices and policies in the birth environment that may affect a woman's autonomy, freedom of movement, and ability to cope with labour; (2) whether the caregiver is a member of the staff of the institution; and (3) whether the continuous support begins early or later in labour. Search strategy:, We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (30 January 2003) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2003). Selection criteria:, All published and unpublished randomized controlled trials comparing continuous support during labour with usual care. Data collection and analysis:, Standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration Pregnancy and Childbirth Group were used. All authors participated in evaluation of methodological quality. Data extraction was undertaken independently by one author and a research assistant. Additional information was sought from the trial authors. Results are presented using relative risk for categorical data and weighted mean difference for continuous data. Main results:, Fifteen trials involving 12,791 women are included. Primary comparison: Women who had continuous intrapartum support were less likely to have intrapartum analgesia, operative birth, or to report dissatisfaction with their childbirth experiences. Subgroup analyses: In general, continuous intrapartum support was associated with greater benefits when the provider was not a member of the hospital staff, when it began early in labour, and in settings in which epidural analgesia was not routinely available. Reviewers' conclusions:, All women should have support throughout labour and birth. Citation:, Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr G J, Sakala C. Continuous support for women during childbirth (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ,,,The preceding report is an abstract of a regularly updated, systematic review prepared and maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration. The full text of the review is available in The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1464-780X). The Cochrane Library is designed and produced by Update Software Ltd, and published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Amniotomy for Shortening Spontaneous Labour

BIRTH, Issue 2 2001
W.D. Fraser
A substantive amendment to this systematic review was last made on 25 June 1999. Cochrane reviews are regularly checked and updated if necessary. ABSTRACT Background: Early amniotomy has been advocated as a component of the active management of labour. Several randomised trials comparing routine amniotomy to an attempt to conserve the membranes have been published. Their limited sample sizes limit their ability to address the effects of amniotomy on indicators of maternal and neonatal morbidity. Objectives: To study the effects of amniotomy on the rate of Cesarean delivery and on other indicators of maternal and neonatal morbidity (Apgar less than 7 at 5 minutes, admission to NICU). Search strategy: The register of clinical trials maintained and updated by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group. Selection criteria: All acceptably controlled trials of amniotomy during first stage of labour were eligible. Data collection and analysis: Data were extracted by two trained reviewers from published reports. Trials were assigned methodological quality scores based on a standardised rating system. Typical odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using Peto's method. Main results: Amniotomy was associated with a reduction in labour duration of between 60 and 120 minutes. There was a marked trend toward an increase in the risk of Cesarean delivery: OR = 1.26; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.96,1.66. The likelihood of a 5-minute Apgar score less than 7 was reduced in association with early amniotomy (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.30,0.96). Groups were similar with respect to other indicators of neonatal status (arterial cord pH, NICU admissions). There was a statistically significant association of amniotomy with a decrease in the use of oxytocin: OR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.67,0.92. Reviewers' conclusions: Routine early amniotomy is associated with both benefits and risks. Benefits include a reduction in labour duration and a possible reduction in abnormal 5-minute Apgar scores. The meta-analysis provides no support for the hypothesis that routine early amniotomy reduces the risk of Cesarean delivery. Indeed there is a trend toward an increase in Cesarean section. An association between early amniotomy and Cesarean delivery for fetal distress is noted in one large trial. This suggests that amniotomy should be reserved for women with abnormal labour progress. Citation: Fraser WD, Turcot L, Krauss I, Brisson-Carrol G. Amniotomy for shortening spontaneous labour (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, 1, 2001. Oxford: Update Software. MeSH: Amnion/*surgery; Cesarean Section; Female; Human; *Labor; Labor Complications/*prevention & control; Pregnancy The preceding reports are abstracts of regularly updated, systematic reviews prepared and maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration. The full text of the reviews are available in The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1464-780X). The Cochrane Library is prepared and published by Update Software Ltd. All rights reserved. See www.update-software.com or contact Update Software, info@update.co.uk, for information on subscribing to The Cochrane Library in your area. Update Software Ltd, Summertown Pavilion, Middle Way, Oxford OX2 7LG, United Kingdom. (Tel: +44 1865 513902; Fax: +44 1865 516918). [source]


