Classroom Instruction (classroom + instruction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Environment for engineering design, analysis, and simulation for education using MATLAB via the World Wide Web.


Abstract In Part II of this paper, we present representative examples that demonstrate the capabilities and features of the developed education environment that allows one to simulate in real time engineering systems utilizing the power of MATLAB through a web browser interface. The web-based graphical user interface (GUI) provides the means for the user to input system parameters and the display of the analysis results. The examples presented demonstrate the required clarity of the developed GUI, and the nature and type of the results returned to the web browser of the user in real time. This environment has the capability to return to the user textual, graphical, pictorial, and animation related material. The user has the option to download analysis results in any of the generated forms to the client computer. This work demonstrates the ease of implementation and advantages of using this technology to aid in classroom instruction. Users with Internet can access the developed simulation modules at © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 10: 109,120, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.10019 [source]

An Alternate Multiple-Choice Scoring Procedure in a Macroeconomics Course

David A. Bradbard
ABSTRACT In the standard scoring procedure for multiple-choice exams, students must choose exactly one response as correct. Often students may be unable to identify the correct response, but can determine that some of the options are incorrect. This partial knowledge is not captured in the standard scoring format. The Coombs elimination procedure is an alternate scoring procedure designed to capture partial knowledge. This paper presents the results of a semester-long experiment where both scoring procedures were compared on four exams in an undergraduate macroeconomics course. Statistical analysis suggests that the Coombs procedure is a viable alternative to the standard scoring procedure. Implications for classroom instruction and future research are also presented. [source]

Structuring the Classroom for Performance: Cooperative Learning with Instructor-Assigned Teams*

Gary D. Koppenhaver
ABSTRACT The main concern is a longstanding one in classroom instruction,the determinants of effective team performance. The paper explicitly examines the effect of teacher-controlled factors on the use and functioning of student teams. From a sample of 500 undergraduate students, data are obtained on aptitude, diversity, instability, motivation, personality style, size, and performance. The regression results suggest that team motivation and instability, which are both partly controlled by the instructor, are particularly important in determining a team's performance. An implication is that instructor decisions about team make-up and incentives can have a significant impact on student achievement. [source]

Advanced Heritage Learners of Spanish: A Sociolinguistic Profile for Pedagogical Purposes

Irma Alarcón
Abstract: This article reports on an extensive survey administered to advanced heritage language (HL) learners to examine their language behaviors, attitudes, and backgrounds. To date, there have been no detailed categorizations of advanced HL learners to guide classroom instruction and curriculum design. Thus the present study is a first attempt to fill this gap by providing a sociolinguistic profile of these speakers, including their identifying characteristics, linguistic needs, and similarities and differences with lower-proficiency speakers. Survey responses indicate that advanced HL learners possess both productive and receptive skills in the HL, always use Spanish at home, are fluent speakers of a standard variety, already have basic academic skills in Spanish, and are therefore primarily interested in perfecting their academic writing skills. [source]

A Native American community's involvement and empowerment to guide their children's development in the school setting

Héctor H. Rivera
This study provides an empirical description of the dimensions of community values, beliefs, and opinions through a survey conducted in the Pueblo Indian community of Zuni in New Mexico. The sample was composed of 200 randomly chosen community members ranging from 21 to 103 years old. A principal component factor analysis was conducted, as well as a multivariate analysis of variance, to explore gender, age, education, language, and socioeconomic (SES) differences on values, beliefs, and opinions from survey participants. Overall, the findings suggest a strong agreement by the community on the direction to be taken by their school district in their efforts to improve classroom instruction, as well as in their efforts to guide their children's development as Native Americans. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Accuracy of scale conceptions in science: Mental maneuverings across many orders of spatial magnitude

Thomas R. Tretter
The use of unifying themes that span the various branches of science is recommended to enhance curricular coherence in science instruction. Conceptions of spatial scale are one such unifying theme. This research explored the accuracy of spatial scale conceptions of science phenomena across a spectrum of 215 participants: fifth grade, seventh grade, ninth grade, twelfth grade, and doctoral students in science. Conceptions spanning sizes from one nanometer to one billion meters were investigated through use of written assessments and individual interviews. Results showed that accuracy of conceptions at small scale were not symmetrical with respect to conceptions at large scale. Large scale accuracy tended to decline in a smooth, uniform fashion as the scale increased, whereas small scale accuracy displayed a discontinuity at the microscopic level. To conceptually interact with scales far removed from human scale, experts used strategies of mentally jumping to a new scale-world. Experts tended not to transition smoothly between the differently scaled worlds but rather to make a discontinuous leap, maintaining abstract linkages between the worlds via mathematics. Implications of these findings for curriculum development and classroom instruction are discussed. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 43: 1061,1085, 2006 [source]

