Classical Symptoms (classical + symptom)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Clinical and radiological features of patients with macroprolactinaemia

Mark W. J. Strachan
Summary objectives Macroprolactin is a complex of prolactin (PRL) and IgG and may account for a significant proportion of cases of ,idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia'. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence and clinical features of macroprolactinaemia in patients diagnosed with hyperprolactinaemia in our region, with a view to determining how patients with macroprolactinaemia should be investigated and managed. patients and methods An Immuno-1 automated immunoassay system with polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation was used to identify macroprolactin, with a recovery of , 50% taken as indicating significant macroprolactinaemia. Macroprolactin was found in 58 (21%) of 273 patients with a total PRL > 700 mU/l. The clinical records of 51 (44 female) were available for retrospective review. results The mean (range) age of patients was 395 (18,82) years. The median (range) concentrations for the various forms of PRL were: total PRL 1130 mU/l (728,5116), monomeric PRL 240 mU/l (50,656) and macroprolactin 895 mU/l (381,4854). Classical symptoms of hyperprolactinaemia were present in 39% of patients, although in many there were other possible explanations for their symptomatology. Pituitary adenomas were identified in six out of 36 people who underwent neuroimaging. Five of these patients had a microadenoma and one had a 10-mm macroadenoma (although, in this patient macroprolactin was identified after the discovery of the tumour). There was no relationship between macroprolactin concentrations and the presence of hyperprolactinaemic symptoms or neuroimaging abnormalities. conclusions Macroprolactinaemia is a common occurrence in patients with hyperprolactinaemia, but associated symptomatology may not necessarily be linked. The neuroimaging abnormalities were also probably incidental findings and it is questionable whether neuroimaging is necessary when significant macroprolactinaemia is identified and the concentration of monomeric PRL is not elevated (using the Immuno-1 assay system, following PEG precipitation). [source]

Prevalence of autoimmune diseases in islet transplant candidates with severe hypoglycaemia and glycaemic lability: previously undiagnosed coeliac and autoimmune thyroid disease is identified by screening

M. Walter
Abstract Aims, Autoimmune diseases such as Addison's or coeliac disease can contribute to hypoglycaemia or malabsorption and are more common in Type 1 diabetes (T1DM). This brief report describes the prevalence of known and newly detected autoimmune disease in clinical islet transplant candidates with longstanding T1DM and severe hypoglycaemia and/or glycaemic lability who are routinely screened for coexisting autoimmune disease. Methods, One hundred and twenty-four C-peptide negative T1DM subjects [77 (62%) female, mean age 44 9 years, diabetes duration 28 11 years, body mass index 24.9 3.5 kg/m2] with indications for clinical islet transplantation at the University of Alberta were screened for autoimmune disease by history and measurement of anti-transglutaminase antibodies (positive > 10 U/ml), 09.00 h cortisol (followed by adrenocorticotrophic hormone-stimulation if < 495 nmol/l) and thyroid-stimulating hormone to determine the prevalence of coeliac disease, Addison's disease and autoimmune thyroid disease, respectively. Results, Forty per cent of subjects had one or more coexisting autoimmune disease. The prevalence of autoimmune disease was 35%, coeliac disease 8% and Addison's disease 1.6%. In 11 individuals (9%), one or more autoimmune disease were newly detected (seven coeliac disease and five thyroid disease). Seven of 10 cases of coeliac disease were newly detected. A gluten-free diet in individuals with newly diagnosed coeliac disease reduced gastrointestinal symptoms, but indications for clinical islet cell transplantation persisted. Conclusions, Coexisting autoimmune disease is common in candidates for clinical islet cell transplantation. Screening in this group identified a substantial number of previously unrecognized cases. Clinicians should consider the presence of autoimmune disease even in the absence of classical symptoms. [source]