Continuity of Caregivers for Care During Pregnancy and Childbirth

BIRTH, Issue 3 2000
E.D. Hodnett
A substantive amendment to this systematic review was last made on 04 March 1998. Cochrane reviews are regularly checked and updated if necessary. ABSTRACT Background: Care is often provided by multiple caregivers, many of whom work only in the antenatal clinic, labour ward, or postnatal unit. However, continuity of care is provided by the same caregiver or a small group from pregnancy through the postnatal period. Objectives: The objective of this review was to assess continuity of care during pregnancy and childbirth and the puerperium with usual care by multiple caregivers. Search strategy: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register was searched. Selection criteria: Controlled trials comparing continuity of care with usual care during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period. Data collection and analysis: Trial quality was assessed. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Main results: Two studies involving 1815 women were included. Both trials compared continuity of care by midwives with non-continuity of care by a combination of physicians and midwives. The trials were of good quality. Compared to usual care, women who had continuity of care from a team of midwives were less likely to be admitted to hospital antenatally (odds ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.64,0.97) and more likely to attend antenatal education programs (odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.41,0.81). They were also less likely to have drugs for pain relief during labour (odds ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.44,0.64), and their newborns were less likely to require resuscitation (odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.52,0.83). No differences were detected in Apgar scores, low birthweight, and stillbirths or neonatal deaths. While they were less likely to have an episiotomy (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60,0.94), women receiving continuity of care were more likely to have either a vaginal or perineal tear (odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.05, 1.56). They were more likely to be pleased with their antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal care. Reviewers' conclusions: Studies of continuity of care show beneficial effects. It is not clear whether these are due to greater continuity of care, or to midwifery care. Citation: Hodnett ED. Continuity of caregivers for care during pregnancy and childbirth (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2000. Oxford: Update Software. The preceding reports are abstracts of regularly updated, systematic reviews prepared and maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration. The full texts of the reviews are available in The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1464-780X). Seehttp://www.update-software.com/cochrane.htmor contact Update Software,info@update.co.uk, for information on subscribing to The Cochrane Library in your area. Update Software Ltd, Summertown Pavilion, Middle Way, Oxford OX2 7LG, United Kingdom (Tel.: +44 1865 513902; Fax: +44 1865 516918). [source]


SELECTED COCHRANE SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS Absorbable Synthetic Versus Catgut Suture Material for Perineal Repair

BIRTH, Issue 2 2000
C. Kettle
A substantive amendment to this systematic review was last made on 19 May 1999. Cochrane reviews are regularly checked and updated if necessary. ABSTRACT Background and objectives: Approximately 70% of women will experience some degree of perineal trauma following vaginal delivery and will require stitches. This may result in perineal pain and superficial dyspareunia. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of absorbable synthetic suture material as compared with catgut on the amount of short- and long-term pain experienced by mothers following perineal repair. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. Selection criteria: Randomised trials comparing absorbable synthetic (polyglycolic acid and polyglactin) with plain or chromic catgut suture for perineal repair in mothers after vaginal delivery. Data collection and analysis: Trial quality was assessed independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the second reviewer. Main results: Eight trials were included. Compared with catgut, the polyglycolic acid and polyglactin groups were associated with less pain in first three days (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.54,0.71). There was also less need for analgesia (odds ratio 0,63, 95% confidence interval 0.52,0.77) and less suture dehiscence (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.29,0.70). There was no significant difference in long-term pain (odds ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.61,1.08). Removal of suture material was significantly more common in the polyglycolic acid and polyglactin groups (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.56,2.58). There was no difference in the amount of dyspareunia experienced by women. Reviewers' conclusions: Absorbable synthetic suture material (in the form of polyglycolic acid and polyglactin sutures) for perineal repair following childbirth appears to decrease women's experience of short-term pain. The length of time taken for the synthetic material to be absorbed is of concern. A trial addressing the use of polyglactin has recently been completed and this has been included in this updated review. Citation: Kettle C, Johanson RB. Absorbable synthetic versus catgut suture material for perineal repair (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 1999, Oxford: Update Software. ,,, The preceding report is an abstract of regularly updated, systematic reviews prepared and maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration. The full texts of the reviews are available in The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1464-780X). Seehttp://www.update-software.com/cochrane.htmor contact Update Software,info@update.co.uk, for information on subscribing to The Cochrane Library in your area. Update Software Ltd, Summertown Pavilion, Middle Way, Oxford OX2 7LG, United Kingdom (Tel.: +44 1865 513902; Fax: +44 1865 516918). [source]


