Class III (class + iii)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Class III

  • nyha class iii

  • Terms modified by Class III

  • class iii antiarrhythmic drug

  • Selected Abstracts

    Comparison of the Effects of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Patients With Class II vs Class III and IV Heart Failure (From the InSync/InSync ICD Italian Registry)

    Scott Harris DO
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ASCUS; Borderline changes; Epithelial abnormality; Pap Class III , What's in a name?

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
    A. Deery
    First page of article [source]

    Neuronal Disconnection for the Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2000
    Hiroyuki Shimizu
    Summary: The surgical methods and results of disconnective surgery for pediatric epilepsy were retrospectively analyzed. The techniques of neuronal disconnection included multiple subpial resection (MST), corpus callosotomy, and functional hemisphercctomy by disconnection. Of 158 total pediatric operations, disconnective techniques were employed in more than 60% of the cases. MST was applied when the epileptic focus was located in unresectable cortices such as speech or motor areas. MST was also instrumental when the epileptogenic zone was extensive and was widely disseminated, as is often observed in cases of neocortical epilepsy. Of 25 patients who underwent MST, surgical outcomes after > 1 year follow-up showed Engel Class I or II in 10 cases, Class III in 12, and Class IV in 3. No mortality or morbidity was encountered during surgery or postoperatively. Corpus callosotomy was applied to cases of disabling generalized seizures and showed a marked effect in alleviating potentially injurious drop attacks. Of 34 patients with drop attacks, 29 became free from this type of seizure, 4 had infrequent attacks, and only 1 showed no beneficial effect. Postoperative improvement of cognition and speech was recognized in 77% of the cases. We developed a new method of functional hemispherectomy by fiber disconnection and applied this less invasive technique to 23 cases of hemispheric lesions. Of the 17 cases with > 1 year follow-up, 13 were in Class I or II, and 3 in Class III, and 2 in Class IV. Development partially normalized in infants with good seizure outcomes. [source]

    Reasons for placement and replacement of restorations in student clinics in Manchester and Athens

    V. Deligeorgi
    Data on reasons for the placement and replacement of restorations provide insight into patterns of clinical practice. This study investigated reasons for the provision of restorations in student clinics at the Universities of Manchester and Athens. Using the methods first described by Mjör, data were collected in relation to all initial and replacement restorations placed in adult patients in the main teaching clinics in the 2 schools over a 3-month period. The principal reason for intervention was recorded, according to approved treatment plans. Data were collected on 2620 restorations, 1431 (55%) of which were placed in Manchester. Primary caries was the main reason for the placement of initial restorations: 82% in Athens and 48% in Manchester (p<0.001). The principal reason for restoration replacement was secondary caries, accounting for 54% in Manchester and 33% in Athens (p<0.001). Other differences between the schools, included the ratio of initial placement to replacement restorations (Manchester 1:1.1; Athens 1:0.6: p<0.01) and significantly more 2-surface class II restorations having been placed in Manchester (p<0.001). Class III and IV restorations predominated in Athens. It is concluded, despite the acknowledged limitations of the methods employed, that the patterns of placement and replacement of restorations and the use of materials differ between the dental schools of Manchester and Athens. The differences are considered to relate more to local patterns of dental disease and patient selection for student clinics than to any differences in teaching philosophy. Subsequent studies of the type reported, despite acknowledged limitations would provide insight into the impact on patient care of the teaching of new materials, techniques and treatment philosophies. [source]

    Provision of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations to Chinese pre-school children , a 30-month evaluation

    Summary.Objectives. The objectives of this study were: to provide restorations using the ART approach to pre-school children in Southern China in a kindergarten environ-ment, using a high-strength glass-ionomer restorative material; to assess the accept-ability of this approach and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the restorations placed. Sample and methods. A total of 170 ART restorations were placed in 95 children, aged 5·1 ± 0·7 years, by seven final-year dental students using standard ART procedures and hand instruments. The restorations were evaluated every six months thereafter by two calibrated independent examiners using explorers and mouth-mirrors. Results. 93% of the children reported that they did not feel pain during treatment and 86% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 12- and 30-month survival rates of Class I restorations were 91% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding figures for Class V restorations were 79% and 70%, while those for Class II restorations were 75% and 51%. The failure rates of Class III and IV restor-ations were high with more than half of them scored as missing within the first year. Conclusions. The ART approach was shown to be acceptable to Chinese pre-school children for providing restorative dental care outside the traditional clinical setting. The success rates were high for Class I and V restorations in primary teeth, modest for Class II, and low for Class III and IV restorations. [source]

    A maxillary protracting bow appliance for Class III treatment in the primary dentition

    T. Murakami
    Summary. The design of a simple facial mask type appliance for the treatment of Class III with anterior crossbite in the primary dentition, is described. Its clinical effect is illustrated in two cases. The appliance is easy to make, cheap, well tolerated and efficient. [source]