Psychoses of epilepsy in Babylon: The oldest account of the disorder

EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2008
Edward H. Reynolds
Summary We have previously published translations of Babylonian texts on epilepsy and stroke, which we believe to be the oldest detailed accounts of these neurological disorders from the second millennium BC. We now present a short Babylonian text, which clearly describes what are today known as interictal or schizophrenia-like psychoses of epilepsy. The text includes many of the classical symptoms of the syndrome, for example, paranoid delusions, hallucinations and mood disorders, as well as religiosity and hyposexuality, which have only been crystallized in the twentieth century. The Babylonians were remarkably good observers of human disease and behavior but had little or no understanding of pathology or brain function. Although they recognized many natural causes of disease, epilepsy and behavior disorders were attributed to supernatural, usually evil forces, the forerunner of the Greek concept of the Sacred Disease. [source]

Surviving extreme hypercalcaemia , a case report and review of the literature

Abstract. We report a case of extreme hypercalcaemia associated with a parathyroid adenoma in a young man. The patient presented with classical symptoms of a hypercalcaemic syndrome, and serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were 6.92 mmol L,1 and 70.2 pmol L,1 respectively. After stabilizing the patient and reducing the calcium level, a parathyroidectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful with rapidly resolving clinical symptoms. Hypercalcaemic crisis is a rare but life-threatening complication of primary hyperparathyroidism. It should be suspected in acutely ill patients complaining of muscular weakness, gastrointestinal and cerebral symptoms. To reduce mortality, it is essential to correctly diagnose the condition without delay and provide appropriate emergency management correcting hypercalcaemia and dehydration. Successful parathyroidectomy quickly relieves symptoms and prevents recurrence. [source]

Patient perceptions of the burden of coeliac disease and its treatment in the UK

Summary Background, Coeliac disease affects about 1% of the population, with the majority being undetected. As a consequence, there have been calls for the introduction of screening. Before screening is given serious consideration, it is important to assess how acceptable early diagnoses and treatment would be. Aim To assess patients' views as to the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Methods, Coeliac disease patients who had taken a gluten-free diet for at least 12 months (mean 60 months) were mailed a questionnaire. Coeliac patients presenting with typical classical symptoms were compared with those diagnosed without such symptoms. Results, Overall, 83% (147/177) of coeliac patients returned the questionnaires. Two-thirds (68%, 101/147) reported that their dietary restrictions reduced their enjoyment of food; 46% (68/147) believed their food cost them more and estimated this to be an extra 10 (,16) per week. Of those reporting greater cost, 31 (21%) said this was a problem for them. Half (54%, 80/147) reported doing things they enjoyed less often because of their diet, with the most common activity sacrificed being dining out (n = 65). In spite of these findings, 81% (119/147) reported being pleased that they were diagnosed, with 66% (59/89) of cases with classical symptoms wishing they had been diagnosed earlier compared with 45% (23/51) of those without such symptoms (,2 = 6.0, P < .05). In contrast, 27% (14/51) of coeliacs diagnosed without classical symptoms regretted being diagnosed with their condition compared with 10% (9/89) of those with classical symptoms (,2 = 7.1, P < .01). Conclusions, Even after several years of a gluten-free diet, many patients with coeliac disease regard it as a substantial burden, with a quarter of screen detected patients reporting regret at being diagnosed. Our findings question how acceptable screening for coeliac disease would be in people with minimal or no symptoms. [source]

Neurological symptoms in children with intussusception

KJ Kleizen
Abstract Aim:, The classical combination of abdominal pain, vomiting, rectal blood loss and a palpable abdominal mass is only present in a minority of children with intussusception. Neurological signs and symptoms have been described, but are not a well understood phenomenon. We performed a retrospective study to ascertain the frequency and nature of these symptoms and to describe the characteristics of the patients presenting in this atypical way. Methods:, The records of 58 children presenting with intussusception from 2003 to 2008 were reviewed for abdominal and neurological signs and symptoms, duration of symptoms and effectiveness of treatment. Results:, In 10 out of 58 patients (17%), one or more neurological symptoms were recorded at presentation, with lethargy being the most frequent, followed by hypotonia and fluctuating consciousness. The patients with neurological abnormalities were significantly younger and presented with a shorter duration of symptoms. Therapy was more invasive, although not statistically significant, in this patient category. Conclusion:, Intussusception should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young children presenting with lethargy, hypotonia and/or sudden alterations of consciousness even in the absence of the classical symptoms of intussusception. [source]