Nasal continuous positive airway pressure versus nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation for preterm neonates: a systematic review and meta-analysis

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2003
AG De Paoli
Aim: To determine whether nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is more effective in preterm infants than nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in reducing the rate of extubation failure following mechanical ventilation, and reducing the frequency of apnoea of prematurity and subsequent need for endotracheal intubation. Methods: Randomized trials of NIPPV versus NCPAP were sought and their data extracted and analysed independently by the authors using the methodology of the Cochrane Collaboration. The analysis used relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The three studies identified, comparing NIPPV with NCPAP in the postextubation period, all used synchronized NIPPV (SNIPPV), which was more effective than NCPAP in preventing failure of extubation [RR 0.21 (0.10, 0.45), RD -0.32 (-0.45, -0.20), NNT 3 (2, 5)]. Two studies compared NIPPV versus NCPAP for the treatment of apnoea of prematurity. Although meta-analysis was not possible one trial showed a reduction in apnoea frequency with NIPPV and the other a trend favouring NIPPV. Conclusion: SNIPPV is an effective method of augmenting the beneficial effects of NCPAP in preterm infants in the postextubation period. Further research is required to delineate the role of NIPPV in the management of apnoea of prematurity. [source]


Review article: permissive underfeeding in short-term nutritional support

ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 5 2010
A. E. Owais
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 628,636 Summary Background, The importance of adequate nutritional support in selected patient groups is well established. Traditionally, the amounts of macronutrients provided have been based on a perceived need to achieve, if not exceed, energy and protein balance. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the concept of ,permissive underfeeding'. Aim, To determine whether or not there is evidence of benefit for permissive underfeeding in selected groups. Methods, Studies were identified from MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed databases and the Cochrane collaboration. The search was limited from January 1950 to January 2010. Further searches were made from the references of original articles. The literature search revealed 591 abstracts of relevant studies. All abstracts were initially reviewed by the primary author (AO) and those that did not fulfil the inclusion criteria were discarded. The remaining articles were requested and were reviewed independently by two authors (AO, JM). Results, Twelve studies were included in the final analysis. Eight of these were randomized interventional trials. Three were prospective cohort studies and one was a retrospective analysis. Conclusion, This review suggests that permissive underfeeding may be associated with improved outcomes and reduced morbidity in patients requiring short-term nutritional support. [source]


Systematic review of the literature for the use of oesophageal Doppler monitor for fluid replacement in major abdominal surgery

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 1 2008
S. M. Abbas
Summary The use of intra-operative Doppler oesophageal probes provides continuous monitoring of cardiac output. This enables optimisation of intravascular volume and tissue perfusion in major abdominal surgery, which is thought to reduce postoperative complications and shorten hospital stay. Medline and EMBASE were searched using the standard methodology of the Cochrane collaboration for trials that compared oesophageal Doppler monitoring with conventional clinical parameters for fluid replacement in patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Data from randomised controlled trials were entered and analysed in Meta-view in Rev -Man 4.2 (Nordic, Denmark). We included five studies that recruited 420 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery who were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous fluid treatment guided by monitoring ventricular filling using oesophageal Doppler monitor or fluid administration according to conventional parameters. Pooled analysis showed a reduced hospital stay in the intervention group. Overall, there were fewer complications and ICU admissions, and less requirement for inotropes in the intervention group. Return of normal gastro-intestinal function was also significantly faster in the intervention group. Oesophageal Doppler use for monitoring and optimisation of flow-related haemodynamic variables improves short-term outcome in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. [source]