    Management of Noncancer Pain in Community-Dwelling Persons with Dementia

    Joseph W. Shega MD
    OBJECTIVES: To explore the pharmacological treatment of noncancer pain in persons with dementia and identify predictors associated with insufficient analgesia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of an observational cohort study. SETTING: Academic outpatient geriatric clinic in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 115 dyads, mostly African American, consisting of community-dwelling persons with dementia and their caregivers. MEASUREMENTS: Patient report of demographics, noncancer pain, function, cognition, and depression. Caregiver report of patient agitation and over-the-counter and prescription medications. RESULTS: Sixty-two of 115 (54%) patients reported pain "on an average day." The caregivers of more than half of persons with dementia who reported pain "on an average day" did not report analgesic use. The majority of caregivers who reported analgesic use reported that patients took a World Health Organization Class I medication. No patients had been prescribed a Class III (strong opioid) drug. Fifty-three of 115 (46%) patients had potentially insufficient analgesia. In the logistic regression, insufficient analgesia was associated with greater age, Mini-Mental State Examination score of less than 10, and impairment in daily functioning. Insufficient analgesia was 1.07 times as likely (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01,1.14) for each additional year of age, 3.0 times as likely (95% CI=1.05,9.10) if the subject had advanced dementia, and 2.5 times as likely (95% CI=1.01,6.25) if the patient had any impairment in activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: In this convenience sample from a geriatric clinic, many persons with dementia and noncancer pain were not receiving pharmacological treatment. Those at greatest risk for insufficient analgesia were older, had moderate to severe dementia, and experienced impairments in activities of daily living. [source]

    Gender-Related Differences in Modulation of Heart Rate in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    Gender and HRV in Heart Failure Introduction. The prognosis of women with congestive heart failure (CHF) is better than that for men, but the mechanisms underlying the female survival advantage are not well understood. CHF is characterized by profound abnormalities in cardiac autonomic control that contribute to progressive circulatory failure and influence survival. Methods and Results. Time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) indexes were obtained from 24-hour Holter recordings and compared to assess the role of gender in 131 men and 68 women with CHF (mean age 60 ± 13.6 years, range 21 to 87; New York Heart Association Functional Class III [66%] and IV [34%]). Gender-related differences in HRV were observed only in the subset of patients with nonischemic heart failure (55 men and 39 women). Among the time-domain indexes, the SD of the RR intervals (76 ± 5.3 msec vs 55.3 ± 3.2 msec, P < 0.0001) and indexes denoting parasympathetic modulation, the percentage of RR intervals with >50 msec variation (4.0%± 1.0% vs 6.5%± 1.3%, P = 0.02), and the square root of mean squared differences of successive RR intervals (19.1 ± 3.3 vs 28.4 ± 3.8, P = 0.004) were higher in women. Among the frequency-domain indexes, the total power (7.5 ± 0.13 In-msec2 vs 8.3 ± 0.14 In-msec2, P = 0.0002), the ultralow-frequency power (7.2 ± 0.11 In-msec2 vs 8.0 ± 0.14 In-msec2, P < 0.0001), the low-frequency power (3.8 ± 0.25 In-msec2 vs 4.8 ± 0.28 In-msec2, P = 0.006), and the high-frequency power (3.8 ± 0.24 In-msec2, vs 4.6 ± 0.26 In-msec2, P = 0.003) were greater in women than in men. Conclusion. Women with nonischemic CHF have an attenuated sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal compared with men. Gender-based differences in autonomic responses in the setting of CHF may be related to the female survival advantage. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 11, pp. 1071-1077, October 2000) [source]

    Molecular and Biochemical Evidence for Phenylpropanoid Synthesis and Presence of Wall-linked Phenolics in Cotton Fibers

    Ling Fan
    Abstract The mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber is a single cell with a typically thickened secondary cell wall. The aim of this research was to use molecular, spectroscopic and chemical techniques to investigate the possible occurrence of previously overlooked accumulation of phenolics during secondary cell wall formation in cotton fibers. Relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that GhCAD6 and GhCAD1 were predominantly expressed among seven gene homologs, only GhCAD6 was up-regulated during secondary wall formation in cotton fibers. Phylogenic analysis revealed that GhCAD6 belonged to Class I and was proposed to have a major role in monolignol biosynthesis, and GhCAD1 belonged to Class III and was proposed to have a compensatory mechanism for monolignol biosynthesis. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that the cofactor binding sites of GhCADs were highly conserved with high similarity and identity to bona fide cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases. The substrate binding site of GhCAD1 is different from GhCAD6. This difference was confirmed by the different catalytic activities observed with the enzymes. Cell wall auto-fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and chemical analyses confirmed that phenolic compounds were bound to the cell walls of mature cotton fibers. Our findings may suggest a potential for genetic manipulation of cotton fiber properties, which are of central importance to agricultural, cotton processing and textile industries. [source]

    Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: Aciclovir

    J. Arnal
    Abstract Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing (biowaiver) for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing aciclovir are reviewed. Aciclovir therapeutic use and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA) studies were also taken into consideration in order to ascertain whether a biowaiver can be recommended. According to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and considering tablet strengths up to 400 mg, aciclovir would be BCS Class III. However, in some countries also 800 mg tablets are available which fall just within BCS Class IV. Aciclovir seems not to be critical with respect to a risk for bioinequivalence, as no examples of bioinequivalence have been identified. It has a wide therapeutic index and is not used for critical indications. Hence, if: (a) the test product contains only excipients present in aciclovir solid oral IR drug products approved in ICH or associated countries, for instance as presented in this article; and (b) the comparator and the test product both are very rapidly dissolving, a biowaiver for IR aciclovir solid oral drug products is considered justified for all tablet strengths. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 97:5061,5073, 2008 [source]

    Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: Ranitidine hydrochloride,

    H. Kortejärvi
    Abstract Literature and experimental data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing ranitidine hydrochloride are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), ranitidine hydrochloride should be assigned to Class III. However, based on its therapeutic and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties and data related to the possibility of excipient interactions, a biowaiver can be recommended for IR solid oral dosage forms that are rapidly dissolving and contain only those excipients as reported in this study. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 94:1617,1625, 2005 [source]

    Analysis of facial growth in subjects with syndromic ectodermal dysplasia: a longitudinal analysis

    N Bondarets
    Structured Abstract Authors, Bondarets N, Jones RM, McDonald F. Objective, To examine the craniofacial growth pattern of patients diagnosed with syndromic ectodermal dysplasia. >Design, Mixed longitudinal analysis of lateral cephalograms. Setting, The data were analysed using a multilevel modelling technique with the MLwiN application software and the results presented numerically and graphically. Sample Population, All 61 subjects had severe hypodontia with the number of absent teeth (excluding third molars) ranging from 6 to 28 (mean=15.4). At presentation the subjects had a mean age of 133 months and were followed longitudinally for between one and five subsequent occasions (mean 2.66 occasions; mean age at completion of observation 207 months). Outcome Measures, Lateral cephalograms taken at each visit. Experimental Variables, Analysis of four angular measurements and four linear measurements, together with one calculated ratio. Results, Growth curves are presented showing the trends of craniofacial growth. Conclusions, The most significant findings were for a universal tendency for the individuals to undergo a change in sagittal relationship of the jaws, becoming markedly more Class III with time. We have also demonstrated a significant difference in growth between the anterior and posterior face heights indicating that the subjects have a tendency to an anterior growth rotation. [source]

    Hyoid position, pharyngeal airway and head posture in relation to relapse after the mandibular setback in skeletal Class III

    Gaoman Gu
    This study evaluates the process of relapse after mandibular setback surgery by an analysis of the role of craniofacial morphology, hyoid position, pharyngeal airway and head posture. Subjects examined were 62 patients who received the sagittal split ramus osteotomies (SSRO). Changes of the craniofacial and related structures were evaluated from the serial cephalograms up to 3 years after the surgery. Results indicated that mandibular relapse represented by Pg occurred mostly within 6 months after the surgery. A net setback of the mandible was 9.1 mm and the superior move was 1.7 mm, with a reduction of 7.2 mm in mandibular length, 4.2 mm in ramus height, 3.7 mm in posterior face height, 2.6° in gonial angle, an increase of 2.9° in mandibular plane angle (MPA) by the last examination. Hyoid bone moved backward and downward and head posture was raised. The forward relapse of Pg was correlated with the changes of ANB, MPA, ramus height and hyoid position. Only hyoid position was predictably correlated with mandibular morphology and head posture. These findings suggest that mandibular setback alters the relationship among the hyoid position, pharyngeal airway and the head posture. It might be critical, therefore, relapse is closely monitored and controlled before the full healing of fragments and new muscular balance is established. [source]

    Determinants of Mortality in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: Baseline Clinical, Echocardiographic, and Angioscintigraphic Evaluation Prior to Resynchronization