Effective instruction and college student persistence: Some new evidence

Ernest T. Pascarella
The research presented here indicates that exposure to organized and clear classroom instruction may have positive net effects on the probability of returning to an institution for the second year of college. [source]

The Effects of Instructional Training on University Teaching Assistants

Patricia L. Hardré
ABSTRACT This study addressed the need for empirical tests of the global instructional design (ID) model as a toolkit for classroom teachers in authentic settings; and the performance improvement challenge of finding effective, efficient methods of professional development for preparing graduate assistants to teach. Participants were eighteen teaching assistants (TAs) with primary instructional responsibilities at a large Midwestern university. Twelve were given a training intervention in instructional design, while the other six served as a control group. The intervention was based on the iterative, five-phase ADDIE model, and principles from educational psychology. Dependent measures were TAs' ID knowledge, teaching self-efficacy, satisfaction with knowledge and strategies, perceived teaching competence, teaching performance and teaching effectiveness, and their students' engagement and perceived learning. All of the study's seven hypothesized relationships were found statistically significant. The intervention, though brief, measurably increased the ID knowledge of participating TAs, along with their teaching-related self-perceptions, and student outcomes. Instructional design emerges as a potentially powerful training tool for organizing teachers' and trainers' knowledge related to the complex practice of classroom instruction. [source]

Predictors of hyperactive,impulsive,inattention and conduct problems: A comparative follow-back investigation

Frank M. Gresham
Disruptive behavior patterns are particularly challenging for parents, teachers, and peers as these behaviors often interfere with classroom instruction, frequently lead to academic underachievement, and are associated with social skills acquisition and performance deficits. Children who exhibit a combination of hyperactivity,impulsivity,inattention and conduct problems (HIA + CP) have been shown to be at greater risk for negative social, behavioral, and legal outcomes than children with HIA-only or CP-only behavior patterns. This investigation explored the degree to which academic, social, and behavioral characteristics in Grade 4 could differentiate sixth-grade students with HIA + CP (n = 61), HIA-only (n = 29), and CP-only (n = 14). Results showed that the HIA-only group had higher academic achievement in Grade 4 as measured by teacher judgments and standardized tests than the HIA + CP and CP-only groups. By Grade 6, the HIA-only and HIA + CP groups showed lower academic competence than the CP-only group suggesting that by sixth grade, children having HIA alone or in combination with conduct problems are at greater risk for academic failure. Additionally, HIA + CP and CP-only groups had poorer social skills than the HIA-only group. Consistent with past research, students in the three risk groups showed no difficulties in either academic or social self-concept. Early screening and identification methods using a multiple-gating model were recommended as a means of proactive approaches to intervention design and prevention. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 721,736, 2005. [source]

Manipulating the evocative and abative effects of an establishing operation: influences on challenging behavior during classroom instruction

Mark O'Reilly
In this study we examined the evocative and abative effects of an establishing operation on challenging behavior during classroom instruction for a student with severe disabilities including autism. A prior functional analysis indicated that his challenging behavior was maintained by access to preferred snack items. During classroom instructional sessions these snack items were visible but not available to the student. In other words challenging behavior was placed on extinction during instruction. Immediately prior to instructional sessions the student received either access to snack items or did not receive access to snacks. Access versus no access to snacks prior to instruction was systematically controlled using a multi-element design. Results demonstrated higher levels of challenging behavior during instruction when the student did not have access to snacks prior to instruction. Very little challenging behavior occurred during instructional sessions when the student had prior access to snacks. Implications for considering the evocative and abative effects of establishing operations when implementing operant extinction in applied settings are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Computer-mediated discussion, self-efficacy and gender

ShinYi Lin
In the context of hybrid instruction, this study was designed to explore whether gender has an influence on learners' preferences for synchronous or asynchronous modes of computer-mediated communication, and whether this decision impacts learners' self-efficacy (SE) towards knowledge acquisition. The participants were 180 teacher-education students (151 females and 29 males) enrolled in a hybrid (blend of traditional classroom instruction and online learning activities) foundations course at a United States research university with a proportionally high percentage of full-time commuters and/or distance enrolees. The findings showed that, regardless of gender, two-thirds of the participants preferred asynchronous modes over synchronous ones. In addition, gender was weakly related to the participants' SE in both modes. Linear regression indicated that SE, in turn, was weakly related to academic performance. The implications of these findings for instructional practice are discussed. [source]