    Background: In dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients (pts) with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) for ventricular dyssynchrony, long-term predictors of mortality and morbidity remain poorly investigated. Method and Results: We reviewed data of 102 pts, 68 ± 10 years, NYHA Class II,IV (14 Class II, 67 Class III, 21 Class IV), who benefited from CRT (69 CRT, 33 CRT-ICD). Fifty-two patients had an ischemic DCM, 36 a previously implanted conventional PM/ICD, 29 a permanent atrial fibrillation, and 19 needed dobutamine in the month preceding implant. QRS duration was 187 ± 35 ms, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter 72 ± 10 mm, mitral regurgitation severity 1.9 ± 0.8, echographic aorto-pulmonary electromechanical delay 61.5 ± 25 ms and septo-lateral left intraventricular delay 86 ± 56 ms, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) 43 ± 11 mmHg, angioscintigraphic left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) 20 ± 9%, and right ventricular EF 30.5 ± 14%. Over a mean follow-up of 23 ± 20 months, 26 pts died (18 heart failures (HFs), 1 arrhythmic storm, 7 noncardiac deaths). Positive univariate predictors of death from any cause were NYHA Class IV (P < 0.001), and need for dobutamine the month preceding CRT (P < 0.008), while use of ,-blocking agents (P < 0.08) and left ventricular EF (P < 0.09) were negative ones. NYHA Class IV was the only independent predictor at multivariate analysis (P < 0.01). Survival at 24 months was 85% in Class II, 80% in Class III, and 37% in Class IV (II vs III, P = ns; III vs IV, P < 0.001). When using a composite endpoint of death from any cause and unplanned rehospitalization for a major cardiovascular event, there were 48 events (14 HF deaths, 3 noncardiac deaths, 26 HF rehospitalizations, 2 paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 2 sustained ventricular tachycardia, 1 nonfatal pulmonary embolism). Predictors of death from any cause/unplanned rehospitalization for a major cardiovascular event in the follow-up were NYHA Class IV (P < 0.001), need for dobutamine during the month preceding CRT (P < 0.002), and PAP (<0.02). NYHA Class IV was the only independent predictor at multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). Event-free proportion at 24 months was 70% in Class II, 64% in Class III, and 37% in Class IV (II vs III, P = ns; III vs IV, P < 0.01). When considering determinants of mortality only in NYHA Class IV patients, no variable was significantly correlated to mortality. Need for dobutamine during the last month preceding CRT did not add an adjunctive mortality risk. Conclusion: Baseline NYHA Class IV at implantation appears as the most important determinant of a poor clinical outcome in terms of both mortality and morbidity. No predictive criteria seem available for NYHA Class IV patients, in order to discriminate who will die after CRT and who will not. NYHA Class IV strongly influences the clinical outcome, suggesting that, in future studies planned on mortality and rehospitalization as major endpoints, baseline NYHA Class IV should be separately taken into account. [source]

    Is the Left Ventricular Lateral Wall the Best Lead Implantation Site for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy?

    GASPARINI, M., et al.: Is the Left Ventricular Lateral Wall the Best Lead Implantation Site for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy?Short-term hemodynamic studies consistently report greater effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients stimulated from a LV lateral coronary sinus tributary (CST) compared to a septal site. The aim of the study was to compare the long-term efficacy of CRT when performed from different LV stimulation sites. From October 1999 to April 2002, 158 patients (mean age 65 years, mean LVEF 0.29, mean QRS width 174 ms) underwent successful CRT, from the anterior (A) CST in 21 patients, the anterolateral (AL) CST in 37 patients, the lateral (L) CST in 57 patients, the posterolateral (PL) CST in 40 patients, and the middle cardiac vein (MCV) CST in 3 patients. NYHA functional class, 6-minute walk test, and echocardiographic measurements were examined at baseline, and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Comparisons were made among all pacing sites or between lateral and septal sites by grouping AL + L + PL CST as lateral site (134 patients, 85%) and A + MC CST as septal site (24 patients, 15%). In patients stimulated from lateral sites, LVEF increased from 0.30 to 0.39(P < 0.0001), 6-minute walk test from 323 to 458 m(P < 0.0001), and the proportion of NYHA Class III,IV patients decreased from 82% to 10%(P < 0.0001). In patients stimulated from septal sites, LVEF increased from 0.28 to 0.41(P < 0.0001), 6-minute walk test from 314 to 494 m(P < 0.0001), and the proportion of NYHA Class III,IV patients decreased from 75% to 23%(P < 0.0001). A significant improvement in cardiac function and increase in exercise capacity were observed over time regardless of the LV stimulation sites, either considered singly or grouped as lateral versus septal sites. (PACE 2003; 26[Pt. II]:162,168) [source]

    Addition of a Left Ventricular Lead to Conventional Pacing Systems in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure: Feasibility, Safety, and Early Results in 60 Consecutive Patients

    BAKER, C.M., et al.: Addition of a Left Ventricular Lead to Conventional Pacing Systems in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure: Feasibility, Safety, and Early Results in 60 Consecutive Patients. Left bundle branch block worsens congestive heart failure (CHF) in patients with LV dysfunction. Asynchronous LV activation produced by RV apical pacing leads to paradoxical septal motion and inefficient ventricular contraction. Recent studies show improvement in LV function and patient symptoms with biventricular pacing in patients with CHF. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety, acute efficacy, and early effect on symptoms of the upgrade of a chronically implanted RV pacing system to a biventricular system. Sixty patients with NYHA Class III and IV underwent the upgrade procedure using commercially available leads and adapters. The procedure succeeded in 54 (90%) of 60 patients. Acute LV stimulation thresholds obtained from leads placed along the lateral LV wall via the coronary sinus compare favorably to those reported in current biventricular pacing trials. The complication rate was low (5/60, 8.3%): lead dislodgement (n = 1), pocket hematoma (n = 1), and wound infections (n = 3). During 18 months of follow-up (16.7%) of 60 patients died. Two patients that died failed the initial upgrade attempt. At 3-month follow-up, quality of life scores improved 31 ± 28 points (n = 29), P < 0.0001). NYHA Class improved from 3.4 ± 0.5 to 2.4 ± 0.7 (P = < 0.0001) and ejection fraction increased from 0.23 ± 0.8 to 0.29 ± 0.11 (P = 0.0003). Modification of RV pacing to a biventricular system using commercially available leads and adapters can be performed effectively and safely. The early results of this study suggest patients may benefit from this procedure with improved functional status and quality of life. [source]

    Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization and expression pattern of porcine ADP-ribosylation factor(Arf) gene family

    Rongrong ZHANG
    ABSTRACT Adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are a family of guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including secretion, endocytosis, phagocytosis, cytokinesis, cell adhesion and tumor cell invasion. We report here the molecular cloning, chromosome localization and expression analysis of porcine Arf1,6, of which Arf1,3 (Class I) have >93% similarity to each other and encode nearly similar proteins with 181 amino acids in length. Arf4 and Arf5 (Class II) are 78,81% homologous to Class I Arfs and both encode a protein of 180 amino acids, Arf6 (Class III) shows 64,68% homology to the other Arfs and encodes 175 amino acids. With radiation hybrid mapping, porcine Arf1,6 are assigned to chromosomes 14q21-q22, 12p14, 5p12-q11, 13q21.1, 18q24, 1q21-q27, respectively. Moreover, real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays show that porcine Arf1-6 are ubiquitous in all tissues examined, with the highest levels in the kidney and stomach and the lowest in muscle and the heart. This is the first report of molecular characterization of the Arf gene family in pigs. [source]

    Cortical Resection with Electrocorticography for Intractable Porencephaly-related Partial Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2005
    Koji Iida
    Summary:,Purpose: We evaluated the results of cortical resection of epileptogenic tissue for treatment of intractable porencephaly-related epilepsy. Methods: We examined clinical features, electrophysiological data, surgical findings, and seizure outcomes after cortical resection in eight patients with intractable epilepsy related to porencephalic cysts. Results: All eight patients had hemiparesis. Five retained motor function in the hemiparetic extremities; six retained visual fields. All had partial seizures, six with secondary generalization. Seven patients had simple and three had complex partial seizures (CPSs); two also had drop attacks. Four patients had multiple seizure types. Long-term scalp video-EEG (LVEEG) localized interictal epileptic abnormalities that anatomically corresponded to the cyst location in three patients. LVEEG recorded ictal-onset zones in five; these anatomically corresponded to the cyst location in three of the five. EEG recorded generalized seizures in two patients, hemispheric in one, and multifocal in two. Intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) revealed interictal epileptic areas extending beyond the margins of the cyst in seven patients. We resected ECoG-localized interictal epileptic areas completely in five patients and partially in two. Cortical resection was based on seizure semiology and LVEEG in one patient whose ECoG showed no epileptiform discharges. After a minimum follow-up of 1 year, six patients had excellent seizure outcome (Engel class I), and two had a >90% seizure reduction (Engel class III) without complications. Conclusions: Cortical resection guided by ECoG allows preservation of motor function and visual field and provides an effective surgical procedure for treatment of intractable epilepsy secondary to porencephaly. [source]

    The protein family of glucose transport facilitators: It's not only about glucose after all

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 5 2010
    Robert Augustin
    Abstract The protein family of facilitative glucose transporters comprises 14 isoforms that share common structural features such as 12 transmembrane domains, N- and C-termini facing the cytoplasm of the cell, and a N-glycosylation side either within the first or fifth extracellular loop. Based on their sequence homology, three classes can be distinguished: class I includes GLUT1-4 and GLUT14, class II the "odd transporters" GLUT5, 7, 9, 11, and class III the "even transporters" GLUT6, 8, 10, 12 and the proton driven myoinositol transporter HMIT (or GLUT13). With the cloning and characterization of the more recent class II and III isoforms, it became apparent that despite their structural similarities, the different isoforms not only show a distinct tissue-specific expression pattern but also show distinct characteristics such as alternative splicing, specific (sub)cellular localization, and affinities for a spectrum of substrates. This review summarizes the current understanding of the physiological role for the various transport facilitators based on human genetically inherited disorders or single-nucleotide polymorphisms and knockout mice models. The emphasis of the review will be on the potential functional role of the more recent isoforms. © 2010 IUBMB IUBMB Life, 62(5): 315,333, 2010 [source]

    Use of Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Among Patients with Malignant Disease

    Ahmad K. Darwazah Ph.D., F.R.C.S.
    The surgical strategy among these patients remains controversial. We present our experience of using a two-staged surgical strategy of managing coronary artery disease using off-pump bypass followed by tumor management. Patients and Methods: During a six-year period from 2002 to 2007, 350 patients underwent myocardial revascularization using off-pump bypass. Among these patients, associated malignant disease was found in six patients (1.7%). Two of them had papillary carcinoma of the bladder, one patient had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and the rest suffer from carcinoma affecting the prostate, colon, and right lung. Their mean age was 54 years. Their data was evaluated. Patients were followed up to evaluate their symptoms and progress of their disease. Results: All patients were managed successfully. Complete revascularization was achieved in all patients except one due to small nongraftable vessels. The mean number of grafts was 1.8 ± 0.8. There was no evidence of postoperative infraction or stroke. The mean hospital stay was 5 ± 1.1 days. Management of cancer was done during the same hospital admission in two patients with bladder cancer. The rest had a mean interval of 6.6 ± 5.4 days. Two patients underwent surgery in the form of left hemicolectomy and right lower lobectomy. The rest had chemotherapy as a sole treatment. All patients were followed up completely for a period of 12 to 84 months (mean 39.2 ± 26.7 months). We had no late mortality. All patients remained asymptomatic except one, who had angina of class III and had recurrence of her bladder tumor, which necessitated two sessions of endoscopic resection. Conclusion: We believe that staged operation to treat coronary artery disease and malignancy can be performed safely. The use of off-pump technique to revascularize the myocardium can be performed without any complications.(J Card Surg 2010;25:1-4) [source]

    Early Hemodynamic Results of the Shelhigh SuperStentless Aortic Bioprostheses

    Paolo Cattaneo M.D.
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the early hemodynamic performance of the Shelhigh SuperStentless aortic valve (AV). Methods: Between July 2003 and June 2005, 35 patients (18 females; age 70.8 ± 11.7 years, range: 22-85) underwent AV replacement with the Shelhigh SuperStentless bioprostheses. Most recurrent etiology was senile degeneration in 25 (71%) patients and 24 (69%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in nine patients (25.7%) and mitral valve surgery in two patients (5.7%). Doppler echocardiography was performed before surgery, at six-month and one-year follow-up. Results: There were no hospital deaths and no valve-related perioperative complications. During one-year follow-up, no endocarditis or thromboembolic events were registered, no cases of structural dysfunction or valve thrombosis were noted. Mean and peak transvalvular gradients significantly decrease after AV replacement, with an evident reduction to approximately 50% of the preoperative values at six months. A 20% reduction was also observed for left ventricular mass (LVM) index at six months, with a further regression at one year. Correspondingly, significant increases in effective orifice area (EOA) and indexed EOA were determined after surgery (0.87 ± 0.14 versus 1.84 ± 0.29 cm2 and 0.54 ± 0.19 versus 1.05 ± 0.20 cm2/m2, respectively). Valve prosthesis-patient mismatch was moderate in five patients and severe in one case. Conclusions: Shelhigh SuperStentless AV provided good and encouraging hemodynamic results. Long-term follow-up is necessary to evaluate late hemodynamic performance and durability of this stentless bioprosthesis. [source]

    Repair of Flail Leaflet of the Tricuspid Valve by a Simple Cusp Remodeling Technique

    Xiubin Yang M.D.
    We try to present an alternative method and midterm results. Methods: Between April 1997 and December 2004, eight patients (5 males, 3 females; mean age 23.9 ± 5.8 years; range: 8 to 57 years) with severe tricuspid regurgitation (congenital lack of chordae in 5 cases and traumatic rupture of chordae in 3 cases) underwent surgical repair at Fu Wai Hospital. Four patients were in NYHA (New York Heart Association) class III, and 4 in class IV. Eight flail anterior leaflets and one flail septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve with massive tricuspid regurgitation were identified by echocardiography and the spaces of the free edges of the flail leaflets ranged from 20 to 30 mm. Tricuspid repair was performed under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. The free edge of the affected cusp segment was sutured in folio, the segment of annulus devoid of leaflet was plicated, and the neo-annulus was fixed with a flexible annuloplasty ring. Results: All patients survived and recovered after the operation. Echocardiography showed good coaptation with no regurgitation of the tricuspid valve in five patients and a mild residual tricuspid regurgitation in three patients. A remarkable decrease in the diameter of the right ventricle was observed, from a mean of 42.6 ± 12.5 mm to a mean of 23.6 ± 5.3mm (p < 0.01). Mean follow up was 50 ± 42.9 months. Six patients were in NYHA class I, and two in class II and III. Except for one patient who had a mild-to-moderate increase in tricuspid regurgitation a year later, all the other patients were doing well. Conclusion: The procedure provided a simple and valuable option for repair of flail leaflet of tricuspid valve caused by congenital lack of chordae or traumatic rupture of chordae. [source]

    Role of a Streamer-like Coronary Thrombus in the Genesis of Unstable Angina

    Introduction: It is generally believed that the coronary occlusion occurs at the site of plaque disruption in acute coronary syndromes. An exceptional mechanism of coronary occlusion, namely a streamer-like thrombus (SLT) originating in a nonstenotic lesion extended distally to obstruct a just distal nondisrupted stenotic segment, was found by angioscopy in patients with unstable angina (UA). This study was carried out to examine the incidence of this phenomenon and its relationship to the subtypes of UA. Methods: The culprit coronary artery was investigated by angioscopy in successive 48 patients (mean ± SE age, 61.0 ± 2.3 years; 10 females and 38 males) with UA. Results: SLT originating in a nonstenotic lesion extended distally, and obstructed the just distal most stenotic segment (DMSS) by its tail in 11 patients (eight with class III and three with class II according to Braunwald's classification). Recurrent anginal attacks were observed in all. The nonstenotic lesion in which the SLT originated was a disrupted yellow plaque in most cases. The SLT was frequently red and yellow in a mosaic pattern, indicating a mixture of fresh thrombus and plaque debris. The plaques that constructed the DMSS were not disrupted. Angiographically, the SLT was not detectable and the entry of the DMSS showed a "tapering" configuration. Conclusions: Obstruction of the DMSS by the tail of SLT originating in a nonstenotic lesion is another mechanism of UA. Therefore, treatment of both the nonstenotic lesion and DMSS is needed to prevent recurrent thrombus formation and consequent reattacks. (J Interven Cardiol 2010;23:216,222) [source]

    Electromyographic activity of masticatory, neck and trunk muscles of subjects with different skeletal facial morphology , a cross-sectional evaluation

    S. TECCO
    summary, The electromyographic pattern activity of masticatory, neck and trunk muscles was assessed using surface electromyography (sEMG) in 60 Caucasian adult females (20 subjects in skeletal class I, 20 subjects in skeletal class II and 20 subjects in skeletal class III), classified on the base of their skeletal class (ANB angle), corrected on the base of maxillary and mandibular rotations. The sEMG activity was recorded at mandibular rest position and during maximal voluntary clenching. At mandibular rest position, the sEMG activities of masseter and anterior temporal muscles were significantly higher in class III subjects than in class I and class II subjects, that showed no significant difference between them. Then, the sEMG activities of posterior cervicals and upper trapezius were significantly higher in skeletal class III subjects than in the other two groups. During maximal voluntary clenching, no significant difference was observed in the sEMG activity of masticatory muscles among the three considered groups. However, the sEMG activities of posterior cervicals and upper trapezius were significantly higher in skeletal class III subjects than in the other two groups, which showed no significant difference between them. In conclusion, the skeletal class seems to affect the sEMG pattern activity of masticatory, neck and trunk muscles. [source]

    The impact of obesity on skin disease and epidermal permeability barrier status

    B Guida
    Abstract Background, Obese subjects frequently show skin diseases. However, less attention has been paid to the impact of obesity on skin disorders until now. Objective, The purposes of this study are: to highlight the incidence of some dermatoses in obese subjects and to study the water barrier function of the obese skin using transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Methods, Sixty obese subjects and 20 normal weight volunteers were recruited. Obese group was further divided into three body mass index (BMI) classes: class I (BMI 30,34.9 kg/m2), class II (BMI 35,39.9 kg/m2) and class III (BMI 40 g/m2). All subjects attended dermatological examination for skin diseases. To assess barrier function, TEWL measurements were performed on the volar surface of the forearm using a tewameter. Results, The results of this study showed that: (i) obese subjects show a higher incidence of some dermatoses compared with normal-weight controls; in addition the dermatoses are more, frequent as BMI increases; (ii) the rate of TEWL is lower in obese subjects, than in the normal-weight subjects, particularly in patients with intra-abdominal obesity. Conclusion, Specific dermatoses as skin tags, striae distensae and plantar hyperkeratosis, could be considered as a cutaneous stigma of severe obesity. The low permeability of the skin to evaporative water loss is observed in obese subjects compared with normal weight control. Although the physiological mechanisms are still unknown, this finding has not been previously described and we believe that this may constitute a new field in the research on obesity. [source]

    Purification and characterization of a cationic peroxidase from artichoke leaves

    Angela Cardinali
    Abstract Peroxidases are part of a large group of enzymes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, response to injury, disease, resistance and wound repair. Among peroxidase isoenzymes, a soluble cationic peroxidase (ALSP), not yet described, has been partially purified and characterized from artichoke leaves. The enzyme was shown to be a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 51 000 and an isoelectric point of 9. The substrate specificity of the ALSP is characteristic of class III (guaiacol-type) peroxidases. The ALSP was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, affinity chromatography, anionic exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and isoelectrofocusing. The increase in specific activity was 43 times compared to the crude extract as estimated by the guaiacol assay. Three ALSP fragments were sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry de novo sequencing method. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Compound flap from the great toe and vascularized joints from the second toe for posttraumatic thumb reconstruction at the level of the proximal metacarpal bone

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 3 2009
    Tsu-Min Tsai M.D.
    The purpose of this study is to describe the harvesting technique, anatomic variations, and clinical applications of a compound flap from the great toe and vascularized joint from the second toe used for thumb reconstruction. Five fresh cadaver dissections were studied, focusing attention on the dorsal or plantar vascular dominance, position of the communicating branch between the dorsal and plantar system, the Gilbert classification, and the size of the first dorsal metatarsal artery (FDMA) and first plantar metatarsal artery (FPMA) to the great toe and second toe. Five compound flaps were performed on five patients with traumatic thumb amputation at the level of proximal metacarpal bone. The patients' ages ranged from 14 to 47. Follow-up period was 11,24 months. The anatomic study showed that FPMA had larger caliber in 40% of dissections, FDMA in 40%, and had the same caliber in 20%. The Gilbert classification of FDMA was 40% class I and 60% class III. In the clinical applications, four patients achieved good functional opposition and motion of transferred joints with good pinch and grip strength. There was one flap failure, and donor-site morbidity was minimal. The compound flap offers advantages over traditional toe transfer by providing two functional joints. It can be used for amputation of the thumb at carpometacarpal joint level. Finally, the compound flap maintains growth potential in children through transfer of vascularized epiphyses. The disadvantages of this compound flap include a technically challenging harvest and a longer operative time. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2009. [source]

    The incidence of mid-infrared excesses in G and K giants

    Mark H. Jones
    ABSTRACT Using photometric data from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and GLIMPSE catalogues, I investigate the incidence of mid-infrared (mid-IR) excesses (,10 ,m) in G and K stars of luminosity class III. In order to obtain a large sample size, stars are selected using a near-IR colour,magnitude diagram. Sources which are candidates for showing mid-IR excess are carefully examined and modelled to determined whether they are likely to be G/K giants. It is found that mid-IR excesses are present at a level of (1.8 ± 0.4) × 10,3. While the origin of these excesses remains uncertain, it is plausible that they arise from debris discs around these stars. I note that the measured incidence is consistent with a scenario in which dust lifetimes in debris discs are determined by Poynting,Robertson drag rather than by collisions. [source]

    Efficacy of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in patients with active lupus nephritis

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    SUMMARY: Background: The ideal treatment of lupus nephritis has yet to be defined. Both cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate mofetil have been used with encouraging results, but adverse events are frequently seen. There are no data on the use of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients with active forms of lupus nephritis (1 class III, 7 class IV and 4 class V) treated with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium combined with corticosteroids. Results: The mean age of the patients was 32.3 ± 11.2 years and the average length of follow up was 25.9 ± 8.9 months. The mean serum creatinine clearance was 93 ± 30.1 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and the mean proteinuria level was 4.5 ± 3.6 g/day. All had features that warranted aggressive treatment. Mycophenolate sodium was given for 12.9 ± 9.7 months with an averaged starting dose of 1350 ± 163 mg/day. Six patients attained complete remission and six attained partial remission with treatment. The mean interval to attain first remission (complete or partial) was 8.3 ± 5.7 weeks. At last follow up, all patients were in complete or partial remission. Apart from herpes zoster that developed in one patient, no other significant side-effects were encountered. Conclusion: Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium was effective and well-tolerated in the treatment of active lupus nephritis. [source]

    Prevalence and clinicopathologic findings of antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy in Thai systemic lupus erythematosus patients who underwent renal biopsies

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    SUMMARY: Aim: To determine the prevalence of antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy (APSN) in Thai systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who underwent renal biopsy and to compare the relationship of renal histopathology and other significant clinical parameters between SLE patients with and without APSN. Methods: A retrospective analysis was undertaken in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (n = 150, 44 <15 years old, 106 0e;15 years old) who underwent renal biopsy. The specimens were evaluated for histological features of APSN and other significant clinical parameters. The result of antiphospholipid antibodies, clinical course, and renal function from chart review were analysed. Results: The prevalence of APSN in systemic lupus erythematosus patients who underwent renal biopsies was 34% (16% in <15-year-old group, 41.5% in 0e;15-year-old group). APSN was associated with more severe hypertension (P = 0.002 for systolic and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure), acute renal failure (P = 0.003), persistent heavy proteinuria (P < 0.001 for 4+ proteinuria), severe lupus nephritis (class III and IV, P = 0.014, high activity and chronicity indices, P < 0.001) and a tendency to progress to end-stage renal disease. Conclusion: Systemic lupus erythematosus patients who underwent renal biopsies in our institute showed a prevalence of APSN comparable to those in western countries. The presence of APSN was significantly higher in the adult than in the paediatric population. Its association with poor prognostic indicators suggests poor renal outcome. Clinicians should be aware of this condition in order to give proper care to systemic lupus erythematosus patients. [source]